FMSF NEWSLETTER ARCHIVE - Summer 2007 - Vol. 16, No. 3, HTML version

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F M S   F O U N D A T I O N   N E W S L E T T E R     (e-mail edition)
Summer 2007  Vol. 16  No. 3
ISSN #1069-0484. Copyright (c) 2007 by the FMS Foundation
The FMSF Newsletter is published 4 times a year by  the  False  Memory
Syndrome Foundation and delivered electronically. It is also available
at on the  FMSF website:  Those without access to
the Internet should contact the Foundation.
           1955 Locust Street, Philadelphia, PA 19103-5766
                 Phone 215-940-1040, Fax 215-940-1042
      The next e-mail newsletter will be sent in late September.

Dear Friends, 

If this issue of the newsletter seems weighted with mention of new
articles, it is. Amazingly, they represent but a skimming of the many
excellent reports that have recently crossed our desk. Research about
traumatic memories and false memories flourishes. The trauma-memory
argument with which families were confronted has been greatly
weakened. A vast amount has been learned in all areas. When is the
last time you heard anyone say that proof that abuse happened is that
the parents denied it? Yes, that is what thousands of us were told in
the early 90s.

Back when the Foundation was formed, parents were told that a special
memory mechanism exists that protects trauma memories from the kinds
of decay affecting other memories. A study described in this issue
adds to the evidence that this is not so. Geraerts and colleagues
(below) studied young Croatian war veterans and found no evidence for
any mechanisms that are special to traumatic events.

Parents were also told that people commonly repress traumatic
memories, that people have amnesia or memory impairments for the
events. Porter and Peace (below) found that once again memories of
traumatic events are actually more consistent over time than memories
of positive emotional events. Based on their careful experiments, in
other words, they found that traumatic experiences do not result in
memory impairment. Two more studies in this issue challenge other
trauma-memory theories.

All these papers adds to the body of knowledge about memory, traumatic
memories and false memories. But still the debate lingers on, and
still a steady trickle of families are newly accused on no other basis
than a claim of recovered repressed memories. Hundreds of families
still remain shattered. Belief in the myths of repression are embedded
in our culture, our movies, our books. In the United Kingdom, abuse
memoirs made up almost 9% of sales in the 100 bestselling paperbacks
last year. (below)

Bringing about change in the beliefs of a culture takes more than
scientific research. The information has to be disseminated in a
meaningful way. It doesn't happen all at once. Recent events in the
Netherlands may be instructive. (below) In 2004, the FMS group in that
country disbanded because so many changes in government policy had
been made, including reports about the danger of false memories and a
cut-back in funding for talk therapies. Three years later, a new
government has reversed the funding decisions and millions of Euros
have been allocated for trauma centers. What will the therapy in these
centers include? Did the Netherlands group disband too soon?

A story from Italy (below) shows us that belief in Satanic Ritual Abuse
is still ready to explode when the right conditions arise. But the
story also shows that in the judicial system calmer heads than were
often found in the early 90s can prevail when "evidence" is required.

A student in Norway has sent us a fascinating story of a case of a new
clinic in that country in which people have reported recovering
bizarre memories. (below8) How did the beliefs in recovered memories
reach Norway? Mona Klausen interviewed Svein Magnussen, a professor at
the University of Oslo, who explained that such ideas spread to a
place like Norway because the professional literature is in English.
Being influenced by other theories will happen when one is part of
international research communities. "One cannot be vaccinated against
influence," he said. However, he also noted that the 15 years of
international debate about repressed memories should have had more
impact, but "obviously some people are more or less impregnated
against knowledge."

Belief in the trauma-memory arguments will likely be with us for some
time, but we hope that it will continue to diminish as scientific
information filters through the culture. Sometimes those beliefs may
seem hidden in different terminology. The news from the Netherlands
shows that even when we think the concept is lessening in power, it
arises elsewhere in only a slightly diluted form. However, your
continued vigilance and your letters whenever opportunities arise
should help scientific information about memory to spread.

At the time we are writing this letter, Mike Nifong, the district
attorney who prosecuted the Duke lacrosse players, has been disbarred
and suspended from his job. An FMSF member wrote to say that he "would
like to see a discussion of the similarities between Mike Nifong and
the many prosecutors who proceeded to prosecute false memory cases
with even less so called evidence." I suspect that thought has
occurred to other newsletter readers. On the one hand, it is excellent
that justice has been served in this case. On the other hand, it is
frustrating for so many families who were harmed in similar rushes to
judgment that they have never had the opportunity to clear their

Since it began, the FMSF has pointed out injustices with which
families accused only on the basis of recovered memories have had to
deal. Year after year we mention the new legal precedents that address
the memory issues. Many of those decisions have been helpful. The
Hungerford decision in New Hampshire was a landmark case for repressed
memories in the legal arena.[1] It said that there should be a hearing
to determine the admissibility of recovered memory evidence. This
month, however, the Supreme Court of New Jersey appears to have made a
decision that is not helpful.[2] They overturned an appeal decision
that had stated: "A case based on repressed memories cannot be
submitted to a jury without expert testimony diagnosing the alleged
victim as having dissociative amnesia and explaining and justifying
the concept that repressed memories can be accurately recalled."

FMSF families are not the only people who have been treated unfairly.
Gary Schons' book review of Convicting the Innocent by Donald Connery,
in the May, 1996 FMSF Newsletter, is a good place to start thinking
about the problem. Schons, a California prosecutor, suggested various
legal and social factors contributing to prosecutorial zeal. He argues
that active citizen involvement is crucial to ensuring justice.

An example of active citizen involvement focused only on the justice
system is the Innocence Project. Using DNA evidence, that group has
freed over 200 people from prison and demonstrated unequivocally the
need to make changes in that system. For those who are inclined to
work in this area, the project's web site offers many opportunities.
( Innocence Projects have formed
in every state, in Canada, Australia and Germany. One has just been
formed in New Zealand and memory researcher Maryanne Garry is a member
of the board. The National Center for Reason and Justice (NCRJ) is
another citizen organization, but it focuses on publicizing cases of
wrongful sex-abuse convictions. The web site of that group makes for
upsetting reading. A recent posting about Ryan Smith who was accused
at age 13 and who has been in custody for 10 years is worth reading.
It is helpful for keeping a perspective on FMS cases.

Each year, the Board of Directors of the FMS Foundation meets to
discuss whether the time has come to reduce the activities of the
Foundation. Given the sorts of events that are still taking place, the
FMSF Board members decided in May that the Foundation is still needed
through 2008.
[1] State v. Hungerford, 142 N.H. 110  (1997)
[2] Phillips v. Gelpke (A-1-2006) Sup. Ct. NJ, A-1 September Term
    2006. Argued Nov. 13, 2006 -- Decided May 17, 2007

/                                                                    \
|                    New Families Need Your Help                     |
|                                                                    |
| Several families new to the Foundation have expressed an interest  |
| in purchasing Second Thoughts by Paul Simpson. Unfortunately, even |
| the few that were available on Amazon have now gone. Although we   |
| have located copies on and, some of the  |
| prices are over $100.                                              |
|                                                                    |
| If you have a copy of this book, perhaps you would consider        |
| passing it on. You could either make it available on Amazon        |
| yourself, or you could send it to the FMSF and we would give it to |
| a new family who wants to read that book.  Thank you for your      |
| help.                                                              |

                      OF CHILDHOOD SEXUAL ABUSE

  Geraerts, E., Schooler, J.W., Merckelbach, H., Jelicic, M., Hauer,
 B.J.A., Ambadar, Z. (2007, July, in press). The reality of recovered
   memories: corroborating continuous and discontinuous memories of
        childhood sexual abuse. Psychological Science, 18 (7)

Are recovered memories necessarily true or false? Some people have
claimed that they completely forgot child sexual abuse but then
recalled it years later. How accurate are these memories? The authors
of this study noted that while the debate on this issue has gone on
for many years, little is really known about whether continuous and
discontinuous memories of child abuse differ in the likelihood of
being corroborated. They conducted a study to see if there were indeed
any differences. This work is part of an ongoing research project on
discontinuous memories.

The researchers advertised in newspapers for subjects and 71 people
with continuous memories and 57 with discontinuous memories formed the
subject groups. They were interviewed and two independent raters
attempted to find corroboration for the allegation. For purposes of
the study, "corroboration" was determined if a) another person said
that he or she learned of the abuse soon after it occurred; b) another
person reported being abused by the same alleged perpetrator; or c) a
person reported that he/she had committed the abuse.

The people with discontinuous memories fell into two categories: those
who recovered their memories outside of therapy and 16 who recalled
the abuse while in therapy. The recalled-in-therapy and
recalled-out-of-therapy groups did not differ with respect to a host
of variables that could in principle contribute to differences in
corroboration rate. They did, however, differ in one way that related
to corroboration. Subjects who reported recovering memories outside of
therapy indicated that they were surprised about the memories, whereas
those who recovered them in therapy did not seem surprised. "This
finding is what would be expected if expectations of recovering
long-lost memories are shaped during therapy and lead clients to
recall unfounded memories."

People with continuous memories of childhood sexual abuse and people
with discontinuous memories that were unexpectedly recalled outside
therapy were more likely to have their memories corroborated than
those with discontinuous memories recovered in therapy. For the
continuous memory group the frequency of corroborative evidence was
45% and for the recalled-out-of-therapy group it was 37%. No
corroboration, however, could be found for any of the 16 people who
recovered their memories in therapy.

/                                                                    \
|                        Foundation Audit                            |
|                                                                    |
| We have received the audit for the fiscal year March 1, 2006 to    |
| February 28, 2007 as provided by Goldenberg Rosenthal, LLP, the    |
| CPA firm that audits the books and financial statements of the     |
| Foundation. The Foundation spent $230,000 in the fiscal year, of   |
| which 83% went to program activities, 16% went to management of    |
| the office, and 1% went to fund raising.                           |


   Devilly, G.J., et al. (2007). Dissociative tendencies and memory
   performance on directed-forgetting tasks. Psychological Science,
                           18(3), 212-217.

       McNally, R.J. (2007). Betrayal trauma theory: A critical
                  appraisal. Memory, 15(3), 280-294.

Two recent articles challenge the theory of "betrayal trauma."
Betrayal trauma theory is an explanation for the claim that
individuals develop amnesia for traumatic events such as sexual abuse.
The theory was developed by Jennifer Freyd, and suggests that a
special mechanism is activated when the perpetrator of the abuse is a
caretaker of the child. According to the theory, the child must
mentally escape awareness of the abuse because the child is dependent
on the caretaker for his or her survival. By blocking out the
memories, the child can maintain an attachment to the person on whom
he or she is dependent.

Writing in Psychological Science, Grant Devilly and colleagues say
that they have been unable to replicate the results of experiments
that DePrince and Freyd (2001, 2004) have said showed that people who
report childhood sexual abuse have increased difficulty remembering
trauma and an increased risk of developing posttraumatic stress
disorder. They note: "our results are not consistent with the view
that dissociation is a protective mechanism whereby emotive memories
following trauma become inaccessible through 'repression' and that
later recall of those memories is accurate." In the same issue,
DePrince, et al. respond to Devilly's criticism and then Devilly
replies to them.

In an article in Memory, Richard McNally provides an empirical and
conceptual critique of betrayal trauma theory. First, he analyzes the
general research that has been claimed to support the theory; next, he
examines research that has been inspired by the theory; and lastly, he
describes conceptual problems with the theory. He notes that "there is
no convincing evidence that children are incapable of remembering
their abuse-develop genuine amnesia for it-shortly after their
molestation." McNally offers an alternative explanation for why some
people might not think about their abuse for many years, only to
remember it later. He writes that one need not assume that a child
must develop amnesia for the abuse but could simply not disclose it.
In the same issue, Freyd et al. defend betrayal trauma theory.

The series of articles is an interesting example of the way in which
science progresses and, in particular, the way in which peace may
ultimately come to the "memory wars."

  Devilly, G.J., et al. (2007). Dissociative tendencies and memory
  performance on directed-forgetting tasks. Psychological Science,
  18(3), 212-217.

  DePrince, A.P., Freyd, J.J., Malle, B.F. (2007). A replication by
  another name: A response to Devilly et al. Psychological Science,
  18(3), 218-219.

  Devilly, G.J., Ciorciari, J. (2007). Conclusions in science when
  theory and data collide. Psychological Science, 18(3), 220-221.

  Freyd, J.J., DePrince, A.P., Gleaves, D.H. (2007). The state of
  betrayal trauma theory: Reply to McNally-Conceptual issues and
  future directions. Memory, 15(3), 295-311.

  McNally, R.J. (2007). Betrayal trauma theory: A critical appraisal.
  Memory, 15(3), 280-294.

/                                                                    \
| "We know that memory does not get better with the passage of time."|
|                                                                    |
| Wells, G.L. (2007, May 15). Let's go to the tape recording. Nassau |
| DA's plan to tape police witnesses of shootings is a good idea     |
| because first impressions are best. Retrieved from    |
|           |
| 15,0,1698360 on May 15, 2007.                                      |

                         AN ENCOURAGING SIGN

  Cloitre, M., Cohen, L.R. and Koenen, K.C., 2006. Treating Survivors
        of Childhood Abuse: Psychotherapy for the Interrupted
                      Life. Guilford: New York.

Many books have been written over the years as guidelines for
therapists treating survivors of abuse. A recent addition to this
category was brought to our attention and it is interesting to
consider the differences between this book published in 2006, and
those of a decade or more ago that encouraged recovery of memories.

Treating survivors of abuse discusses procedures for the treatment of
abuse survivors. The treatment described by Cloitre et al is primarily
based in cognitive behavioral therapy. When the authors tested the
treatment in a clinical trial, they included only clients with at
least one continuous memory of physical or sexual abuse. And while the
treatment model described in this book is for both physical and sexual
abuse survivors, there is some discussion specifically of childhood
sexual abuse.

Issues surrounding recovered memories are discussed in the context of
"special challenges of childhood abuse treatment."(p.87) One such
challenge is the client who searches for corroboration of recovered
abuse memories. Cloitre et al. believe that the therapist's role in
this process is to help the client explore what she hopes to gain from
external corroboration, to explore how the client will go about
getting corroboration and to help the client understand the
consequences of getting or not getting corroboration. (p.89). The
authors mention that the client may have to accept ambiguity as part
of the therapeutic process.

Another challenge to the clinician is the desire on the part of the
client to confront the abuser (notice that Cloitre et al. are not
encouraging confrontation but discussing the possibility of
confrontation being raised by the client.) Again, Cloitre et al.
maintain that the therapist's role here is in helping the client
understand the reasons for and the consequences of confrontation, and
then the planning if the client chooses to proceed.

There is a sprinkling in Treating survivors of abuse of references to
theories rooted in Freudian thinking and of jargon and theories from
the recovered-memory movement, but in general, this book promotes
balanced thinking and practice. Clearly progress has been made since
the early days of the Foundation.


 Geraerts, E., et al. (2007). Traumatic memories of war veterans: Not
    so special after all. Consciousness and Cognition 16, 170-177.

This article strikes another blow at the trauma-memory argument, the
notion that traumatic memories have special properties that make them
different from ordinary memories and that involve mechanisms that are
not related to general memory functioning.  In order to test the
assumptions of the trauma-memory argument, the authors studied 121
Croatian war veterans who had had combat experience in the early 1990s
in the Balkan wars. They were all relatively young which avoided
confounding from the effects of cognitive aging. All veterans met the
criteria in the DSM-IV for having experienced traumatic events.
Trained clinicians interviewed the veterans individually and gave a
series of open-ended questions.

The analysis of the interviews showed that the veterans' memories for
traumatic events and their memories of neutral events were equally
stable. The two types of memories were also comparable with respect to
sensory characteristics. Neither did the authors find evidence for
frequent intrusions or flashbacks. Only a minority reported that they
had nightmares or flashbacks several times a week or more.

The findings "do not support the existence of special memory
mechanisms that are unique to traumatic events."


    Jones, E. et al. (2003). Flashbacks and post-traumatic stress
disorder: The genesis of a 20th-century diagnosis. British Journal of
                      Psychiatry, 182, 158-163.

The authors aimed to explore whether post-traumatic stress disorder
(PTSD) is a culture-bound syndrome by examining the prevalence of
"flashbacks" over time in soldiers who had been subjected to intense
combat stress. Flashbacks are considered one part of the symptom
cluster for PTSD. If PTSD existed before it had been formally
classified as a disorder, one would expect flashbacks to be described
in the past.

Using United Kingdom war pension files that contained detailed medical
and military reports, the authors examined a random selection of
servicemen who had fought in wars from 1854 to the present and who had
been awarded pensions for post-combat disorders. Because the term
"flashback" did not exist during the earliest wars, the authors
re-evaluated the descriptions. They chose to focus on flashbacks
because other core symptoms of PTSD could also be found in other

The researchers looked at 1,856 cases and identified post-combat
disorders such as "shellshock" for the First World War and 'disordered
action of the heart' for the Boer War. Because pensioners were
required to attend regular medical boards to assess their disability,
there were records for 5-10 years after discharge.

The analysis showed that "flashbacks were virtually non-existent
before the First World War and were still rare during the Second World
War." The authors note that although "visual hallucinations and other
perceptual abnormalities were widely recorded for psychotic states"
they were rarely mentioned as part of the post-combat symptoms. They
also noted that symptoms of intrusion and avoidance, which are
critical to the concept of PTSD, were not frequently mentioned in the
earlier records.

The authors believe that the results of their study support the
interpretation of PTSD as a "contemporary culture-bound syndrome whose
expression has been influenced by powerful undercurrents, including
technological advances in broadcasting traumatic events and a wider
appreciation of psychological processes."


     Lilienfeld, S.O. (2007). Psychological treatments that cause
      harm. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 2(1), 53-70.

Until recently, psychologists have not paid much attention to
treatments that might be harmful. The author notes that this neglect
contrasts with the great media and scientific interest in drugs and
medicines that might prove harmful. Unfortunately, there is no
psychology equivalent to medicine's Food and Drug Administration that
can conduct tests and look at the safety of novel treatments.
Lilienfeld argues that this means that psychology must police itself
and that up until now, it has generally been unwilling to do so.

The author notes that it is very important to consider harmful
treatments because the ethical code for psychologists states that
clinicians are not supposed to use treatments that put clients at risk
of deterioration. Unless clinicians are aware of such practices, they
cannot fulfill their ethical obligations.

In this article Lilienfeld reviews the status of potentially harmful
therapies, discusses the criteria for identifying them, and looks at
where future investigations might go. He also identifies a provisional
list that includes both "recovered-memory techniques" and
"dissociative identity disorder (DID)-oriented therapy.

Lilienfeld writes that currently the field of psychology has placed
almost exclusive effort on finding "empirically supported therapies."
He believes, however, that the field should instead prioritize its
efforts toward identifying "potentially harmful therapies." That would
enable clinicians to avoid using such practices.

Lilienfeld argues that researchers and psychotherapists should make a
deliberate attempt to become more familiar with fringe and fad
treatments. He writes that it is tempting to turn a blind eye to them
because it is easy to think that they do not merit serious
consideration. The problem with that approach, however, is that it can
be detrimental to the welfare of clients and thus abrogates the
fundamental ethical concern of doing no harm.

FMSF Newsletter readers will surely welcome this concern for
potentially harmful therapies.


  Porter, S. & Peace, K. (2007). The scars of memory: A prospective,
    longitudinal investigation of the consistency of traumatic and
   positive emotional memories in adulthood. Psychological Science,
                           18(5). 435-441.

What is the impact of trauma on memory? Do traumatic experiences
affect memory differently from the way in which other events do? Some
people believe that trauma results in memory impairment. Others
believe that traumatic memories are the same as other memories. The
authors asked if William James (1890) could have been correct when he
wrote that very stressful events "leave a scar upon the cerebral
tissues." They note that the way in which traumatic events are
processed has remained highly controversial.

Porter and Peace set out to examine the consistency of memories over
an extended period of time. They selected 49 subjects in 2001-2002 who
had experienced both a recent traumatic event for which they showed
moderate to severe levels of traumatic stress and a recent highly
positive emotional experience. Examples of positive events were
weddings, birth of a child, or receiving an award. Examples of
negative events were violent victimization, serious injury, or suicide
of a loved one. The subjects also needed to agree that the researchers
could contact them again over the next decade.

The subjects provided factual details for each event using a
Consistency Questionnaire that asked details such as time of day,
weather, day of the week, or duration of the event. They were also
given an Emotional Memory Survey, an Impact of Event Scale, a Trauma
Symptom Inventory and the Dissociative Experiences Scale. The 49
subjects were interviewed again after 3 months but only 29 were
re-interviewed after 3.45 to 5 years because the others could not be

The researchers found that the traumatic memories were "more factually
consistent over time than positive memories" and that their
"vividness, quality and sensory components" were unchanged. This was
in contrast to the memories of the happy experiences in which
subjective features declined greatly with time. They noted that "the
sole clinical predictor of traumatic memory consistency was
dissociation; higher DES scores predicted lower consistency
initially," but that over time, the association became weaker. They

"Overall, our results provide strong evidence that traumatic memories
are indeed special, but in a manner contradicting the traditional
traumatic-memory argument. Subjects' traumatic memories were not
fractured or pushed from consciousness. Nor did they fade from memory
naturally to the same extent as other events. Rather, traumatic
experiences persisted in subjects' memories, remaining highly
consistent years after their occurrence. Violent experiences
(including sexual and physical assaults), which one might assume to be
optimal contenders for repression or other impairing mechanism, were
no exception."

The authors discuss possible reasons for their results and also the
limitations of their study. They conclude:

"Trauma does seem to create scars on memory, resulting in remarkably
vivid and consistent recollections over long periods. As much as
people may wish to forget painful experiences, the details remain
fully intact in their consciousness. In contrast, despite people's
rose-colored glasses, the details of the joys of life are vastly


Peters, M.J.V, Horselenberg, R., Jelicic, M., Merckelbach, H. (2007).
   The false fame illusion in people with memories about a previous
            life. Consciousness and Cognition 16, 162-169.

This study asked if people who had hypnotically induced memories of
past-lives were prone to making source monitoring errors.[1] The
authors were conceptually replicating previous research that showed
this to be true for people with memories of alien abduction. (Clancy,
et al. 2002)

The researchers used people with beliefs in past lives, an implausible
event different from previous research. The researchers also used a
different source-monitoring task than previous research. The false-
name task asked subjects to read a list of non-famous names. The next
day, the subjects were asked to discriminate famous names from a list
that included the old non-famous names, new non-famous names and new
famous names.

The results showed that subjects with memories of past-lives had a
stronger tendency than control subjects to select names from the old
non-famous list as being famous.

 The authors consider that the results increase our understanding of
 how people may come to accept their past-life memories as genuine.
 "When individuals with a tendency to make source-monitoring errors
 are repeatedly asked to imagine events that supposedly took place
 during past lives, even highly implausible events suggested by the
 therapist may come to generate feelings of familiarity." In other
 words, some people may "confuse fantasies that feel familiar with
 memories of things that really happened."

[1] Source monitoring is the ability to recall the source of
    information. It is usually the first part of a memory to fade.

                      NEWS FROM OTHER COUNTRIES


A day-care satanic-abuse scare has split Rignano Flaminio, a town
about 25 miles north of Rome, Italy. In April, 2007, six people were
arrested, including three teachers at the Olga Rovere School.
Prosecutors say children were driven in small groups to the teachers'
homes where they were drugged and videotaped as they performed sex
acts with adults. They were then taken back to school.

In 1999, the school had been named the best nursery school in the
region. The teachers who were arrested were in their 50s and each had
at least 20 years experience. The school is still open and more than
half the students are still attending.

In May, all six suspects were freed by a review court. The judges said
that there was no "serious evidence of guilt." This legal action has
divided the town even more.

Some people in the town are defending the teachers and say the town is
suffering "collective psychosis," but others are sure of the teachers'
guilt. Vera Slepoj, a psychologist, is reported as saying that "it is
worrying to see citizens mobilize in favor of pedophilia suspects."

The alleged abuse became known when children told their parents about
the "games" and they drew pictures of a "man in black" who wore a hood
and drank his own blood. Prosecutors explain that they believed the
claims because the children have made the same accounts of events and
have provided accurate details of the teachers' houses.

  Gavin, J. (2007). "School of horrors" abuse case splits Italian
  town. Retrieved from:
  on May 14, 2007.

  Caccia, F. & Haver, F., (2007, May 14). Release of Suspects Divides
  Rignano. Italy Newsletter. Retrieved from:
  on June 6, 2007.

  Owen, R. (2007, April 26). Grandmothers arrested over satanic sex
  abuse at school. TimesOnLine. Retrieved from:
  on June 6, 2007.

                             New Zealand

An "Innocence Project" has been established at Victoria University in
Wellington, New Zealand. The first Innocence Project was started in
New York in 1992. Since that time similar projects have been started
in almost every state in the United States and in numerous other
countries. Hundreds of people who had been convicted of crimes have
since been exonerated with the help of Innocence Projects. According
to Maryanne Garry, a professor at Victoria University and a Director
of the the New Zealand Project, there is evidence that "wrongful
convictions are of substantial concern" in New Zealand.

A Web site that contains descriptions of hundreds of cases of false
allegations in New Zealand is:

            (from Adriaan Mak, Canadian Contact for FMSF)

In 2004, the Netherlands FMS group disbanded after the government
issued a strong report that was highly critical of recovered memory
therapy techniques.[1] It now appears, however, that there is a
concerted effort to focus once again on therapies that have the
potential to lead to recovered memories and multiple personalities.
Many of the people leading this effort are the same ones who
encouraged similar therapies twenty years ago.

Jan Buys, former chair of the Netherlands Work Group Fictive Memories,
alerted me to this change of events after several years of silence
following the Netherlands Ministry of Health's 2004 warning about
suggestive therapies. After that warning the government drastically
reduced funding for talk therapies. Now, in a turn-around, the
government is offering millions of Euros for new trauma clinics.

After the autumn 2006 election of a new government in the Netherlands,
some members of parliament who were concerned about child sexual abuse
supported the development of new centers to help children who were
victims of trauma. The National Center for Early Childhood Trauma
[Landelijk Centrum Vroegkinderlijke Traumatisering (LCVT)] is a
coalition of Dutch government supported medical and health services,
research institutes and organizations of clients.[2]

Traumatologists and survivor groups advocated for the new centers. It
was stated that the treatment options available in the Netherlands for
adults who are suffering from the chronic after-effects of early
childhood trauma are insufficient and miss by a long shot the needs of
these patients. Members of the LCVT Advisory Board include Prof. Dr.
Otto van der Hart [3] and Dr. Elleret Nijenhuis. Dr. Bessel van der
Kolk has been invited to be a member of the LCVT Research Advisory
Board-names familiar to many FMSF Newsletter readers because of their
previous defense of practices that encourage recovered memories and
multiple personalities. One government inspector for the Health
Ministry who encouraged the development of the new centers wrote two
articles to explain his support. In the articles, he revealed that he
is a former therapist who endorsed recovered- memory techniques.

The new treatment centers do provide treatment for seriously ill
people by kind-hearted employees. A description of this care, however,
shows its similarity to that found in programs in the United States
such as the Sanctuary Program developed by traumatologist Sandra
Bloom. The description of the new program does show that the Dutch
ISSD and ISST members have learned to avoid the spectacular excesses
of people such as Bennett Braun, Roberta Sachs, Corydon Hammond and
their colleagues. There is an absence of much of the old terminology.

I have asked a number of our Dutch contacts whether anything so far
has been done to ensure that the new program does not lead to the
re-institutionalization of repressed memory and multiple personality
therapies in the Netherlands with the aid of government supported
financing. To date, Peter van Koppen sent a brief message to the
effect that he would look into the matter. Peter van Koppen, a
forensic psychologist who is a professor at Maastricht and the Free
University University of Amsterdam, is a senior researcher at the
Netherlands Institute for the Study of Crime and Law Enforcement and
was responsible for one of the important reports that led to the
previous demise of recovered memory therapy practices.

The whole development may well have taken our Netherlands colleagues
by surprise. A major problem in addressing this new concern is that
any challenge to the practices of the new treatment centers makes one
vulnerable to being labeled as opposed to helping people who need
intensive care as a result of child sexual abuse. That, of course, is
not the case.

Perhaps the Netherlands FMS group disbanded too soon.

[1] See FMSF Newsletter 13 (3), (2004, May/June) for a review of the
    reports issued by the Health Ministry in the Netherlands that led
    to the disbanding.
[2] See
[3] In 1990, van der Hart stated: "Our Institute already had a strong
    tradition of inviting distinguished foreign colleagues to present
    workshops and seminars on divergent topics. Therefore, it seemed
    both material and obvious to invite to the Netherlands established
    international authorities in the field. Thus, since 1984, Bennett
    G. Braun, M.D., Richard P. Kluft, M.D., and Roberta Sachs, Ph.D.,
    have conducted workshops for interested Dutch colleagues and
    ourselves, seen our patients with us, and supported us in many
    other ways."

/                                                                    \
| "No one bats an eye when a drug for a severe mental illness such   |
| as schizophrenia or depression causes serious side effects such as |
| nausea, weight gain, blurred vision or a vanishing libido. But     |
| what few patients seeking psychotherapy know is that talking can   |
| be dangerous, too-and therapists have not exactly rushed to tell   |
| them so."                                                          |
|                                      Sharon Begley (2007, June 18) |
|                                        Get shrunk at your own risk |
|                          Newsweek. Retrieved on June 10, 2007 from |
|               |

                          Mona Hide Klausen

In 1992, children in a day-care center in a small village near the
city of Trondheim told bizarre stories of abuse committed by numerous
people. The stories included abuse committed in a particular room in
the day-care centre, genital exposure, oral sex, violence and rape.[1]
The stories that surfaced included descriptions of men masturbating
into buckets, abuse of lambs and mass abuse at various locations in
séances where both men and women participated.[2]

Thirty people were assumed to be offenders and 7 suspects were
arrested. Only one man was charged. He was first suspected of genital
exposure, later he was accused of indecent acts towards 10 girls, aged
2-5, including 5 instances of intercourse. He was acquitted in
1994.[1] In 2003 he won his lawsuit against Norway in the European
Court of Human Rights.[3]

This became known as the Bjugn Case, and was Norway's first case
involving large scale Satanic Ritual Abuse (SRA) memories.

Earlier this year, a series of articles appeared in a local newspaper
in Trondheim that described adult patients who had recovered memories
of childhood sexual abuse. The patients were mostly women and they
were all at the same institution, Betania Malvik.

Some of the stories involved abuse of a grotesque nature, such as
eating excrement and vomit, drinking urine, and the sacrificing of
pets. One woman claimed to remember being tortured with electricity
and water, while another told of being forced into sexual acts with
animals. There was one patient who had clear memories of 2
perpetrators when she began therapy, but remembered 14 more
perpetrators during the course of therapy. Some of the patients told
of multiple rapes.

A.S., a psychodrama therapist at Betania, claims that multiple
perpetrators seem to be the rule rather than the exception. A female
patient said that the six women in the group that was interviewed, had
together suffered hundreds, maybe thousands, of incidents of abuse
that had been committed by approximately 60 offenders.[4]

The memories have had a profound impact on the patients, according to
the articles. Some of the patients even vomited when the memories
became too traumatic.[5] The women who recovered these memories were
all being treated in a program that started in 2006 and was designed
for adult victims of sexual abuse at Betania Malvik.[4]

Betania Malvik is owned by the Christian 'Lukas Foundation', but it is
funded by St. Olav's hospital in Trondheim (large, regional hospital).
In Norway it is not unusual for volunteer organizations to own
institutions that receive funding from the public. The treatment at
Betania is run like an ordinary treatment program and religion is not
central in this treatment. The institution has to follow the same
demands of proper operation as any other health service.

St. Olav's hospital funds 20 beds at Betania Malvik, with a planned
de-escalation towards 2009. These places were intended for patients
with various psychiatric problems. About 6 of these were reserved for
trauma patients because there was a lack of good programs for trauma
patients in the public health service. The trauma program can
accommodate 24 sexual abuse patients a year.[6] St. Olav's hospital is
responsible for the trauma program admission of patients.[6]

Groups of six patients at a time are admitted for a 10-week intensive
program, with at least 40 hours of psychotherapy. The intensive
program is thought necessary to make the more repressed memories
resurface.[5]. The therapy at Betania Malvik involves conversations
with a psychologist, psychodrama, and various body-focused and
creative lessons, aiming at reclaiming one's body, expressing the
emotions they could not express as children, and developing the
patients' self-assertion.[7]

                            Raised concern

Not long after the newspaper articles appeared, some Norwegian
psychologists raised their concern that the patients' stories were
similar to false memories from other parts of the world.

University of Oslo (UiO) psychology professor Svein Magnussen pointed
to the vast amount of international research showing that memories of
abuse are normally not forgotten and that it is fairly easy to get
people in therapy to remember things they have not participated in., an online magazine that presents Norwegian and
international research, pointed out that the characteristics of some
of the memories appearing at Betania were similar to Magnussen's
descriptions of false memories. Magnussen pointed out that he didn't
want to give specific comments on a particular case he knew only from
newspaper articles.[5]

T.K., the psychologist in charge of the treatment at Betania, has
denied the possibility of the therapy causing false memories[4]. A
psychodrama therapist, working at Betania, also rejects the
possibility of false memories; "Why would anyone invent this?" was her
comment to the journalist from the local paper Adresseavisen.[8,5] In
T.K.'s opinion false memories would have had to be actively planted by
the therapist and she is confident that the therapists at Betania
don't do that. One problem with such severe and grotesque abuse, as
she sees it, is that the patients have a long history of not being
believed. The stories of grotesque abuse appear last in therapy
because they are difficult to talk about, she says. [4]

The therapy is also based on the assumption that patients may have
repressed the most horrible instances of abuse. In T.K.'s experience,
it is also not unusual for several people to co-operate in abusing
children. T.K. believes that grotesque abuse happens, but she
acknowledges that such stories may be hard to believe. She advocates
treatment based on theories of dissociation and repression. She claims
that research based on witness psychology should not be transferred to
trauma psychology. [4]

Professor Magnussen says that it is nonsense that research from memory
psychology cannot be transferred to trauma psychology. "There is
considerable research on trauma within memory-research, such as war
trauma, and there are systematic patient studies," he says.[9] We
asked him other questions:


  "It doesn't necessarily have to be the therapist that is the source
  of the false memories. It might also be that the patient initially
  thinks about abuse, and when digging for an answer to their current
  problems, false memories gradually grow. Encouragement from the
  therapist to remember more might cause escalation". He stresses that
  his statements are general and not about the Betania Malvik-case in


  "Cases involving false memories pose a threat both to the patient
  and to legal safeguards because we cannot separate false memories
  from true", says Magnussen. He doesn't believe that cases of abuse
  might be overlooked, since the Norwegian legal system is fairly
  level-headed. The legal system is starting to become informed of the
  dangers of false memories; the police have also become better in
  questioning children.

  He believes the Malvik-case may lead to a focus on the forms of
  therapy that might cause false memories in some. He also emphasizes
  that the debate about false memories is not about those that have
  actually been abused, and have remembered it all their lives.
  International research also shows that such memories are remembered
  if the child is not too young. Goodman (see Goodman et al.,
  2003[10]) has also found that the more severe the abuse, the better
  it is remembered.[9]


  "Yes. Speaking generally, in some cases there is, of course, a core
  of truth to the allegations, but when the memories become so
  grotesque it might lead to the case being dismissed.[9].


  "Yes. Very generally speaking, such cases are also damaging for the
  patients; their entire life history and relationship with those
  closest to them may be destroyed. It is tragic that they end up
  believing that their life history has been so grotesque and awful",
  says Magnussen. "Is it good for someone to have bizarre false
  memories of one's closest?" he asks.[9]

Others in the professional and psychological research community in
Norway are concerned.

Sven Svebakk, Professor in behavior medicine at the Norwegian
University of Science and Technology [11] finds the therapy at Betania
to be professionally irresponsible. "Psychodrama is strongly
suggestive, and group therapy enhances its effects," he says to one of
Norway's largest newspapers Verdens Gang. He warns against conviction
and enthusiasm standing in the way of scientific foundation. [12]

Psychology professor Roald Bjørklund at the University of Oslo urges
caution, fearing that the group therapies may cause false memories.[4]

Nils HÃ¥vard Dahl, psychiatrist and county medical officer at Levanger
hospital, (local hospital near Trondheim) said to Verdens Gang that he
will not send any more patients to Betania, until the question of
false memories has been investigated. He takes the warnings from the
psychological research communities seriously, and fears that the
therapy may cause false memories and thus be harmful.[13]

"False memories can lead to catastrophes for innocent people," Dahl
says. "Also, the patients will base their life on something false,
which is unethical". He sees the treatment at Betania as based more on
ideologies than science.[14]

Turid Suzanne Berg-Nielsen, associate professor in psychology at the
Norwegian University of Science and Technology and a psychodynamically
oriented psychologist, says that children can repress discomfort, and
the drastic form of this is dissociation. However, this isn't
necessarily pathological; dissociation is a survival strategy. Those
who dissociate tend to cope best. Sometimes it is right to talk about
trauma. Humans have a need to define problems and get an explanation,
this helps organize our world. However, it may not be good for
everyone to dig up painful memories.

Berg-Nielsen also feels that the search for the single events to
explain everything might cause an unhealthy focus on trauma. Taking a
role of a victim might conserve, rather than solve problems. The
patient's one-sided focus on faults in other people might lead to an
immature, infantile position that everyone else has to make up for the
injustices that have been committed. She advocates for a focus on a
reconciliation process, where the patients learn to accept a complex
world that is more than just evil.

Berg-Nielsen stresses that her statements are general, and that she is
not a trauma-specialist. However, she finds it a little worrying that
the therapists at Malvik so strongly deny the possibility that false
memories may emerge. She believes this is something that cannot be
excluded, when working with afflicted persons. Sobriety is called for,
on both sides of the debate, she says.[15]

                  T.K.'s history with false memories

Betania is not the first case of false memories connected to the
psychologist T.K.

A newspaper article in Verdens Gang mentions a number of cases that
have been rejected by the court of law because the memories were
likely to be false. The accused in these cases have been acquitted,
and received compensation. One case Verdens Gang mentions involved a
girl who after almost a year in therapy started to remember being
abused by her father several times, made pregnant twice, and forced
into having an illegal abortion on both occasions. The father
allegedly let both relatives and strangers abuse the girl. Also her
sister started to remember gang rapes, organized by her stepfather,
after being in therapy.[16]

T.K. has signed statements confirming the credibility of this and
other stories of bizarre abuse. Police investigations have not been
able to find tangible evidence for such abuses taking place. In the
newspaper article, T.K. says that grotesque abuse happens, and lack of
evidence is not proof that the stories are untrue.[16] The police are
presently investigating an unusually bloody and beastly murder that
one of T.K.'s former patients started to remember 25 years after it
allegedly took place. The accused perpetrator is dead, the supposed
eye-witness denies involvement, the alleged murder victim is unknown,
and no one is missing at the time the murder is assumed to have taken

Another former patient has now accused 8 men in her family of abusing
her. Her sister, who is a psychologist, is concerned. She is sure that
her sister was abused, as was she, but she says that a lot of what her
sister remembers is wrong. The family's protests are rejected, and the
sister claims they have repressed the events. The sister refuses to
have contact with those who don't believe her. "It is like a religious
sect," the psychologist says to Verdens Gang. The psychologist
believes the intentions of the therapists are good, but she feels the
risk of damage is so great that external experts need to evaluate the
treatment. She emphasizes that she is criticizing the therapy, not her

                           Child interviews

In the 80's and 90's T.K. was involved in a series of interviews of
children, to find out if they were victims of incestuous abuse. A clip
of such an interview has been aired at the Norwegian National
Broadcasting Company (NRK), as part of a documentary as a shocking
example of leading interview technique.[16]

During the interview T.K. says that they (the team that investigated
the alleged incest) know that something has happened to the girls
buttocks. The doctor has seen it, so they are certain that something
has happened. During the interview the girl says 22 times that nothing
has happened, T.K. says 30 times that something has. After four hours
of interview, and being told that she would not be able to leave until
she confirms the psychologist's assumptions, the girl eventually
mumbles a response, in order to get out of the situation.[17]

  K - So it happened many times at [a place] and also at [deleted]? At
  night, in your room? (Transcription of the video, my translation)

  Girl - Mm...

  K - Then [deleted] came into your room and f***ed? And put his
  wee-wee into yours?  

  Girl - Mm...

The girl did not herself say the words T.K. attempted to make her
say., The child's mumbling was the "evidence" that abuse allegedly
took place. The girl was removed from her family, and placed in
various foster homes. At the end of the segment T.K. is asked to
comment on the interview. She acknowledges that such pressure may be
problematic when it comes to making sure the story is reliable, in a
court of law. However, she claims that the other pressure (presumably
the pressure not to tell anyone of abuse), which is hidden, is often
ignored in the debate about children's legal safeguards. Her position
was, and still is, to secure, and protect, the child.[17] T.K. says to
Verdens Gang that this clip is taken out of context. There are great
demands of evidence (to judge someone), the doubts are in favor of the
accused, and an acquittal is not the same as the child's stories being

We do not know, however, whether T.K. uses the same form of interview
techniques at Betania Malvik.

          Prevalence of SRA and recovered memories in Norway

Magnussen does not know of any real SRA cases in Norway, and he does
not know of any crime statistics that say that there are.
Investigations in the USA have not found any evidence of such events
taking place, and such cases have mainly been rejected. One cannot
preclude the existence of SRA, since one cannot prove that something
does not exist. "However, other forms of abuse are grotesque enough,"
he says.[9]

Magnussen does not know of any cases of Multiple Personality Disorder
in Norway, and he only knows about a few cases involving recovered
memories. It is not a major problem here, in his opinion. But, after
all, there are merely 4.5 million people in Norway. He refers to a
case in 2002 where a woman recovered memories of two men murdering a

The woman had been in therapy with a male nurse who practiced age
regression therapy. He had no formal training in psychotherapy, except
for some courses in Gestalt therapy.[18] According to the woman's
memories two men had raped her in a forest near Oslo, and when
surprised by a jogger they had killed him and dumped him in a
lake. Other patients of the nurse had remembered grotesque and bizarre
abuse involving gang rapes, abuse of infants, and the identified
perpetrators emptying animal intestines on their victims.[19] One of
the alleged murderers sued the therapist in 2002, won the lawsuit and
was awarded a large sum of money.[20] The police did not find any
evidence of a murder taking place, and no jogger was missing at the
time the murder was supposed to have taken place[19]

According to Magnussen the reason why the theory of recovered memories
and dissociation has spread to Norway is because our professional
literature is in American and English. In addition, psychoanalysis
originated in Europe. Being influenced by other theories will happen
when being part of international research communities. "One cannot be
vaccinated against influence," says Magnussen.[9]

He believes there still is little knowledge of false memories in
Norway, even within the professional community. It is particularly the
knowledge of how they develop, the fact that the memories feel so
true, are so rich in details and so robust, that seems to be missing
in the Norwegian system. The Bjugn-case led to increased awareness of
the research on children as witnesses, and considerably improved
interviewing practices used by specially educated child interviewers,
in the police.[9]

It astonishes Prof. Magnussen that we have a new case involving false
memories in Norway. He feels 15 years of international debate and
research should have had impact, but "obviously some people are more
or less impregnated against knowledge", he says.[9]

                              The future

Starting in January 2008 the Central Norway Regional Health Authority
(the regional health enterprise) takes over responsibility for the
funding of the trauma program for two years. The trauma program is to
be organized as a FOU-project (research and development) in
co-operation with Betania, St. Olav's hospital and Central Norway
Regional Health Authority. This project includes an independent

The evaluation is being designed by O. Linaker, a professor in
psychiatry. It has not yet been determined who will perform the
evaluation, and the program is thus not public. The evaluation period
will include 2006 and 2007. The main purpose of the evaluation is to
find out whether the therapy has any effect on the patient's coping
and quality of life. The question of false memories is not part of the
direct evaluation.[6] D. Haga, temporary director at Central Norway
Regional Health Authority, told Verdens Gang that false memories are
one of many aspects to be investigated.[16]

The trauma program at Betania is secured of funding for operation
through 2009.[21]

References (titles have been translated):

[1] Beverfjord, A. (2002, March 22). The rural-district scandal.
    Dagbladet-Magasinet. Retrieved on June 14, 2007 from 

[2] Hans Kringstad, personal communication, June 14, 2007. Kringstad
    is a Verdens Gang journalist, the author of Bjugnformelen (The
    Bjugn Formula) and the writer of the Verdens Gang articles about
    the Malvik case.  
[3] Registrar. (2002, February 11). Press Release of Chamber
    Judgements in the cases of O, Hammern, Ringvold and Y
    v. Norway. Registry of the European Court of Human
    Rights. Retrieved on June 14, 2007 from
[4] Kringstad, H. (2007, March 13). Patients remember sex-torture and
    sadism. (2007, March 13).Verdens Gang, 8-9.  
[5] Soderlind, D. (2007, January 26). Alarm about false memories. Retrieved from on June 13,
[6] Arild Vassenden, consultant at Central Norway Regional Health
    Authority, personal communication, June 7, 2007.  
[7] Treatment program. (2003). Betania Malvik. Retrieved on June 17,
    2007 from http://www.  
[8] The original series of articles appeared in the paper
    Adresseavisen. Both the article and Verdens Gang
    article dated March 13 are based on these articles.
[9] Psychology Professor Svein Magnussen, University of Oslo, expert
    on witness psychology and memory, and member of The Norwegian
    Criminal Cases Review Commission, personal communication, June 11,
[10] Goodman, G.S., Ghetti, S., Quas, J.A., Edelstein, R.S.,
    Alexander, K.W., Redlich, A.D., Cordon, I. M., Jones,
    D.P.H. (2003). A prospective study of memory for child sexual
    abuse: New findings relevant to the repressed-memory
    controversy. Psychological Science, 14, 113-118.
[11] Norwegian University of Science and Technology, located in
[12] Kringstad, H. (2007, March 15). Patient remembers alleged bloody
    murder after 25 years. Verdens Gang, 14-15.
[13] Kringstad, H. (2007, March 17). Disputed incest therapy to be
     investigated.  Verdens Gang. Retrieved on June 3, 2007 from
[14] Nils HÃ¥vard Dahl, psychiatrist and county medical officer at
    Levanger hospital, Nord-Trøndelag Hospital Trust, personal
    communication, June 8, 2007.
[15] Turid Suzanne Berg-Nielsen, personal communication, June 12,
    2007. Berg Nielsen is an associate professor in psychology at
    NTNU. She is a psychodynamically oriented psychologist who
    specializes in clinical child psychology.
[16] Kringstad, H. (2007, March 12). Remembered abortion and rape at
    age 12. Verdens Gang, 18-19.
[17] Child interview. (2003, December 8). Video clip from The
    conscience-stricken judge, NRK-documentary. Retrieved on June 9,
    2007 from
[18] Goodman, G.S., Magnussen, S., Andersson, J., Endestad, T.,
    Lokken, L.  & Moestue, A.C. (2007) Memory illusions and false
    memories in the real world. In Magnussen, S. & Helstrup, T.
    (Eds.). Everyday memory 157-182 East Sussex: Psychology Press
[19] Kringstad, H. & Sandblad, M. (2003, February 26). Demands [NOK] 2
    million for murder fantasies. Verdens Gang, 7.
[20] Case No. 01-977A. In Goodman, G.S., Magnussen, S., Andersson, J.,
    Endestad, T., Løkken, L., & Moestue, A.C. (2007). Memory
    illusions and false memories in the real world. In Magnussen, S. &
    Helstrup, T. (Eds.). Everyday memory. 157-182. East Sussex:
    Psychology Press.
[21] Program for sexually abused secured through 2009. (2007).
    Central Norway Regional Health Authority. Retrived on June 13,
    2007 from
    MonaH. Klausen is an undergraduate at the University of Oslo,
    Norway. She is studying psychology.

/                                                                    \
|                         Myths of Childhood                         |
|                             Joel Paris                             |
|                    New York: Brunner-Routledge                     |
|                                                                    |
| Myth 1. Personality is formed by early childhood experience.       |
| Myth 2. Mental disorders are caused by early childhood             |
|         experiences.                                               |
| Myth 3. Effective psychotherapy depends on the reconstruction of   |
|         childhood experiences.                                     |
|                                                                    |
| "As the mental health care professions evolve toward a             |
| scientifically based practice, which is both evidence-based (one   |
| knows that it works) and knowledge-based (one knows how it works), |
| I believe we will see that this will involve the demise of many a  |
| popular classical "truth" or myth of psychology."                  |
|                                                                    |
|                                            Kennair, L.E.O. (2003)  |
|           Behold the paradigm shift! Review of Myths of Childhood  |
|                                   Human Nature Review, 3, 196-209  |
|                   See  |

                       L E G A L   C O R N E R

        New Jersey Supreme Court Decides Expert Not Necessary
                      in Recovered Memory Cases.
 Phillips v. Gelpke (A-1-2006) Sup. Ct. NJ, A-1 September Term 2006.
           Argued Nov. 13, 2006 -- Decided May 17, 2007.[1]

On May 17, the New Jersey Supreme Court ruled that an appeals panel
was wrong to throw out a jury award to a Melissa Phillips who had sued
John Gelpke based on memories that had been triggered by a dream.[2]
The appeals court had held that "A case based on repressed memories
cannot be submitted to a jury without expert testimony diagnosing the
alleged victim as having dissociative amnesia and explaining and
justifying the concept that repressed memories can be accurately
recalled." The State Supreme Court, however, found that there was no
need to require an expert in such cases. The court sent the case back
to the Appellate Division to review other appeals that have been made
by Gelpke.

In 2001, nineteen-year-old Melissa Phillips sued neighbors John and
Barbara Gelpke claiming that John had sexually abused her from the
time that she was three until she was eight. She claimed she repressed
the memories until she was eleven and had a dream of sexual relations
with John. The trial jury found John guilty. He appealed that the
judge erred in allowing the case to go to the jury without expert
testimony that Melissa's memory was the result of dissociative amnesia
or explaining how repressed memories might be accurately recalled

Richard J. Schacter argued the case for Phillips. Kevin P. Kovacs
argued the case for Gelpke.

[1] See
[2] Phillips v. Gelpke, No. A-1932-04T1, 2006 N.J. Super. LEXIS 14,
    Decided January 30, 2006. See FMSF Newsletter, 15(2).

                          A Disturbing Case
           Former Wisconsin and West Virginia Psychiatrist
                       Found Guilty of Murder.
                      Case Likely to Be Retried
         Ohio v. John M. Adams  03-CR-524 Scioto County Ohio

(When a psychiatrist who has caused problems in one community is
forced out of his job and moves to another state, the person usually
fades from view. The Adams case is of interest because reports of his
work with multiple personality patients were sent to the FMSF office
many years ago. Prior to his Marshall University position, Adams was
the Clinical Medical Director of La Crosse, Wisconsin County Human
Services. In 1993, the La Crosse Channel 8 News featured Adams in a
news series about multiple personality and its treatment. Adams had
recently been let go from his position. Some said that he was forced
out because of the controversial nature of the therapy he provided. A
spokesperson said that the county could not afford the extended
psychotherapy that Adams provided in his treatment of multiple
personality patients.)

In July 2004, psychiatrist John M. (Jack) Adams was convicted of the
murder of Portsmouth, Ohio Community Development Director Bob Burns.
Adams was sentenced to at least 26 years in prison.

According to an Associated Press report, witnesses testified that on
July 2, 2003, Adams entered the Burns' home and shot Burns while his
wife watched. Adams forced two women to drive him across the river to
Kentucky before police arrested him.

In a videotaped interview the day after his arrest, Adams told police
that a law firm informed him that Michelle and Bobby Burns had filed a
malpractice complaint against him because of his treatment of
Michelle. Adams said that he had gone to the house to talk to Bobby
Burns about the complaint. He said that he brought a gun "to make
(Burns) listen." Adams claimed that he found the couple in the
bathroom and that Bobby had lunged at him when he opened the door.
Adams said that this frightened him so he fired the gun.

According to reports, Michelle Burns suffered from multiple
personalities. It was also claimed during the trial that Adams was
having an affair with Michelle.

Until June 2003, Adams was an associate professor in the Department of
Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine at of Marshall University in
Huntington, West Virginia. He had been on sick leave since January
2003. Adams, 63-years-old, suffers from Parkinson Disease.

Adams appealed both his conviction for murder and his sentence. In
order to prepare the appeal, his attorney requested a transcript of
the trial. It took many months for the completion of the transcript,
perhaps because the court reporter used shorthand rather than newer
transcription techniques. When it was finally submitted, the attorney
for Adams challenged its completeness. In fact, he challenged several
resubmissions. Finally in October 2006, a judge noted "the court
reporter has submitted 4 different versions of the trial transcript,
none of which are the same, and some of which are not in the court
file." The judge went on to write "after reviewing the record
ourselves, we conclude that the record at this juncture is so
confusing we cannot confidently say that the record is complete or
accurate as it currently stands." In March 2007, Adams submitted a
motion for a new trial and it appears that this will happen.

James Banks of Dublin, Ohio is the attorney for John Adams.

When this case is retried in August or September, information about
the trial can be found at: and 

  Information about the Adams case and appeal is available at and

  Former professor convicted of murder (2004, July 29). Associated

  Armstrong, S. (2003, July 10). MU psychiatry professor arrested. The
  Parthenon (Marshall University student paper). Retrieved from:
  on April 19, 2007

                      Ryan Ferguson Case Update
   State vs. Ferguson No 165368-01, Boone County, MO Circuit Court

At the beginning of May 2007, the family of Ryan Ferguson took the
case for their son's innocence to the public on YouTube. In 2006, Ryan
Ferguson was convicted of murder based on the evidence of his friend
Chuck Erickson's memory from a dream. There was no physical evidence.
(See FMSF Newsletter 15(4), July/August 2006) Ryan Ferguson has
appealed the decision and the Missouri Western District Court of
Appeals heard oral arguments six months ago.

The video is called "Have you ever had a cop in your face?" and can be
found at: It presents edited clips of the
detective's interrogation of Chuck Erickson, convincing examples of an
interrogator providing the words for Erickson. When he was first
interviewed Erickson didn't have much of an idea of how the victim was
even murdered. Erickson first tells the detective "I might not even
know what I'm talking about." Later he tells the detective that he is
making presumptions based on what he read in the newspaper. The
editing of the video explains to the viewer how particular words or
ideas were presented and then absorbed by Erickson. First Erickson is
shown not knowing something; then the interviewer presents the
information he did not know. The clips are well marked, although the
poor quality makes some things difficult to hear.

An example:

  DETECTIVE: Is it possible that you know what he was strangled with
  and you just didn't want to tell me? Because I know.

  ERICKSON: No, like, I think it was a shirt or something.

  DETECTIVE: Well, I know it wasn't a shirt.

  ERICKSON: Like, maybe a bungee cord or "I don't "some thing from his
  car. I don't see why he'd have a rope in his car.

  DETECTIVE: Well, we know for a fact that his belt was ripped off of
  his pants and he was strangled with his belt.

  ERICKSON: Really?

  DETECTIVE: Does that ring a bell?

  ERICKSON: Not at all.

By the time of the trial, Erickson had all the details of the crime.

Any person interested in how suggestive interviewing can happen will
find this video of interest.

  Warhover, T. (2007, May 5). Web video of Erikson's confession
  illustrates community journalism. Columbia Missourian. Retrieved
  on May 30, 2007.

  Phillips, E.A. (2007, May 3). Murder interrogation posted on
  Web. Columbia Missourian. Retrieved from http://
  on May 30, 2007.

  For more information about the Ryan Ferguson

  Have you ever had a cop in your face?"  can be found at:

                       Update of Klassen Case:
  Court Upholds Ruling Against Prosecutor but Not Against Therapist

A three judge Saskatchewan Court of Appeal has upheld the conviction
of prosecutor Matthew Miazga for the malicious prosecution of Richard
Klassen and his family. The Appeal Court, however, said that the trial
judge erred in determining that therapist Bunko-Ruys had initiated the
prosecution against the Klassens. Her conviction was set aside.

In 1991, the Klassen family was accused of forcing three foster
children to eat eyeballs, drink blood, participate in orgies and watch
newborn babies being skinned and burned. During a 2004 trial, it was
shown that all the accusations were lies. Klassen argues that it was
the suggestive questioning of the children by Bunko-Ruys that let to
the absurd allegations. Miazga may appeal to the Supreme Court of
Canada. If he does, Klassen said that he will appeal the Bunko-Ruys

The chief justice minister of Saskatchewan said that were he to
discipline Miazga, it would send a "chilling message" to the rest of
the Crown prosecutors in the province that they should err on the side
of not aggressively defending the public in controversial cases.

See FMSF Newsletter, 13(2), March-April 2004 for a more complete story
of the Klassen case.

/                                                                    \
| "Inaccurate eyewitness memory is the leading cause of the          |
| conviction of innocent people because human memory is fragile and  |
| malleable. The heat of the moment, the passage of time, the        |
| tendency for the mind to fill in memory gaps with guesses and      |
| inferences, and the tendency to construct new memories based on    |
| later information are natural ways people come to remember         |
| incorrectly what they actually witnessed"                          |
|                                        Wells, G.L. (2007, May 15)  |
|                           Let's go to the tape recording. Newsday  |

                   F R O M   O U R   R E A D E R S

                         Remembering Dr. Lief
We were so very sorry to hear about Dr. Leif's death. I remember
seeing him at the Baltimore FMSF conference in 1994 and feeling
especially pleased that such an honorable, respected, and capable
person would defend those of us falsely accused. I was delighted that
he was willing tell the world how and why unsuspecting and trusting
victims of bad therapy could develop false memories. Dr. Lief was
especially courageous in speaking against bad therapy in his own
profession and in fielding the criticisms from his fellow therapists
who tried to harm his reputation. But he stood his ground and
prevailed, helping to stem the tide of false accusations. In talking
to him, we could see he was a kind and loving man, neither vitriolic
nor strident, but a man of mighty courage in the face of attacks. We
will sorely miss his presence, but remember how he lived his life.
                                                 Don and Iris Anderson
                             Life Is Good
My youngest daughter told me about the FMS Foundation a year or so
after my oldest daughter made sexual accusations about me. I thought I
was the only one in such a situation and my grief and fear were
driving me to my emotional limits. Your newsletters awakened me to
reality. Now, a dozen years or more later, my eldest daughter is still
lost to me and I am not allowed to have any communication with her.
But my family is intact, my personal and professional friendships were
not affected and now living in retirement my life is good and for the
most part I can accept the rupture by my daughter.

All this would not have been possible had it not been for the FMSF
Newsletter. They provided the intellectual support that made life
livable for me for many of these past years.
                                                                 A Dad
After our daughter dropped a bomb in our lives in 1992, I did
extensive reading on the subject of childhood sexual abuse and
recovered memories. Perhaps the best source I found was a two-volume
text on childhood sexual abuse written primarily for physicians who
were doing a medical residency in psychiatry.

These texts were not easy reading but they helped me to understand the
issue from two very different perspectives. First, I began to
understand the topic of childhood sexual abuse and the programs for
treatment. Second, the medical texts showed me the unscientific and
callow nature of materials supporting repressed memory as "therapy."
The gulf between the two was enormous.

I would like to encourage the newsletter to add medical texts to your
lists of books about the recovered memories of child sexual abuse.
                                                     Thank you. A Dad.
                       A Grandmother's Journal

  (Perhaps the saddest aspect of the FMS tragedy is the forced
  separation of grandchildren and grandparents. Angry, petulant and
  self righteous "recovered memory survivors" deny their own children
  the basic human right to know their grandparents. One grandmother
  decided to try to bridge that gap by keeping a journal for her new
  grandchild. The journal is filled with fascinating stories of family
  members mixed with day-to-day activities, thoughts and feelings. We
  reprint just a bit from the introduction.)

November 7

"My dearest granddaughter, please know that if things were as they
should be, I'd be there to greet you. I yearn to look at your new
little face, to hold you in my arms, welcoming you into this crazy
world and telling you that I love you. But, unfortunately, I'm sure
you will learn all too soon that things are not always as they should

"I have cried so very much today and am crying now. If I am only able
to be in contact with you in this way, I pray that God grants me the
ability to relate my thoughts and affection to you. There is so much I
want to share. If this reaches you, please know that none of the
family is bad. The events that separated us were strange and
unwarranted. Please never be angry with your parents and love them
always as even in my enforced separation I do love them. Love should
have no boundaries, no beginnings and endings and so I hope that what
I say to you will reach out over time and perhaps you can learn
something from it all. My heart feels ripped and torn, but I still
believe in love, good, and the possibility of happy endings.

'Well, by now you must be wondering who is writing this stuff to you.
I am your maternal grandmother.'

*                           N O T I C E S                            *
*                                                                    *
*                      WEB  SITES  OF  INTEREST                      *
*                                                                    *
*                      *
*                       Against Satanic Panics                       *
*                                                                    *
*                         *
*            The Lampinen Lab False Memory Reading Group             *
*                       University of Arkansas                       *
*                                                                    *
*                              *
*                  The Exploratorium Memory Exhibit                  *
*                                                                    *
*                                       *
*                     The Memory Debate Archives                     *
*                                                                    *
*                                         *
*                      French language website                       *
*                                                                    *
*                  *
*             The Bobgans question Christian counseling              *
*                                                                    *
*                                       *
*                   Illinois-Wisconsin FMS Society                   *
*                                                                    *
*                                   *
*                             Ohio Group                             *
*                                                                    *
*                                           *
*                Australian False Memory Association.                *
*                                                                    *
*                                           *
*                    British False Memory Society                    *
*                                                                    *
*                               *
*            This site is run by Laura Pasley (retractor)            *
*                                                                    *
*                         *
*                            Upton Books                             *
*                                                                    *
*                   *
*                       Locate books about FMS                       *
*                     Recovered Memory Bookstore                     *
*                                                                    *
*                        *
*               Information about Satanic Ritual Abuse               *
*                                                                    *
*                                      *
*                   Parents Against Cruel Therapy                    *
*                                                                    *
*                               *
*                       New Zealand FMS Group                        *
*                                                                    *
*                                     *
*          Site run by Bruce Robinson contains information           *
*             about Christchurch Creche and other cases.             *
*                                                                    *
*                                       *
*                       Netherlands FMS Group                        *
*                                                                    *
*                                   *
*           National Child Abuse Defense & Resource Center       *
*                                                                    *
*                                  *
*                  Excerpts from Victims of Memory.                  *
*                                                                    *
*                          *
*                         Ross Institute                             *
*                                                                    *
*         *
*             Perspectives for Psychiatry by Paul McHugh             *
*                                                                    *
*                                *
*                 FMS in Scandinavia -- Janet Hagbom                 *
*                                                                    *
*                                              *
*                National Center for Reason & Justice            *
*                                                                    *
*                                      *
*          Skeptical Information on Theophostic Counseling           *
*                                                                    *
*                               *
*                Information about Attachment Therapy                *
*                                                                    *
*                                  *
*           English language web site of Dutch retractor.            *
*                                                                    *
*                                        *
*             This site is run by Stephen Barrett, M.D.              *
*                                                                    *
*                                    *
*            Contains information about filing complaints            *
*                                                                    *
*                                        *
*                  False Memory Syndrome Foundation                  *
*                                                                    *
*                     LEGAL WEBSITES OF INTEREST                     *
*                                        *
*                                           *
*                                       *
*                                           *
*                                                                    *
*                          ELIZABETH LOFTUS                          *
*                we                *
*                                                                    *
*            The Rutherford Family Speaks to FMS Families            *
*                                                                    *
* The video made by the Rutherford family is the most popular video  *
* of FMSF families. It covers the complete story from accusation, to *
* retraction and reconciliation. Family members describe the things  *
* they did to cope and to help reunite. Of particular interest are   *
* Beth Rutherford's comments about what her family did that helped   *
* her to retract and return.                                         *
*                   Available in DVD format only:                    *
*                      To order send request to                      *
*                    FMSF Video, 1955 Locust St.                     *
*                      Philadelphia, PA  19103                       *
*    $10.00 per DVD; Canada add $4.00; other countries add $10.00    *
*               Make checks payable to FMS Foundation                *
*                                                                    *
*                       RECOMMENDED  BOOKS                           *
*                                                                    *
*                       REMEMBERING TRAUMA                           *
*                       by Richard McNally                           *
*                    Harvard University Press                        *
*                                                                    *
*         S. O. Lilienfeld, S.J. Lynn and  J.M. Lohr (eds.)          *
*                  New York: Guilford Press (2003)                   *
*                                                                    *
*                         PSYCHOLOGY ASTRAY:                         *
*  Fallacies in Studies of "Repressed Memory" and Childhood Trauma   *
*                   by Harrison G. Pope, Jr., M.D.                   *
*                            Upton Books                             *
                F M S    B U L L E T I N    B O A R D

Contacts & Meetings:

  See Georgia
  Kathleen 907-333-5248
        Pat 480-396-9420
  Little Rock
        Al & Lela 870-363-4368
        Jocelyn 530-570-1862
  San Francisco & North Bay 
        Charles 415-435-9618 (pm)
  San Francisco & South Bay
        Eric 408-738-0469
  East Bay Area
        Judy 925-952-4853
  Central Coast
        Carole 805-967-8058
  Palm Desert
        Eileen and Jerry 909-659-9636
  Central Orange County -- 1st Fri. (MO) @ 7pm
        Chris & Alan 949-733-2925
  Covina Area 
        Floyd & Libby 626-357-2750
  San Diego Area 
        Dee 760-439-4630
  Colorado Springs
        Doris 719-488-9738
  S. New England
        Earl 203-329-8365 or
        Paul 203-458-9173
        Madeline 954-966-4FMS
  Central Florida -- Please call for mtg. time
        John & Nancy 352-750-5446
        Francis & Sally 941-342-8310
  Tampa Bay Area
        Bob & Janet 727-856-7091
        Wallie & Jill 770-971-8917
  Chicago & Suburbs -- 1st Sun. (MO)
        Eileen 847-985-7693 or
        Liz & Roger 847-827-1056
        Bryant & Lynn 309-674-2767
  Indiana Assn. for Responsible Mental Health Practices
        Pat 260-489-9987
        Helen 574-753-2779
  Wichita -- Meeting as called
        Pat 785-762-2825
  Louisville- Last Sun. (MO) @ 2pm
        Bob 502-367-1838
        Sarah 337-235-7656
        Carolyn 207-364-8891
        Wally & Boby 207-878-9812
   Andover -- 2nd Sun. (MO) @ 1pm
        Frank 978-263-9795
  Greater Detroit Area
        Nancy 248-642-8077
  Ann Arbor
        Martha 734-439-4055
        Terry & Collette 507-642-3630
        Dan & Joan 651-631-2247
  Kansas City  --  Meeting as called
        Pat 785-738-4840
  Springfield -- Quarterly, 4th Sat. of 
        Jan., Apr., Jul., Oct. @12:30pm
        Tom 417-753-4878
        Roxie 417-781-2058
  Lee & Avone 406-443-3189
  Jean 207-367-5819
  Mark 802-872-0847
        Sally 609-927-4147
        Nancy 973-729-1433 
  Albuquerque  -2nd Sat. (bi-MO) @1 pm
  Southwest Room -- Presbyterian Hospital
        Maggie 505-662-7521 (after 6:30 pm)
        Sy 505-758-0726
  Westchester, Rockland, etc.
        Barbara 914-922-1737
  Upstate/Albany Area
        Elaine 518-399-5749
  Susan 704-538-7202
        Bob & Carole 440-356-4544
  Oklahoma City
        Dee 405-942-0531
        Jim 918-582-7363
  Portland area
        Kathy 503-655-1587
        Paul & Betty 717-691-7660
        Rick & Renee 412-563-5509
        John 717-278-2040
  Wayne (includes S. NJ) -- 2nd Sat. (MO)
        Jim & Jo 610-783-0396
  Nashville -- Wed. (MO) @1pm
        Kate 615-665-1160
        Jo or Beverly 713-464-8970
   El Paso
        Mary Lou 915-595-3945
        Keith 801-467-0669
        Mark 802-872-0847
        Kathy 503-557-7118
        Katie & Leo 414-476-0285 or
        Susanne & John 608-427-3686
        Alan & Lorinda 307-322-4170

  Vancouver & Mainland 
        Lloyd 250-741-8941
  Victoria & Vancouver Island
        John 250-721-3219
        Roma 204-275-5723
        Adriaan 519-471-6338
        Eileen 613-836-3294
        Ken & Marina 905-637-6030
        Paula 705-543-0318
        Mavis 450-882-1480
  FMS ASSOCIATION fax 972-2-625-9282 
        Colleen 09-416-7443
        Ake Moller FAX 48-431-217-90
  The British False Memory Society
        Madeline 44-1225 868-682
            Deadline for the Winter 2007 issue is August 1
                  Meeting notices MUST be in writing
    And should be sent no later than TWO MONTHS PRIOR TO MEETING.

|          Do you have access to e-mail?  Send a message to          |
|                                         |
| if  you wish to receive electronic versions of this newsletter and |
| notices of radio and television  broadcasts  about  FMS.  All  the |
| message need say is "add to the FMS-News". It would be useful, but |
| not necessary,  if you add your full name (all addresses and names |
| will remain strictly confidential).                                |
The False Memory Syndrome Foundation is a qualified  501(c)3  corpora-
tion  with  its  principal offices in Philadelphia and governed by its
Board of Directors.  While it encourages participation by its  members
in  its  activities,  it must be understood that the Foundation has no
affiliates and that no other organization or person is  authorized  to
speak for the Foundation without the prior written approval of the Ex-
ecutive Director. All membership dues and contributions to the Founda-
tion must be forwarded to the Foundation for its disposition.

PAMELA FREYD, Ph.D.,  Executive Director

FMSF Scientific and Professional Advisory Board,          July 1, 2007

AARON T. BECK, M.D., D.M.S., U of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA;
TERENCE W. CAMPBELL, Ph.D., Clinical and Forensic Psychology, 
    Sterling Heights, MI;
ROSALIND CARTWRIGHT, Ph.D., Rush Presbyterian St. Luke's Medical
    Center, Chicago, IL;
JEAN CHAPMAN, Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI;
LOREN CHAPMAN, Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI;
FREDERICK C. CREWS, Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley, CA;
ROBYN M. DAWES, Ph.D., Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA;
DAVID F. DINGES, Ph.D., University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA;
HENRY C. ELLIS, Ph.D., University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM;
FRED H. FRANKEL, MBChB, DPM, Harvard University Medical School;
GEORGE K. GANAWAY, M.D., Emory University of Medicine, Atlanta, GA;
MARTIN GARDNER, Author, Hendersonville, NC;
ROCHEL GELMAN, Ph.D., Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ;
HENRY GLEITMAN, Ph.D., University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA;
LILA GLEITMAN, Ph.D., University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA;
RICHARD GREEN, M.D., J.D., Charing Cross Hospital, London;
DAVID A. HALPERIN, M.D., (deceased) Mount Sinai School of Medicine, 
    New York, NY;
ERNEST HILGARD, Ph.D., (deceased) Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA;
JOHN HOCHMAN, M.D., UCLA Medical School, Los Angeles, CA;
DAVID S. HOLMES, Ph.D., University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS;
PHILIP S. HOLZMAN, Ph.D., (deceased) Harvard University, 
    Cambridge, MA;
ROBERT A. KARLIN, Ph.D. , Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ;
HAROLD LIEF, M.D., (deceased) University of Pennsylvania, 
    Philadelphia, PA;
ELIZABETH LOFTUS, Ph.D., University of California, Irvine, CA;
SUSAN L. McELROY, M.D., University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH;
PAUL McHUGH, M.D., Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD;
HAROLD MERSKEY, D.M., University of Western Ontario, London, Canada;
ULRIC NEISSER, Ph.D., Cornell University, Ithaca, NY;
RICHARD OFSHE, Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley, CA;
EMILY CAROTA ORNE, B.A., University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA;
MARTIN ORNE, M.D., Ph.D., (deceased) U of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia
LOREN PANKRATZ, Ph.D., Oregon Health Sciences Univ., Portland, OR;
CAMPBELL PERRY, Ph.D., (deceased) Concordia University, 
    Montreal, Canada;
MICHAEL A. PERSINGER, Ph.D., Laurentian University, Ontario, Canada;
AUGUST T. PIPER, Jr., M.D., Seattle, WA;
HARRISON POPE, Jr., M.D., Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA;
JAMES RANDI, Author and Magician, Plantation, FL;
HENRY L. ROEDIGER, III, Ph.D. ,Washington University, St. Louis, MO;
CAROLYN SAARI, Ph.D., Loyola University, Chicago, IL;
THEODORE SARBIN, Ph.D., (deceased) University of California, 
    Santa Cruz, CA;
THOMAS A. SEBEOK, Ph.D., (deceased) U of Indiana, Bloomington, IN;
MICHAEL A. SIMPSON, M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., M.R.C, D.O.M., Center for
    Psychosocial & Traumatic Stress, Pretoria, South Africa;
MARGARET SINGER, Ph.D., {deceased) University of California, 
    Berkeley, CA;
RALPH SLOVENKO, J.D., Ph.D., Wayne State University Law School,
    Detroit, MI;
DONALD SPENCE, Ph.D., Robert Wood Johnson Medical Ctr, Piscataway, NJ;
JEFFREY VICTOR, Ph.D., Jamestown Community College, Jamestown, NY;
HOLLIDA WAKEFIELD, M.A., Institute of Psychological Therapies, 
    Northfield, MN;
CHARLES A. WEAVER, III, Ph.D. Baylor University, Waco, TX

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