FMSF NEWSLETTER ARCHIVE - March/April 2005 - Vol. 14, No. 2, HTML version

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F M S   F O U N D A T I O N   N E W S L E T T E R     (e-mail edition)
March/April 2005 Vol.14 No. 2
ISSN #1069-0484. Copyright (c) 2005 by the FMS Foundation
        The FMSF Newsletter is published 6 times a year by the
        False Memory Syndrome Foundation. The newsletter is
        mailed to anyone who contributes at least $30.00. Also
              available at no cost on
           1955 Locust Street, Philadelphia, PA 19103-5766
                 Phone 215-940-1040, Fax 215-940-1042
In this issue...
    From Our Readers
      Bulletin Board

Dear Friends,

A satanic ritual abuse course for professionals in California, a
Vatican-recognized course on satanism and exorcism, a Church of
England recommendation of The Courage to Heal, and the guilty verdict
in the Shanley case are unfortunate signs that the memory wars are
likely to drag on. Given all the research exposing the problems with
claims of recovered memories, it seems perverse that some articles in
this issue read like events reported a long decade ago.

Probably, the SRA courses and book recommendation are blips to be
expected and corrected. Satanism and exorcism are more exciting
stories than the fact that memory is frequently unreliable. Magic is
more fun than the ordinary. The Shanley decision, however, is more
complicated and may be a set-back in efforts to see that courts admit
evidence based on scientific findings. We will know if it inspires
another round of claims of recovery of memories of long-repressed
sexual abuse.

Since January 2002, Paul Shanley has been the symbol of the clergy
sexual abuse scandal in Boston. (See p. 3) He has been reviled in the
media since the Boston Globe published an article about him called
"Famed 'street priest' preyed upon boys."[1] Shanley was considered
the most dangerous pedophile in Boston. When Gregory Ford came forth
in February 2002 and said that he had recovered memories of Shanley
abusing him, a public that had been profoundly frustrated because the
15-year statute of limitations prevented most clergy transgressors
from being punished, rejoiced that Shanley could be brought to
criminal trial.

During the turbulent 1960s and 70s, Shanley ministered to troubled
young people and supported gay rights, upsetting many. There were
complaints of sexual involvement by Shanley with adolescents and young
adults. There were no complaints of his involvement with young
children, however, until 2002 when Gregory Ford said he now remembered
being abused by Shanley. Three other young men joined Ford. They all
attended the same Catholic religious classes at St. Jean L'Evangeliste
in Newton, Mass. They all said that Shanley would take them out of
class and rape them in the rectory, confessional, and restroom from
the time they were six until they were 11 or 12. They all claimed that
they immediately forgot being raped or abused and that they recovered
the memories after the Globe article. They all had the same lawyer.
There is no record of any person during those years who noticed
anything unusual involving the boys and Shanley.

In April 2004, all four received settlements from the Church in civil
cases. Ford is said to have received more than $1.4 million and Busa
received $500,000.

In July, 2004, prosecutors dropped Ford and another person from the
criminal suit, presumably because their claims had become increasingly
unreliable. A third person was dropped at the beginning of the trial
because he could not be found. Paul Busa was the only person who
testified against Shanley. The fact that three of four original
accusers were dropped is itself a good indication of the problems with
cases based only on evidence of recovered repressed memories.

According to investigative reporter JoAnn Wypijewski,[2] supposed
"facts" about Shanley that were repeated both before and during the
trial were misleading. They were the result of a press conference held
by attorney MacLeish in which he selectively edited material from
internal documents released by the Church. It would have been almost
impossible for anyone in the Boston area, jury included, not to have
been aware of these things. At the least, the information contributed
to the climate in which Shanley was arguably the most hated man in

Late last year the prosecution offered Shanley a plea deal that would
have given him two and a half years under house arrest.[3] Obviously,
the prosecutors did not consider Shanley as dangerous as portrayed by
the media. Shanley refused the plea. That Shanley abused his trust
seems clear. What is not clear is that Shanley was guilty of the
particular crimes brought before the court. There seems reasonable
doubt. The trial took place in January 2005, and it could be seen on
CourtTV. It was a highly emotional trial. Busa cried as he testified
how the memories incapacitated him. James Chu, M.D., who testified for
the prosecution, told the jury that "It really is more this repeated
trauma that tends to be forgotten by some mechanism." (There is no
scientific evidence for this claim promoted by Lenore Terr, M.D. See
sidebar on this page.) Chu noted that memories can return in a flood
of images and physical symptoms such as anxiety and sleeplessness, all
of which Busa said he experienced. (Yet, research has shown repeatedly
that the emotion associated with a memory is not a reliable indication
of its accuracy. A memory doesn't have to be authentic to be
overwhelming. People who remember space alien abduction can show
tremendous emotion.) In her closing arguments, the prosecutor said
that the emotion Busa showed when he testified was evidence that he
was not fabricating his claims. Comments from jurors after the trial
indicate that the emotion was persuasive to them.

"It must have come back to him...His health, his wife...It was
heartfelt." The defense tried to portray Busa as someone who claimed
recovered memories in order to get money. But the prosecutor said that
could not be the case because Busa already had his money. A comment
from one juror indicated that they agreed:

"I think one of the more convincing things that was spoken by a lot of
people was that the victim had already won a civil case and had
already been awarded half a million dollars and had no motivation, no
reason, to pursue the criminal case other than personal conviction."

Yet, there can be many possible reasons for someone to pursue a
criminal action. For example: a person could sincerely believe his or
her memories but that does not mean they are true; a person could
relish the attention; a person could enjoy being a hero by holding a
hated person accountable.

[1] Pfeiffer, S. (2002, January 31). Famed 'street priest' preyed upon
    boys. Boston Globe, p. A21.
[2] Wypijewski, J. (2004, September-October). The passion of Father
    Paul Shanley. LegalAffairs. Retrieved February 9, 2005, from
[3] Wypijewski, J. (2005, January 28). Quoted on CourtTV.

       |                    SPECIAL THANKS                    |
       |                                                      |
       |  We extend a very special `Thank you' to all of      |
       |  the people who help prepare the FMSF Newsletter.    |  
       |                                                      |
       |  EDITORIAL SUPPORT: Janet Fetkewicz, Howard          |
       |           Fishman, Peter Freyd                       |
       |  COLUMNISTS: Members of the FMSF Scientific advisory |
       |     Board and Members who wish to remain anonymous   |
       |  LETTERS and INFORMATION: Our Readers                |

/                                                                    \
| "What worries me, speaking generally about this case, is that the  |
| public thinks that this is a corroborated repressed-memory case.   |
| They think corroboration comes in the form of those other          |
| accusations, documents that the Catholic church knew it had        |
| problems with Paul Shanley. Let's say hypothetically 40 years ago  |
| Paul Shanley had some relationships with teenagers. That doesn't   |
| mean that a claim he abused me between the ages of 6 and 12 and I  |
| massively repressed it is corroborated. This case is a major       |
| setback for the progress we've made in the last two decades in     |
| questioning claims of recovered memory."                           |
|                                                  Elizabeth Loftus  |
|                                               quoted in Miner, M.  |
|                                                 2005, February 18  |
|                           Did Shanley get screwed? Chicago Reader  |
|                                    Retrieved on February 21, 2005  |
|                        from  |

/                                                                    \
| Our own research suggests that isolated episodes of nonviolent,    |
| seldom repeated, nonpenetrative sexual abuse can be forgotten and  |
| later remembered *if* the child did not understand what was        |
| happening and if the child did not experience the abuse as         |
| traumatic (i.e., terrifying). The person fails to think about the  |
| abuse for many years, NOT because it was so traumatic it was       |
| sealed off behind a "dissociative wall," but because it was        |
| nontraumatic at the time. And we have no evidence that the person  |
| was *unable* to recall his or her CSA during the period of time    |
| when it did not happen to come to mind. Not thinking about         |
| something is NOT the same thing as being *unable* to remember it,  |
| and inability to recall is what so-called traumatic dissociative   |
| amnesia is all about.                                              |
|                                                                    |
| The issues of reliability (accuracy) of recovered memory and       |
| corroboration of these memories are both red herrings, in my       |
| opinion, and the continued focus on these issues has caused        |
| confusion. For example, in our research, even the uncontroversial  |
| continuous memories are very tough to corroborate -- many CSA      |
| victims never tell people. And even continuous memories are        |
| reconstructive (like all memories), and so focusing on the         |
| especial unreliability of recovered memories sends the discussion  |
| off on an irrelevant tangent. The real issue is that *traumatic*   |
| events -- terrifying, life-threatening experiences -- are never    |
| (or almost never) forgotten, let alone *repeated* traumatic        |
| events. So, the basic principle is: if the abuse *was* traumatic   |
| at the time it occurred, it is unlikely to be forgotten. If it was |
| forgotten, then it was unlikely to have been traumatic. And even   |
| it was forgotten, there is no evidence that it was dissociated     |
| (i.e., blocked, repressed, sealed behind an amnestic barrier,      |
| inaccessible).                                                     |
|                                                    Richard McNally |
|                                                   February 7, 2005 |
|                                                    Electronic mail |

/                                                                    \
|                      Further Up the Mountain                       |
|                                                                    |
| "It is incredibly depressing that Massachusetts remains gripped in |
| the culture of Salem. Of course, we must fight on. I asked Stephen |
| Jay Gould once how he kept his persistence and sense of humor in   |
| fighting pseudoscience and creationism and all the anti-scientific |
| impulses in our culture. He said, 'Yes, I often feel like          |
| Sisyphus, but imagine how much further down the mountain we'd be   |
| if we weren't trying to reach the top.'"                           |
|                                                       Carol Tavris |
|                                                   2005, February 8 |
|                                                     Personal email |

                          PAUL SHANLEY CASE
            Commonwealth of Massachusetts v. Paul Shanley,
              Commonwealth of  Massachusetts, Middlesex
                   SS Superior Court, No. 2002-0894

On February 7, 2005, a Boston jury found defrocked Roman Catholic
priest Paul Shanley guilty of sexually abusing now 27-year-old Boston
fireman Paul Busa when he was a young child. Shanley, age 74, was
sentenced to 12-15 years in prison.

The evidence in the case consisted entirely of Busa's recovered
memories. Busa testified that his girlfriend called him on January 31
to tell him about a Boston Globe article about Shanley.[1] Busa said
he was surprised because everyone had liked Shanley. His girlfriend
called again on February 11 to tell him that his friend Gregory Ford
was accusing Shanley. Busa then called Ford. He testified that his own
memories then started coming back. "I felt like my world was coming to
an end."[2] At the time, Busa was a military police officer in

On February 12, Busa visited a military therapist and then flew to
Boston. According to investigative reporter Jo Ann Wypijewski.[3] the
ticket was paid for by attorney Rod MacLeish who was representing
Ford. Busa also met with the same mental health professionals as Ford
and he also retained MacLeish. After Busa returned to Colorado and
entered counseling, he was told to start a journal of his memories. He
backdated the journal to February 1. Busa was discharged from the
military in April.

In the 1970s, Father Shanley was known as a charismatic "street
priest" who worked with troubled adolescents and supported gay rights.
Until the criminal trial, no one had ever accused Shanley of being
sexually involved with young children. There were, however, claims of
his involvement with adolescents or young adults in the 60s and 70s.

After the publication of the Pulitzer Prize-winning Boston Globe
series and a later press conference by attorney MacLeish, Shanley
became one of, if not the, most high-profile figures in the church
abuse scandals. Shanley is one of the few priests to be criminally
charged in Massachusetts. Because he had moved to California in 1990,
the clock stopped on the 15 year statute of limitations.

There were two young men, besides Ford and Busa who made claims
against Shanley. They all attended the same Catholic religious classes
at St. Jean L'Evangeliste in Newton, Mass. They all said that Shanley
would take them out of class and rape them in the rectory,
confessional and restroom from the time they were six until they were
11 or 12. They all claimed that they immediately forgot being raped or
abused and that they recovered the memories after the Globe article.
They all had the same lawyer. There is no record of any person during
those years who noticed anything unusual involving the boys and

In April 2004, all four received settlements from the Church in civil
cases. Ford is said to have received more than $1.4 million and Busa
received $500,000.

In July 2004, prosecutors said that "in order to make this the most
manageable case for a jury to hear," it would drop Ford and another
person from the case. A great deal had been learned about Gregory Ford
and his life that caused many questions about the reliability of his
memories. The other accuser was dropped on the day jury selection
began because no one could find him.

The trial began in mid-January and was shown on CourtTV. Busa sobbed
during some of his highly emotional testimony, and his wife described
his awful pain and suffering after he recovered memories. Classmates
and two former teachers from the school took the stand. None of the
classmates testified that they ever saw Shanley remove anyone from
class, although students were sent out of the class. One student
testified that he had once been sent to Shanley who had told him to
stop giving the teacher a hard time and sent him right back to class.
Under cross-examination, teachers could not recall Shanley taking
children out of class. One stated that Busa would not even have been
in the religious class at the age he claimed.

James Chu, M.D., an associate professor at Harvard Medical School, was
an expert for the prosecution. He testified that repressed memory is
more common among people who suffered repeated trauma as children than
in those who suffered a single traumatic event. "It really is more
this repeated trauma that tends to be forgotten by some mechanism." He
noted that memories can return in a flood of images and physical
symptoms such as anxiety and sleeplessness, all of which Busa said he
experienced. Dr. Chu used the term "dissociative barrier" to describe
the mechanism that keeps traumatic memories locked up. Under
cross-examination, Chu acknowledged the intense debate about the
validity of repressed memories and that false memories can be

Elizabeth Loftus, Ph.D., the only witness for the defense, testified
that her research shows that people can come to sincerely believe
implanted memories. On cross-examination, prosecutor Rooney asked
Loftus about statements she had made about repressed memories in the
past that were at odds with her current statements. Loftus was unable
to complete her answers, and defense attorney Mondano did not follow
up on redirect.

In closing arguments, Prosecutor Rooney said that the emotion Busa
showed when he testified was evidence that he was not fabricating his
claims. "The emotions were raw. They were real. They were reflective
of the pain he experienced," she said. In his closing, defense
attorney Frank Mondano argued that Busa's story was not reliable and
that he made up the story to get the money from a civil trial.
Prosecutor Rooney argued that Busa already had the money from the
civil trial so that would not explain his willingness to endure the
pain of the criminal trial.

The jury deliberated 13 hours before reaching its decision. Jury
member Victoria Blier remarked that the jury agreed after discussion
that you can experience something up to a point, and then not think
about it and have plenty of other things in your life that are more

Attorney Frank Mondano has said that he intends to appeal the

[1] Pfeiffer, S. (2002, January 31). Famed 'street priest' preyed upon
   boys. Boston Globe, p. A21.
[2] Lavoi, D. (2005, January 26). Shanley's accuser testifies at child
    rape trial. Associated Press State & Local Wire, 4:56 Wednesday, BC
3] Wypijewski, J. (2004, September-October). The passion of Father
   Paul Shanley. LegalAffairs. Retrieved February 9, 2005, from

   Ballou,. B., & Lawrence, J. (2005, February 8). Shanley guilty;
   verdict delivers 'victory,' vindication. Boston Herald, p. 7.

   Kukjian, S., & Cullen, K. (2002, June 21). Grand jury indicts
   Shanley, charges rape of four boys. Boston Globe, p. A22.

   Lavoie, D. (2005, January 31). State wraps up case against
   defrocked priest. Associated Press.

   Lavoie, D. (2005, February 7). Defrocked priest convicted in
   notorious clergy sex abuse case. Associated Press, Monday, BC

/                                                                    \
| Jury Member Patrick Kierce: "It must have come back to him...His   |
| health, his wife...It was heartfelt. He didn't have much of        |
| anything else to go on."                                           |
|                                                         Weiss, J.  |
|                                                  2005, February 8  |
|                      Jury convicts Shanley of raping child victim  |
|                                                      Boston Globe  |
|                                                             p. A1  |
|                                                                    |
| Jury Member Victoria Blier: "I think one of the more convincing    |
| things that was spoken by a lot of people was that the victim had  |
| already won a civil case and had already been awarded half a       |
| million dollars and had no motivation, no reason, to pursue the    |
| criminal case other than personal conviction."                     |
|                                                      Saltzman, J.  |
|                                                  2005, February 8  |
|                 Compelling witness overrode questions on memories  |
|                                                      Boston Globe  |
|                                                             p. B5  |


The sexual abuse crisis of Catholic clergy seems likely to continue.
In the last year, at least 1,092 new allegations were made. In 2004,
195 dioceses paid out $139.5 million to settle claims. Since 1950, the
church has paid more than $840 million to settle abuse cases.

Most of the alleged abuse incidents occurred between 1965 and 1974,
beyond the statute of limitations for prosecution. California
legislated a one-year suspension of the statutes of limitations for
civil cases during which old clergy cases may be brought. There are
700 lawsuits pending against dioceses in Southern California. Three
members of the American International Group, Inc., (insurers) filed a
lawsuit against the Archdiocese of Los Angeles for withholding
"critical evidence" that could help insurance carriers assess the
validity of more than 500 sexual abuse claims against them. They say
that the Church has not provided critical medical and work records and
that the archbishop has resisted the taking of any depositions or
recorded statements.

The archdioceses of Tucson, AZ, Spokane, WA, and Portland, OR have
filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection in face of mounting
lawsuits. Portland, for example, faces a $135 million jury trial set
to begin in July and $534 million in pending claims from 72
individuals. As part of the bankruptcy proceedings, potential
claimants have a window of time in which to file, but with some
exceptions. In Portland, for example, the exceptions state: "Future
claimants include three groups: current minors whose parents or
guardians have not yet filed claims on their behalf, people who don't
remember the abuse because of repressed memory syndrome, and people
who haven't yet linked past sexual abuse with current problems such as
alcoholism."[1] In Tucson, experts will be hired in order to estimate
the likely number of presently unknown abuse victims with repressed

[1] Woodward, Steve (2005, January 5). Sex-abuse claimants face filing
    deadline. Oregonian, p. A1.

    Diamant, J. (2005, February 10). Paterson diocese to pay $5M to
    settle sex abuse lawsuit. Star Ledger, p. 1.

    Madigan, N. (2005, January 5). California diocese settles sexual
    abuse case for $100 million. New York Times, p. A16.

    Stammer, L., Lobdell, W., & Guccione, J. (2004, December 5). A
    bishop's bold move. Los Angeles Times, p. B1.

    Remsen, J. (2005, February 10). Catholic bishops' sex-abuse report
    reveals more cases and rising costs. Philadelphia Inquirer, p. A3.

     |              Some Large Clergy Settlements               |
     |                                                          |
     | Dallas, TX          1998    $31   million       8 people |
     | Lafayette, LA       1998    $18   million  many families |
     | Stockton, CA (jury) 1999    $13   million       2 people |
     | Los Angeles, CA     2001     $5.2 million       1 person |
     | Tucson, AZ          2002    $15   million *    11 people |
     | Providence, RI      2002    $13.5 million      36 people |
     | Boston, MA          2002    $10   million      86 people |
     | Manchester, NH      2003     $6.5 million      61 people |
     | Louisville, KY      2003    $25.7 million     243 people |
     | Boston, MA          2003    $85   million     552 people |
     | Orange County, CA   2004   $100   million      87 people |
     | Newark, NJ          2004     $1   million      10 people |
     | Patterson, NJ       2005     $5   million      27 people |
     |                                  * estimated amount      |

      Bernstein, D.M., Laney, C., Morris, E.K., and Loftus, E.F.
        False memories about food can lead to food avoidance.
                 Social Cognition, 23, 10-33. (2005)

Do false beliefs affect what people do or think later? Bernstein et
al. wanted to see what the consequences of false memories might be,
and they choose food as a way to do it. Students were first asked to
rate 62 different foods on a scale of one to five. A week later they
viewed a "profile" supposedly made by computer. Then they were told
that they had gotten sick from dill pickles or from hard-boiled eggs
when they were children. More than 25 percent confirmed that they
either remembered or believed that this had happened. In another
questionnaire about party behavior, they were asked how likely they
would eat specific foods at an afternoon barbecue. The believers
indicated that they were more likely to avoid hard-boiled eggs or
pickles than were the control subjects. The authors conclude the
article with:

"So, as Shakespeare knew well, imagining a feast would not be likely
to cloy the hungry edge of appetite. But our results suggest that
imagining getting sick on the feast might do the trick."[1]

In a December interview,[2] Elizabeth Loftus noted that "We set out to
test what we've known anecdotally -- that false beliefs have
repercussions, affecting what people later think and do." Loftus
described another similar experiment that showed that even if
researchers convinced people that they had gotten sick from potato
chips, participants did not alter their later behavior. The
researchers think that the novelty of the food may be a factor in
later choice. The researchers have also been able to implant a false
memory of a positive experience of eating asparagus and found that
people later were more apt to select this food.

[1] "Or cloy the hungry edge of appetite by bare imagination of a
    feast?" Shakespeare, King Richard the Second (I, iii).
[2] Manipulating our memories of food can influence what we choose to
    eat. (December 10, 2004. Retrieved from

       Alexander, K.W., Quas, J.A., Goodman, G.S., Ghetti, S.,
    Edelstein, R.S. Redlich, A.D., Cordon, I.M., and Jones, D.P.H.
              Traumatic impact predicts long-term memory
                 for documented child  sexual abuse.
            Psychological Science, 16(1), p. 33-40 (2005)

Although prospective studies of adults' memories have shown that most
individuals remember documented child sexual abuse (CSA), the accuracy
of the memories has seldom been investigated scientifically. The
authors interviewed 175 people with documented and prosecuted cases of
child sexual abuse and examined predictors of memory accuracy and
errors 12 and 21 years later. They sought to learn how reactions to
trauma (i.e., trauma symptoms, cognitive appraisals) affect memory.

Among the findings:

* Individuals who designated CSA as their most traumatic event and
  individuals with more PTSD symptomology were particularly accurate
  in their memory of the documented CSA case.
* Maternal support following disclosure of the abuse significantly
  predicted a higher proportion correct and fewer omission errors.
* Frequency of abuse was associated with a greater proportion of
  omission errors.
* Victim-perpetrator relationship and delay were statistically
  unrelated to memory of CSA.

The authors note that one of the limitations of their research is that
the subjects had all been involved in legal cases that involved both
disclosure and discussion. The results may not reflect accuracy in
cases in which the first disclosure occurs after a long delay (i.e. in


On December 11, 2004, Kevin M. Lindsey, principal of McCormick
Elementary School in Rosedale, Maryland, was arrested for sexually
abusing two elementary school girls in the late 1970s. Five police
officers took him from his home in handcuffs before dawn. Lindsey was
released on bail and the school district placed him on administrative

The accusers were two sisters who claimed to have recovered memories.
Court documents revealed that one of the women had been in therapy
because "she knew something had happened but never knew what it was"
and that she had been praying when the memory came to her.

On December 29, Baltimore County State's attorney Sandra A. O'Connor
dropped the charges against Lindsey. According to news reports,
prosecutors dropped the case because they felt they "couldn't sustain
the burden of proof beyond a reasonable doubt." They noted that
experts are far apart on the accuracy and validity of recovered
memories. Gerald C. Ruter, Lindsey's attorney, said that this was one
of the few times in his career that he would have preferred for a case
to go to trial so that Lindsey could be found not guilty.

On February 2, 2005, Lindsey filed an eight-count complaint in
Baltimore County Circuit Court claiming that the sisters had
maliciously made false reports to police resulting in his arrest,
which caused him great embarrassment and fear. Lindsey said that one
of the most painful times during his ordeal was when he saw a notice
with a telephone number for additional victims to call flash across
the television. According to Lindsey's attorney, the purpose of this
suit is to hold the women accountable.

According to one expert, Lindsey faces an uphill battle in his case
against the women. In order to prevail he must prove that the
allegations were false and that the sisters were being malicious in
making them. Byron Warnken, a professor at the University of Baltimore
School of Law thinks that Lindsey may have a basis for a suit against
police and prosecutors. Because of a Maryland Court of Appeals
decision regarding recovered memory in 1996, prosecutors "knew or
should have known that they couldn't prove their case in court." That
raises the question of why Lindsey was arrested in the first place.

Barnhardt, L. & Neufeld, S. (2004, December 15). 'Recovered' memory's
use in court is debated. Baltimore Sun, B1.

Barnhardt, L. & Neufeld, S. (2004, December 30). Sexual assault
charges against principal are dropped. Baltimore Sun, B1.

Bralove, A. (2005, February 3). Baltimore County principal accused of
sexual assault files $8M lawsuit against accusers. The Daily Record

Neufeld, S. & McMenamin, J. (2005, January 23). Principal weighs
options for justice. Baltimore Sun, B1.

/                                                                    \
|   Following is the last paragraph of a letter from Richard         |
|   Dawkins to his then 10 year old daughter.                        |
|                                                                    |
|           Good Reasons and Bad Reasons for Believing               |
|                                                                    |
| "What can we do about all of this? It's not easy for you to do     |
| anything because you are only 10. But you could try this. Next     |
| time somebody tells you something that sounds important, think to  |
| yourself, 'Is this the kind of thing that people probably know     |
| because of evidence or is it the kind of thing that people only    |
| believe because of tradition, authority or revelation?' And next   |
| time somebody tells you that something is true, why not say to     |
| them, 'What kind of evidence is there for that?' And if they can't |
| give you a good answer, I hope you'll think very carefully before  |
| you believe a word they say. Your loving Daddy."                   |
|                                                                    |
|                                                    Richard Dawkins |
|    A Devil's Chaplin: Reflections on Hope, Lies, Science, and Love |
|                                             Houghton Mifflin, 2003 |
|                                    Quoted on NOW with Bill  Moyers |
|                                              PBS, December 3, 2004 |


Demystifying Ritualized Trauma, a three-part course for mental health
professionals, has been offered this winter by the Family Violence and
Sexual Assault Institute (FVSAI) at Alliance University in San Diego.

Readers may recall that in 2002, ritual abuse sessions were offered
at a conference organized by FVSAI. In 2002, FVSAI listed support from
many national and state government agencies. No such support is listed
for this course. Collaborating organizations are the California
Protective Parents Association, the Center for Integrative Psychology,
Alliant International University, Mr. Light & Associates, Ritual Abuse
Education and Victim Services, San Diego Pastoral Counseling Center,
Santa Ysabel Advocacy Services, and Voices in Action.

The brochure notes that the course "will deal with childhood trauma on
a continuum, particularly the extreme end, ritualized trauma." Among
things participants will learn are how to:

* Identify how conscious creation of dissociative states contributes
  to offender control;
* Describe indicators of 'triggering' and other specific methods for
  disengaging from the triggering process; and
* Identify indicators of trans-generational ritualized trauma."

Among the speakers are: Karen Hawthorne, Ph.D. who specializes in
treating "complex PTSD, including ritualized trauma; Deborah Parker,
B.S. who is a survivor of ritualized trauma; and Gayle Woodsum who is
the author of The Ultimate Challenge: A Revolutionary, Sane and
Sensible Response to Ritualistic and Cult-related Abuse.

[1] November 20, 2004, Trauma: Scientific, Cultural and Personal
    Perspectives; January 15, 2005, Ways to Work with Triggering of
    Dissociated States; and March 5, 2005, Recovery, Peer Support,
    Institutional Response to Childhood Sexual Trauma.

                    LeFanu, J. (2005, January 30).
               The church finds a false god in therapy.
                     The Sunday Telegraph, p. 4.

In 2004, the Church of England issued a policy statement called
"Protecting All God's Children," that endorses the book The Courage to
Heal. This book has been a negative influence in thousands of families
and epitomizes the misguided thinking of the recovered memory
movement. It encourages "survivors" to engage in "pleasurable
fantasies of murder and castration against those who have hurt them so
terrible." Thus it seems a particularly odd choice for a religious
organization. According to LeFanu, there is a strong Church of England
involvement in a therapy group that promotes the "theory that people
develop multiple personalities in response to 'repeated and
overwhelming childhood trauma.'"

/                                                                    \
| "The passage of time is not the only factor that dulls memory.     |
| People with psychological problems tend to change recollections.   |
| Individuals who want to present a certain image or story of the    |
| past tend to alter the picture of what they truly believe          |
| happened. Those who hear stories from others tend to incorporate   |
| them into their own remembrances. When memories don't seem to make |
| sense, our minds sometimes reform them so that they do make sense. |
|                                                                    |
| "The most accurate story is probably the one expressed very soon   |
| after the event occurred, especially if it is supported by written |
| reports made at the time of the incident. Memories of the distant  |
| past, without supporting evidence, should be viewed as highly      |
| unreliable fabrications of the brain, almost akin to dreams. They  |
| aren't really worth arguing about."                                |
|                                                   Sam Graceffo, M. |
|                                             Syracuse New Times Net |
|                                      Retrieved on January 23, 2005 |
|           from |


The Legionairies of Christ, a conservative order, is teaching 100
priests how to recognize Satanism and perform exorcisms. The course,
taught at the Regina Apostolorum, one of Rome's top Vatican
universities, is starting at the same time as an Italian court case in
which eight people who are believed to belong to a Satanic sect have
been charged with three ritual killings. The accused are said to have
belonged to a heavy metal band called "Beasts of Satan."

According to news reports, Italian officials are worried about young
people who develop their own forms of Satanism and who are not
connected with the 650 satanic organizations in Italy that police
monitor. Authorities believe that the young people are learning about
Satanism from the internet.

Carlo Climati, one of the course teachers, said that the forces of law
and order were not enough to fight the new phenomenon. He said:
"Satanists are trying to confuse young people in order to create a
reverse society in which there are no morals, and good becomes evil
and evil good." [1]

According to Paolo Scafaroni, rector of the Regina Apostolorum, the
aim of the course is to prepare priests and seminarians "to
distinguish real cases of diabolic possession from mental problems so
they an be referred to exorcists." [2]

Luigi Maria, a priest attending the course, said that exorcists seek
to drive out demons through prayer rather than the incantations,
rites, and magic formulas of popular mythology. "It's sorcerers who do
that, not us," he said.

[1] Church opens courses to beat back the devil. (2005, February
    17). ANSA English Media Service. Retrieved on February 19, 2005.
[2] Catholic priests get training to deal with rise in satanism (2005,
    February 17). Agence France Presse -- English. Retrieved on
    February 19, 2005.

          The following is excerpted, with permission, from:

                          VICTIMS OF MEMORY:
                           Mark Pendergrast
       (640 pages, $24.95, Upper Access Books, Hinesburg, VT).
                 Copyright 1996, all rights reserved.

  The book can be ordered:, or 
  by calling 1-800-310-8320.

                        Chapter 3  pp. 119-149

         Facilitated Communication and the Human Ouija Board

That same combination -- yearning to save the helpless victim while
venturing near the cutting edge of an exciting new discipline -- has
resulted in the questionable practice of "facilitated communication,"
known familiarly as "FC," which purports to allow those afflicted with
autism and cerebral palsy to write their thoughts.

In 1989, Syracuse University education professor Douglas Biklen
brought the technique back from Australia, where it had been invented
by Rosemary Crossley. Not surprisingly, millions of parents latched
onto the hope provided by FC. In a few short years, it has become a

In this technique, a "facilitator," usually a special education
teacher, helps support the hand or arm of the autistic child. By
sensing where the hand wants to go, the facilitator can help guide the
finger to the appropriate letter on a keyboard. According to its
advocates, this method has, miraculously, allowed those formerly
locked in a silent world to communicate. Students who appeared to have
IQs hovering around retarded levels could suddenly write essays on
Shakespeare and learn calculus.

Unfortunately, carefully conducted, controlled experiments have shown
conclusively that FC is a fraud, even though it was presumably
advanced with honorable intentions.[37] It works only when the
facilitator knows the answer and can see the keyboard. When an
autistic child and a facilitator are shown different objects, the
facilitator invariably types what she has seen. If only the child is
shown an object, the correct answer is never forthcoming.* These
results have shocked and saddened many facilitators, who genuinely
believed in the process. Others, including Biklen, refuse to give up
on it, convinced that FC works only in non-stressful, non-experimental
conditions, with the proper established rapport, so it can never be
  Footnote: In the rare cases in which FC produces a correct word or
  phrase, all subjects could already read and write independent of

The flap over FC might simply be an alarming example of a human Ouija
board if false allegations of sexual abuse had not sprung from the
process.[38] In over 70 cases across North America, Europe, and
Australia, autistic children have typed out messages that are an exact
verbal analogue of the role enactments we've just seen in hypnotic age
regression. "Dad suk my prik," a typical example reads. "He give luv
to my butt." Douglas Biklen is largely responsible for such
allegations, because he warns his trainees to be on the lookout for
abuse. In his 1993 book, Communication Unbound, he writes that 10 out
of his initial 75 students -- i.e., 13 percent -- alleged sexual abuse
through FC.[39]

Biklen is mild, however, compared to some FC proponents, who have
written that "there is a better than 100 percent likelihood that a
disabled child will be molested before he or she is eighteen.
Facilitated Communication is confirming those statistics."[40] Primed
with such expectations, the facilitators suspect that the helpless,
non-communicative autistic child -- a perfect victim for abuse -- is
being molested at home.[41] And so the facilitated accusations pour
out. In some cases, autistic girls with intact hymens have supposedly
been subjected to hundreds of parental rapes. The impact of one such
facilitated message on a family's life is chronicled in Chapter 7.

The allegations generated by facilitated communication serve as a
metaphor for the repressed memory search. Although the facilitator may
not be consciously creating the accusations, the words are in fact
coming directly from the facilitator's mind, not the child's. In
similar fashion, therapists may have no idea that they are implanting
memories of abuse.

In every introductory psychology textbook, college freshmen can read
the story of Clever Hans, the ingenious horse. Using flash cards and
counting frames, his owner, one Herr von Osten, had taught Hans to
read, add, and subtract. By 1904, after four years of intensive
tutorials, the horse could answer questions put to him about
geography, history, science, literature, math, or current events. Hans
tapped his hoof a certain number of times for each letter, and he
tossed his head up and down for "yes" and from side to side for "no."
Herr von Osten was thoroughly convinced that his horse was a genius.
So were many eminent psychologists and zoologists, who walked away
from demonstrations as believers. After all, Hans answered questions
correctly even when his owner was nowhere near. The equable equine
even got the right answers when questions were asked in languages
other than his (presumably) native German. Only psychologist Oskar
Pfungst remained skeptical. Like researchers on facilitated
communication, he found that Hans could only answer correctly if the
questioner knew the answer. He eventually discovered that Hans could
not answer any question when he wore a blindfold. It turned out that
the horse was picking up subtle, inadvertent cues from his audience --
a raised eyebrow or glance upward when the proper number of hoof-taps
had been reached, a slight nod or shake of the head to indicate "yes"
or "no." Hans was indeed a gifted horse, but not in the way Herr von
Osten thought. So, too, are hypnotic subjects gifted -- with vivid
imaginations and the capacity to pick up on subtle, inadvertent cues.

                              Dream Work

Ever since Joseph saved Egypt by properly interpreting the Pharaoh's
dreams -- and probably long before that -- humans have sought deep
meanings from the strange stories they picture in their sleep. In our
dreams, anything is possible. We can fly, jump through time, read
other people's thoughts. Animals can talk, objects appear and
disappear quickly, one thing metamorphoses quickly into something
else. Sometimes our dreams are exciting, sexy, or soothing. Often,
they are bizarre and frightening. What are we to make of them?

No one really knows, not even the most renowned dream researchers who
shake people awake to ask what they're experiencing when their REM
(rapid eye movements) indicate that they are in an active dreaming
state. Allan Hobson, a Harvard psychiatrist and dream expert, believes
that dreams represent "creative confabulations." In his books, The
Dreaming Brain and The Chemistry of Conscious States, Hobson explores
how molecules such as amines control our waking consciousness, while
acetylcholine appears to dominate our dream state. We do not remember
our dreams (other than those we rehearse immediately upon awakening)
because the necessary amines aren't available. Our dreams do not
represent real-life events. Rather, the chemicals in our brains
apparently throw us into a dreaming state automatically every 90
minutes or so. "Every mental product (including dreams) is in some way
meaningful," Hobson wrote to me in 1995, "but meanings cannot be
confidently determined by either face-value reading or by complex

Such cautions have not prevented various dream interpreters, including
Freud, from asserting with great authority that dream ingredients
symbolize certain objects, emotions or events. For example, a
skyscraper represents a penis. In the second century, Artemidorus used
the same kind of logic. For him, a foot meant a slave, while a head
indicated a father. The kinky ancient Egyptians apparently dreamed
frequently of sexual congress with various animals. One papyrus
explained, "If an ass couples with her, she will be punished for a
great fault. If a he-goat couple with her, she will die promptly."[44]
Modern trauma therapists also use sexual dreams as a form of
interpretation. They tell their clients to be particularly aware of
any night visions that could be interpreted as sexual abuse. This is
called "dream work." Not too surprisingly, such dreams are often
forthcoming. "Oh, my God!" the woman reports in therapy. "It's all
true! In my dream last night, my Dad and uncle were taking turns
having sex with me. And I was just a little kid!" Such dreams are
taken as recovered memories and presumed to represent literal truth,
even though some events seem unlikely -- in one well -- publicized
case, for instance, a daughter recalled being raped by her mother, who
was equipped with a penis. [45]

But if these dreams don't necessarily stem from repressed memories of
actual events, where do they come from? From the same place that
spawns hypnotically guided fantasies -- the fertile and overwhelmed
imagination. Here is someone feverishly working on her memory
recovery, reading books describing horrible abuse, her life consumed
with the possibility that her father did something to her. As Calvin
Hall noted in The Meaning of Dreams, "It has been fairly well
established that some aspects of the dream are usually connected with
events of the previous day or immediate past." It is not surprising
that someone with an obsession about incest would dream about it. Hall
also warned that "dreams should never be read for the purpose of
constructing a picture of objective reality," but therapists and
patients eager for repressed memories ignore such advice. [46]

The role of expectation in all aspects of memory recovery is crucial.*
What we expect to see, we see, as Joseph Jastrow observed in his 1935
classic, Wish and Wisdom: "Everywhere, once committed by whatever
route, the prepossessed mind finds what it looks for."[47] Elizabeth
Loftus tells the true story of two bear hunters at dusk, walking along
a train in the woods. Tired and frustrated, they had seen no bear. As
they rounded a bend in the train, they spotted a large object about 25
yards away, shaking and grunting. Simultaneously, they raised their
rifles and fired. But the "bear" turned out to be a yellow tent with a
man and woman making love inside. The woman was killed. [48] As
psychologist Irving Kirsch notes, "response expectancy theory"
explains how "when we expect to feel anxious, relaxed, joyful, or
depressed, our expectations tend to produce those feelings."[49] At
its extreme, such a mindset can even lead to self-induced death, as
has been well-documented among tribes in which those under a powerful
curse fulfill it by wasting away and dying, unless some way to reverse
the curse can be found. [50]
  Footnote: Expectancy theory also explains so-called "automatic
  writing" about sex abuse. Women are told to keep journals and just
  write whatever comes to mind. Repressed memories are then supposed
  to pour out from the subconscious. Indeed, when dreadful scenes
  scribble themselves onto the page, they seem to come out of nowhere,
  but they are, in fact products of suggestion.

Similarly, when we expect to have a particular type of dream, we tend
to perform accordingly. As Jerome Frank notes in Persuasion and
Healing, patients routinely give their therapists the dreams they
want. "The dream the therapist hears is, of course, not necessarily
the one the patient dreamed," Frank explains, "since considerable time
has usually elapsed between the dream and its report. One study
compared dreams reported immediately upon awakening with the versions
unfolded before a psychiatrist in a subsequent interview. Any material
the patient anticipated would not be approved was not recalled."[51]
In his classic 1957 text, Battle for the Mind, psychiatrist William
Sargant described an acquaintance who had entered first Freudian, then
Jungian therapy. "His contemporary notes show that dreams he had under
Freudian treatment varied greatly from those he had under Jungian
treatment; and he denies having experienced the same dreams before or
since." Sargant concluded: "The increased suggestibility of the
patient may help the therapist not only to change his conscious
thinking, but even to direct his dream life."[52]

Therapist Renee Fredrickson certainly believes in such directives.
"You can also prime your dream pump, so to speak," she writes in
Repressed Memories. "Before you got to sleep at night, visualize
yourself as a little child . . . Then suggest that your inner child
show you in a dream what you need to know about the abuse." Nor does
the dream abuse have to be obvious. Fredrickson describes how Diane
reported a dream in which "she was on her hands and knees in a
kitchen, washing the floor. Floating in the air were green U-shaped
neon objects. Her father was standing next to a large mirror over the
sink, watching her." Eventually, Diane interpreted her dream as
follows: "My father raped me in the evenings when I was cleaning the
kitchen . . . He would make me crawl around naked while he watched in
the mirror. I also believe the green neon things are about a time he
put a cucumber in me."[53]

                           Sleep Paralysis

Another fascinating form of semi-dream, which typically occurs in the
twilight state between waking and sleeping, accounts for many
"repressed memories." The psychological term is either a "hypnogogic"
or "Hypnopompic" state, respectively referring to the time just before
sleep or prior to waking, but more commonly it is just called "sleep
paralysis." During this curious in-between semi-conscious state,
people often report chilling vision. *
  Footnote: Two interviews in this book-of Frieda Maybry in Chapter 6
  and Leslie Hannegan in Chapter 8-provide classic examples of sleep
  paralysis, as does the experience of A. G. Britton related at the
  end of Chapter 1.

Robert Baker describes the phenomenon: "First, the hallucinations
always occur [just] before or after falling asleep. Second, the
hallucinator is paralyzed or has difficulty moving . . . Finally, the
hallucinator is unalterable convinced of the reality of the entire
event." The vision's content is often related to the dreamer's current
concerns. In one study, as many as 67 percent of a normal sample
population reported at least one experience of sleep paralysis, with
its attendant hallucinations. [54] Many people experience sleep
paralysis during the day, particularly if they take afternoon naps.
Those with narcolepsy -- a relatively common disorder characterized by
brief involuntary periods of sleep during the day, with difficulties
resting at night -- are particularly prone to these frightening

The word "nightmare" actually stems from sleep paralysis. A "mare," or
demon, was supposed to terrorize people -- mostly women -- by sitting
on their breasts, making it difficult to breathe. Often, the mare was
an incubus or succubus who also forced the frightened sleeper into
sexual intercourse. The following is a 1763 description of the

The night mare generally seizes people sleeping on their backs, and
often begins with frightful dreams, which are soon succeeded by a
difficult respiration, a violent oppression on the breast, and a total
privation of voluntary motion. In this agony they sigh, groan, utter
indistinct sounds [until] they escape out of that dreadful torpid
state. As soon as they shake off the vast oppression, and are able to
move the body, they are affected by strong palpitation, great anxiety,
languor, and uneasiness. [55]

David Hufford has written an entire book about sleep paralysis, The
Terror That Comes in the Night. His 1973 interview with Caroline, a
young graduate student, sounds quite similar to the reports of many
"incest survivors." When Caroline woke up one day, she reports, "I
felt like there was a man next to me with his arm underneath my back,
and holding my left arm." His smell was quite distinct, "all sweaty
and kind of dusty." When she tried to move, he gripped her arm
tighter. "Now if I move again, he's going to rape me," she thought.
She tried to scream, but she could make no sound. "Then he was on top
of me, and I tried to look up to see who it was or something . . .. I
could just see this -- it looked like a white mask. Like a big white
mask." After several minutes of this horrible experience, Caroling
"felt sort of released, you know. And I -- I could sit up, and I got
the feeling there was nobody there."[56] In the 1990s, such
experiences are frequently interpreted as "flashbacks" or "body
memories," and women are encouraged to visualize a face to fill in the
blank mask.

Other "evidence" of repressed memories also relates to sleep -- or its
lack. In The Courage to Heal, Ellen Bass and Laura Davis quote one
typical woman's experience as she obsessed over possible repressed
memories: "I just lost it completely. I wasn't eating. I wasn't
sleeping."[57] Sleep deprivation is a well-established technique used
in brainwashing. As sleep expert Alexander Borbely writes, chronic
lack of sleep blurs the borderline between sleeping and waking, "so
that the kind of hallucinations that often occur at the moment of
falling asleep now begin to invade the waking state as well . . . the
floor appears to be covered with spider webs; faces appear and
disappear. Auditory illusions also occur." In addition, "when sleep
deprivation experiments last more than four days, delusions can
manifest themselves, in addition to the disturbances of perception.
The participants grow increasingly suspicious and begin to believe
that things are going on behind their backs."[58]

[37] Trace, Robert, "Research Findings;" Green, "Quality of the
     Evidence" in Facilitated Communication; Howard Shane interview;
     Gina Green interview; Green, "Facilitated Communication,"
[38] For background on Ouija boards, see Jastrow, Wish and Wisdom, 
[39] Biklen, Communication Unbound, p. 132.
[40] Haskew & Donnellan, Emotional Maturity, p. 31.
[41] "Prisoners of Silence," Frontline; Chideya, "Language of
[42] Gray, Psychology, p. 25-27; Jastrow, Wish and Wisdom, p. 203-213.
[43] Allan Hobson, personal communication, Oct. 12, 1995; Hobson,
     Dreaming Brain; Hobson, Chemistry of Conscious States,
     p. 114-115; Dolnick, "What Dreams."
[44] Borbely, Secrets of Sleep, p. 63-64.
[45] Shapiro, "Rush to Judgment."
[46] Hall, Meaning of Dreams, p. 14, 17.
[47] Jastrow, Wish and Wisdom, p. viii.
[48] Loftus, Witness, p. 22.
[49] Kirsch in Theories of Hypnosis, p. 439. See also Reed, Psychology
     of Anomalous, p. 41, 58-59.
[50] Frank, Persuasion, p. 52-54; Goodman, How About Demons? p. 89-94.
[51] Frank, Persuasion, p. 212; see also Ellenberger, Discovery,
     p. 306.
[52] Sargant, Battle, p. 59.
[53] Fredrickson, Repressed Memories, p. 134-137.
[54] Baker, They Call It..., p. 179-182; Hufford, Terror, p. 115-170;
     Reed, Psychology of Anomalous, p. 37-40.
[55] J. Bond, An Essay on the incubus or Nightmare, in Robbins, 
     Encyclopedia of Witchcraft, p. 356. 
[56] Hufford, Terror, p. 40-41; see also Barlow, Anxiety, p. 73,
[57] Bass, Courage, p. 65.
[58] Borbely, Secrets of Sleep, p. 156-157; see also "Sleep
     Disorders"; Hobson, Sleep.  


               Hidden Memories of Surgical Operations

"Though deeply disturbing, patients who are obviously traumatised are
at least tangible to psychologists -- the patients know what has
happened, and so understand the root of their problems. But some
psychologists are concerned about the effects of operations on another
group of people. They may have no recollection of the operation
whatsoever, yet buried deep in their minds is a memory that either
surfaces later, or causes psychological damage without them ever
knowing why.

"Suspicions that people might have hidden memories of operations were
first aroused in 1965, when Bernie Levinson, an anaesthetist working
in South Africa, decided to test whether patients remembered anything
that was said while under a general anaesthetic. During routine
operations, he staged a fake emergency, declaring, 'The patient's
turning blue.' Although none of his 10 patients remembered it
afterwards, under hypnosis, nearly all recalled what was said, and a
handful became immediately distressed."
                                                           Sample, I. 
                                                    2005, February 19 
                                         A scream that can't be heard.
                                         The Guardian (London), p. 16.

     |                      Garbled Memory                     |
     |          An answer on a recent Psychology exam.         |
     | "Piaget had a memory of being lost in a shopping mall." |

                   F R O M   O U R   R E A D E R S

                           A Happy New Life

The last time I contacted the Foundation it was to tell you that our
son had called -- after 7 years. He never did call back, and we gave
up hope of ever hearing from our children again. We moved several
times over the next half dozen years and finally settled into a lovely
new home near relatives.

The day after we moved into our new home, our daughter called -- after
fourteen years. She is the one who first got involved with a therapist
and started this whole mess. She said she called to tell us that she
was sorry we were alone and for the first thirty minutes she talked to
us in psychobabble. She has become a licensed family therapist and has
a thriving practice, but it was really hard to follow what she was
saying. I suspect that she was nervous. For the last 30 minutes, we
talked quite normally. She told us about her husband's new job and her
17 year old son's near fatal accident last summer. She said she
realized then that she would never give up on her son and wondered why
we had given up on them. (She seemed to forget that there were
restraining orders against us.)

She told us that she loved us and I reminded her that if she thought
those terrible things about us, there is no way she could love us. She
didn't indicate whether she still thought her original charges were
true. She even talked about coming to see us. At first I was thrilled
about that idea but after a few sleepless nights, I wondered if she
just wanted to come and ruin our lives again. It's awful to suspect
your own daughter, but we would never have believed that any of this
could have happened to our family.

She said that she would call us back, and I told her that her brother
had said that too. She said that she wasn't like him and that these
conversations would continue. I did talk with her a few days later and
suggested that she meet us in another city. She was unable to change
her schedule to do so.

A month later, I left a message on her answering machine reminiscing
about a past holiday event that we had shared. We have not heard from
her again. We are considering going to her city and try to see her.

We are happy in our new home. We have wonderful, supportive nieces and
nephews. Of course, their children are not our grandchildren, but we
are thankful for what do do have. We also have many happy memories and
we try to think about them rather than the sad ones.
                                                                 A Mom

                      No Hope of Reconciliation

It has been 13 years since we last had contact with our accusing
daughter and her family. My wife and I have long since given up any
hope of a reconciliation; instead, we have given our attention to the
rest of our loyal and loving family. We had almost decided --
reluctantly -- to stop supporting the FMS Foundation. Then the latest
newsletter arrived, reminding us of how much emotional and
intellectual comfort the Foundation has provided for so many years to
so many anguished parents. Keep up the work.
                                                                 A Dad
                           Before and After


Dear Mom and Dad,

I've been thinking about you this week. It's been a good week for me,
and I wish you could be here to share my joy, one of the reasons why I
was thinking about you. I really wish I was closer so we could talk
about things, plans and such, more often. I think of you as friends,
buddies. What would my Mom and Dad, my buddies think about this? They
would know; they would tell me the truth. Such things, such trust,
doesn't exist anywhere else. Love and wisdom in the same people.
                                                             Love "D"

                            After therapy:

To My Mom and Dad,

I have previously given you the opportunity to voluntarily obtain the 
counsel of a psychiatrist to become informed about my medical condition 
which is a result of your emotional abuse of me as a child. You have 
declined to do this voluntarily to date. As a result of your continued 
refusal to learn about my medical condition, let alone consider your 
responsibility for it, I have no choice but to inform you of the 
following actions I will have to take if you continue to decline seeking 
the medical counsel necessary to understand my medical condition. 1. I 
will file criminal charges against you both for emotional child abuse. 
2. I will file a civil suit against you for that same abuse.

                                                                 A Mom
			      Tiny Steps

The only advantage of having our daughters estranged is that we spent
no money on them. However, they are each starting to reconnect. They
are now seeing new therapists who are apparently not doing repressed
work. These therapists are interested in healing the family

The girls each say that they believe that they were sexually abused.
One has said she is ready to reconnect slowly and that she is willing
to forgive her father (who would like to know what he is being
forgiven for -- at least some day). We have contact through letters
only. It is a lot better than nothing, since we had not heard from her
for four years.

The other daughter has discussed the possibility of forgiveness, and
we have had joint therapy sessions with each other's therapists. We
talk regularly on the phone. This daughter had never cut me off
entirely. I was just furious with her because she started the whole
thing and got her younger sisters involved. I didn't want to talk to

The third daughter is still very much under the influence of her
repressed memory, hypnosis-using former therapist. However, we have
been in correspondence and a few months ago, I went to meet with her
and her therapist for two long sessions. (It was the first time I'd
seen her in 2 1/2 years, when I showed up unannounced on her
doorstep.) She would not see me outside of her therapist's office and
our sessions were scary because she is so very fragile emotionally. We
did end with her saying that she wanted to continue the process.

When the time came to continue, she said that she was too busy, and
she really did have a lot going on. We continue to correspond and
discuss the issues regarding the family. I have been seeing a
therapist who specialized in dealing with cases like ours. I have
learned a lot of the why of our girls getting involved in repressed
memory therapy, and I think I see what my husband's and my role in the
family dynamics has been. I know this reconciliation wouldn't be
happening without this doctor's help.

It has been painful and slow and the steps have been tiny. At least
there is communication where there was not.

Thank you for the work of the Foundation.
                                                                 A Mom

			 Retracting is a Step

Retractor: That was such a terrible time in so many ways. That's
probably when I was at the most risk of suicide. When I was in
therapy, I had my therapist and the group and the hospital to fall
back on. When I escaped, I didn't have any of that, but I still had
the awful feelings from therapy and a whole new set of awful feelings.

One thing I needed was an "advocate." I needed someone with
information about FMS who could explain it to me and help me
understand what happened, someone who could give me a clue as to what
the next year might be like. I needed someone with some suggestions as
to where to go next and what to do. I needed someone I could talk to
every day, if necessary, for a while. My friends and family needed
someone like that too. We went through two years of non-stop crises.

I got in contact with other retractors. I felt like a moron. I thought
that no one would ever understand how I had gotten into this. It was
important to me to know that other people had also gotten into this
mess and that they were not stupid or crazy or hopelessly

Another thing that would have been helpful is a packet of information.
I wanted objective information, but I also wanted both points of view
on this whole issue. I had been warned about FMS long before I knew it
applied to me. My therapist did not want anyone tampering with one of
his little gold mines. It would have been good for me to have Ofshe
and Loftus side-by-side with Ross and Braun. It would have reinforced
the fact that I'm reasonably bright person capable of logical thought
and I wouldn't feel that I was being brainwashed by anyone.

When I first left, I was really angry. I realized that I had basically
ruined my life as I knew it. I could tell that it was not going to be
easy to put it back together and I was very unhappy about it. I was
also lonely, having been excommunicated from a system I had relied on
completely for two years.

Now I'm mostly frustrated and feel guilty, but, thankfully, I have
regained my long-lost sense of humor. Survivors and recovered memory
therapists are often devoid of humor. That's sad.

What I need now is a good therapist, but I'm completely
therapy-phobic. It would help to have a counselor who knows and
understand the issues. I don't want to have to train and educate
someone. I don't have the strength to try to explain why a little over
a year ago I was hospitalized with MPD and I hated my parents and now
that has all changed. It's so complicated.

I like having contact with other retractors. It's important because we
all need to know that there is a future and retractors can get on with
their lives. Although I think it is a loss, one of the most inspiring
things I ever read was that Melody is not doing the Retractor
newsletter because she wants to get on with her life. That told me
that this was not like being a survivor. Retracting was not an
identity, it is merely a stopping point on the road to getting a life
                                                     A Retractor, 1994

			     Nobody Wins

Two years ago I knew nothing of the new psychotherapy that has eaten
its way into the helping profession in the guise of respectability. It
has been a very painful two years, and I know that my daughter is
deeply and painfully disappointed in me for not supporting her claims
of having repressed memories of a rape 43 years ago. She has not found
the peace and happiness she proclaims, and after 5 years she is still
with the same therapist. Nobody wins. At least nobody but some
therapists who have become richer.

/                                                                    \
|                        It's Still Happening                        |
|                                                                    |
| "On last Tuesday night's episode of NCIS, a murder was solved when |
| one of the NCIS staff submitted to hypnosis with a recovered       |
| memory therapist and remembered that the perpetrator wore his      |
| watch on his right hand. All of which was impressive to the        |
| usually skeptical Gibbs."                                          |
|                                                       Morfit, S.H. |
|                                                  2005, February 20 |
|                                     Personal e-mail correspondence |

*                           N O T I C E S                            *
*                                                                    *
*                      WEB  SITES  OF  INTEREST                      *
*                                                                    *
*                         *
*            The Lampinen Lab False Memory Reading Group             *
*                       University of Arkansas                       *
*                                                                    *
*                              *
*                  The Exploratorium Memory Exhibit                  *
*                                                                    *
*                                      *
*                   Hartford Courant memory series                   *
*                                                                    *
*                                       *
*                     The Memory Debate Archives                     *
*                                                                    *
*                                         *
*                      French language website                       *
*                                                                    *
*                                    *
*               Contains phone numbers of professional               *
*                 regulatory boards in all 50 states                 *
*                                                                    *
*                                       *
*                   Illinois-Wisconsin FMS Society                   *
*                                                                    *
*                                   *
*                             Ohio Group                             *
*                                                                    *
*                                           *
*                Australian False Memory Association.                *
*                                                                    *
*                                           *
*                    British False Memory Society                    *
*                                                                    *
*                               *
*            This site is run by Laura Pasley (retractor)            *
*                                                                    *
*                         *
*                            Upton Books                             *
*                                                                    *
*                   *
*                       Locate books about FMS                       *
*                     Recovered Memory Bookstore                     *
*                                                                    *
*                        *
*               Information about Satanic Ritual Abuse               *
*                                                                    *
*                                      *
*                   Parents Against Cruel Therapy                    *
*                                                                    *
*                               *
*                       New Zealand FMS Group                        *
*                                                                    *
*                                       *
*                       Netherlands FMS Group                        *
*                                                                    *
*                                   *
*           National Child Abuse Defense & Resource Center       *
*                                                                    *
*                                  *
*                  Excerpts from Victims of Memory.                  *
*                                                                    *
*                          *
*                         Ross Institute                             *
*                                                                    *
*         *
*             Perspectives for Psychiatry by Paul McHugh             *
*                                                                    *
*                                *
*                 FMS in Scandinavia - Janet Hagbom                  *
*                                                                    *
*                                              *
*                National Center for Reason & Justice            *
*                                                                    *
*                                      *
*          Skeptical Information on Theophostic Counseling           *
*                                                                    *
*                                  *
*           English language web site of Dutch retractor.            *
*                                                                    *
*                                        *
*             This site is run by Stephen Barrett, M.D.              *
*                                                                    *
*                                        *
*                  False Memory Syndrome Foundation                  *
*                                                                    *
*                     LEGAL WEBSITES OF INTEREST                     *
*                                        *
*                                           *
*                                       *
*                                           *
*                                      *
*                                                                    *
*                        HUNGRY FOR MONSTERS                         *
*                       A documentary film by                        *
*                        George Paul Csicsery                        *
*                                                                    *
* When 15-year-old Nicole Althaus told a teacher that her father was *
* molesting her, the quiet affluent Pittsburgh suburb of Mt.         *
* Lebanon, Pennsylvania, was turned inside out. Nicole's father,     *
* Rick, was arrested and charged with sexually abusing Nicole amidst *
* bizarre satanic rituals.  With the support of her favorite         *
* teacher, police, therapists, social workers, and officers of the   *
* court, all of whom believed her stories, Nicole began to embellish *
* her initial accusations. As she recovered more memories of wild    *
* orgies, sacrificed babies, and murder, more people were arrested,  *
* including her mother and a pair of strangers.                      *
*                                                                    *
* A year later, all charges were dropped, and Nicole admitted that   *
* her accusations were false. After Nicole and her parents           *
* reconciled, they sued the authorities. This time, Nicole claimed   *
* she was the victim of abuse perpetrated by the very people who had *
* supported her allegations against her parents.                     *
*                                                                    *
*                        Ordering Information                        *
*                                                                    *
* The introductory VHS price is $195.00 to universities/libraries/   *
* institutions and $39.00 to individuals for home use. Add $5.00 for *
* shipping.                                                          *
*                          George Csicsery                           *
*                          P.O. Box 22833,                           *
*                      Oakland, CA 94609-9284.                       *
*                         Fax 510-429-9273.                          *
*                                     *
*                                                                    *
*                       REMEMBERING TRAUMA                           *
*                       by Richard McNally                           *
*                    Harvard University Press                        *
* The most comprehensive review of research about trauma and memory  *
*                                                                    *
*                       Highly recommended                           *
*                                                                    *
*           ELIZABETH LOFTUS has moved her web site to:              *
*           UCI web:               *
*                                                                    *
*                         PSYCHOLOGY ASTRAY:                         *
*  Fallacies in Studies of "Repressed Memory" and Childhood Trauma   *
*                   by Harrison G. Pope, Jr., M.D.                   *
*                            Upton Books                             *
*                                                                    *
* This is an indispensable guide for any person who wants or needs   *
* to understand the research claims about recovered memories. A      *
* review by Stuart Sutherland in the prestigious Nature magazine     *
* (July 17, 1997) says that the book is a "model of clear thinking   *
* and clear exposition." The book is an outgrowth of the "Focus on   *
* Science" columns that have appeared in this newsletter.            *
*                      To Order:  800-232-7477                       *
*                                                                    *
*                                                                    *
*         S. O. Lilienfeld, S.J. Lynn and  J.M. Lohr (eds.)          *
*                  New York: Guilford Press (2003)                   *
*                                                                    *
*                         Highly recommended                         *
*                                                                    *
*            The Rutherford Family Speaks to FMS Families            *
*                                                                    *
* The video made by the Rutherford family is the most popular video  *
* of FMSF families. It covers the complete story from accusation, to *
* retraction and reconciliation. Family members describe the things  *
* they did to cope and to help reunite. Of particular interest are   *
* Beth Rutherford's comments about what her family did that helped   *
* her to retract and return.                                         *
*                   Available in DVD format only:                    *
*                      To order send request to                      *
*                    FMSF Video, 1955 Locust St.                     *
*                      Philadelphia, PA  19103                       *
*    $10.00 per DVD; Canada add $4.00; other countries add $10.00    *
*               Make checks payable to FMS Foundation                *
*                                                                    *
                F M S    B U L L E T I N    B O A R D

Contacts & Meetings:

  See Georgia
  Kathleen 907-333-5248
        Pat 480-396-9420
  Little Rock
        Al & Lela 870-363-4368
        Jocelyn 530-873-0919
  San Francisco & North Bay 
        Charles 415-984-6626 (am); 415-435-9618 (pm)
  San Francisco & South Bay
        Eric 408-738-0469
  East Bay Area
        Judy 925-952-4853
  Central Coast
        Carole 805-967-8058
  Palm Desert
        Eileen and Jerry 909-659-9636
  Central Orange County - 1st Fri. (MO) @ 7pm
        Chris & Alan 949-733-2925
  Covina Area 
        Floyd & Libby 626-357-2750
  San Diego Area 
        Dee 760-439-4630
  Colorado Springs
        Doris 719-488-9738
  S. New England
        Earl 203-329-8365 or
        Paul 203-458-9173
        Madeline 954-966-4FMS
  Central Florida - Please call for mtg. time
        John & Nancy 352-750-5446
        Francis & Sally 941-342-8310
  Tampa Bay Area
        Bob & Janet 727-856-7091
        Wallie & Jill 770-971-8917
  Chicago & Suburbs - 1st Sun. (MO)
        Eileen 847-985-7693 or
        Liz & Roger 847-827-1056
        Bryant & Lynn 309-674-2767
  Indiana Assn. for Responsible Mental Health Practices
        Pat 260-489-9987
        Helen 574-753-2779
  Wichita - Meeting as called
        Pat 785-738-4840
  Louisville- Last Sun. (MO) @ 2pm
        Bob 502-367-1838
        Sarah 337-235-7656
        Carolyn 207-364-8891
        Wally & Boby 207-878-9812
   Andover - 2nd Sun. (MO) @ 1pm
        Frank 978-263-9795
  Grand Rapids Area-Jenison - 1st Mon. (MO)
        Bill & Marge 616-383-0382
  Greater Detroit Area
        Nancy 248-642-8077
  Ann Arbor
        Martha 734-439-4055
        Terry & Collette 507-642-3630
        Dan & Joan 651-631-2247
  Kansas City  -  Meeting as called
        Pat 785-738-4840
  St. Louis Area  -  call for meeting time
        Karen 314-432-8789
  Springfield - Quarterly, 4th Sat. of 
        Jan., Apr., Jul., Oct. @12:30pm
        Tom 417-753-4878
        Roxie 417-781-2058
  Lee & Avone 406-443-3189
  Mark 802-872-0847
        Sally 609-927-5343
        Nancy 973-729-1433 
  Albuquerque  -2nd Sat. (bi-MO) @1 pm
  Southwest Room - Presbyterian Hospital
        Maggie 505-662-7521 (after 6:30 pm)
        Sy 505-758-0726
  Westchester, Rockland, etc.
        Barbara 914-761-3627
  Upstate/Albany Area
        Elaine 518-399-5749
  Susan 704-538-7202
        Bob & Carole 440-356-4544
  Oklahoma City
        Dee 405-942-0531
        Jim 918-582-7363
  Portland area
        Kathy 503-655-1587
        Paul & Betty 717-691-7660
        Rick & Renee 412-563-5509
        John 717-278-2040
  Wayne (includes S. NJ) - 2nd Sat. (MO)
        Jim & Jo 610-783-0396
  Nashville - Wed. (MO) @1pm
        Kate 615-665-1160
        Jo or Beverly 713-464-8970
   El Paso
        Mary Lou 915-595-3945
        Keith 801-467-0669
        Mark 802-872-0847
        Sue 703-273-2343
        Kathy 503-557-7118
        Katie & Leo 414-476-0285 or
        Susanne & John 608-427-3686
        Alan & Lorinda 307-322-4170

  Vancouver & Mainland 
        Lloyd 250-741-8941
  Victoria & Vancouver Island
        John 250-721-3219
        Roma 204-275-5723
        Adriaan 519-471-6338
        Eileen 613-836-3294
        Ethel 705-924-2546
        Ken & Marina 905-637-6030
        Paula 705-543-0318
        Mavis 450-882-1480
  FMS ASSOCIATION fax 972-2-625-9282 
        Colleen 09-416-7443
        Ake Moller FAX 48-431-217-90
  The British False Memory Society
        Madeline 44-1225 868-682

           Deadline for the May/June Newsletter is April 15
                  Meeting notices MUST be in writing
    And should be sent no later than TWO MONTHS PRIOR TO MEETING.

|          Do you have access to e-mail?  Send a message to          |
|                                         |
| if  you wish to receive electronic versions of this newsletter and |
| notices of radio and television  broadcasts  about  FMS.  All  the |
| message need say is "add to the FMS-News". It would be useful, but |
| not necessary,  if you add your full name (all addresses and names |
| will remain strictly confidential).                                |
  The False Memory Syndrome Foundation is a qualified 501(c)3 corpora-
tion  with  its  principal offices in Philadelphia and governed by its
Board of Directors.  While it encourages participation by its  members
in  its  activities,  it must be understood that the Foundation has no
affiliates and that no other organization or person is  authorized  to
speak for the Foundation without the prior written approval of the Ex-
ecutive Director. All membership dues and contributions to the Founda-
tion must be forwarded to the Foundation for its disposition.

PAMELA FREYD, Ph.D.,  Executive Director

FMSF Scientific and Professional Advisory Board,      

AARON T. BECK, M.D., D.M.S., U of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA;
TERENCE W. CAMPBELL, Ph.D., Clinical and Forensic Psychology, 
    Sterling Heights, MI;
ROSALIND CARTWRIGHT, Ph.D., Rush Presbyterian St. Luke's Medical
    Center, Chicago, IL;
JEAN CHAPMAN, Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI;
LOREN CHAPMAN, Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI;
FREDERICK C. CREWS, Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley, CA;
ROBYN M. DAWES, Ph.D., Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA;
DAVID F. DINGES, Ph.D., University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA;
HENRY C. ELLIS, Ph.D., University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM;
FRED H. FRANKEL, MBChB, DPM, Harvard University Medical School;
GEORGE K. GANAWAY, M.D., Emory University of Medicine, Atlanta, GA;
MARTIN GARDNER, Author, Hendersonville, NC;
ROCHEL GELMAN, Ph.D., Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ;
HENRY GLEITMAN, Ph.D., University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA;
LILA GLEITMAN, Ph.D., University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA;
RICHARD GREEN, M.D., J.D., Charing Cross Hospital, London;
DAVID A. HALPERIN, M.D., (deceased) Mount Sinai School of Medicine, 
    New York, NY;
ERNEST HILGARD, Ph.D., (deceased) Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA;
JOHN HOCHMAN, M.D., UCLA Medical School, Los Angeles, CA;
DAVID S. HOLMES, Ph.D., University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS;
PHILIP S. HOLZMAN, Ph.D., (deceased) Harvard University, Cambridge, MA;
ROBERT A. KARLIN, Ph.D. , Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ;
HAROLD LIEF, M.D., University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA;
ELIZABETH LOFTUS, Ph.D., University of California, Irvine, CA;
SUSAN L. McELROY, M.D., University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH;
PAUL McHUGH, M.D., Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD;
HAROLD MERSKEY, D.M., University of Western Ontario, London, Canada;
ULRIC NEISSER, Ph.D., Cornell University, Ithaca, NY;
RICHARD OFSHE, Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley, CA;
EMILY CAROTA ORNE, B.A., University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA;
MARTIN ORNE, M.D., Ph.D., (deceased) U of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia
LOREN PANKRATZ, Ph.D., Oregon Health Sciences Univ., Portland, OR;
CAMPBELL PERRY, Ph.D., (deceased) Concordia University, Montreal, Canada;
MICHAEL A. PERSINGER, Ph.D., Laurentian University, Ontario, Canada;
AUGUST T. PIPER, Jr., M.D., Seattle, WA;
HARRISON POPE, Jr., M.D., Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA;
JAMES RANDI, Author and Magician, Plantation, FL;
HENRY L. ROEDIGER, III, Ph.D. ,Washington University, St. Louis, MO;
CAROLYN SAARI, Ph.D., Loyola University, Chicago, IL;
THEODORE SARBIN, Ph.D., University of California, Santa Cruz, CA;
THOMAS A. SEBEOK, Ph.D., (deceased) U of Indiana, Bloomington, IN;
MICHAEL A. SIMPSON, M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., M.R.C, D.O.M., Center for
    Psychosocial & Traumatic Stress, Pretoria, South Africa;
MARGARET SINGER, Ph.D., {deceased) University of California, Berkeley,
RALPH SLOVENKO, J.D., Ph.D., Wayne State University Law School,
    Detroit, MI;
DONALD SPENCE, Ph.D., Robert Wood Johnson Medical Ctr, Piscataway, NJ;
JEFFREY VICTOR, Ph.D., Jamestown Community College, Jamestown, NY;
HOLLIDA WAKEFIELD, M.A., Institute of Psychological Therapies, 
    Northfield, MN;
CHARLES A. WEAVER, III, Ph.D. Baylor University, Waco, TX

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