FMSF NEWSLETTER ARCHIVE - November/December 2000 - Vol. 9, No. 5, HTML version


Return to FMSF Home Page

**********************************************************************
F M S   F O U N D A T I O N   N E W S L E T T E R     (e-mail edition)
November/December 2000  Vol. 9 No. 6
**********************************************************************
ISSN #1069-0484.           Copyright (c) 2000  by  the  FMS Foundation
**********************************************************************
    The FMSF Newsletter  is published 6 times a year by the  False
    Memory  Syndrome  Foundation.  A hard-copy subscription is in-
    cluded in membership fees (to join, see last page). Others may
    subscribe  by  sending  a  check  or  money  order, payable to 
    FMS Foundation, to the address below. 2000 subscription rates:
    USA:  $30,  Student  $15;  Canada:  $35,  Student $20 (in U.S. 
    dollars); Foreign: $40, Student  $20; Single issue price:  $3. 
           1955 Locust Street, Philadelphia, PA 19103-5766
                 Phone 215-940-1040, Fax 215-940-1042
**********************************************************************
IN THIS ISSUE:
  Feld                                     The next issue
    Legal Corner                          will be combined
      Dawes                               January/February
        From Our Readers 
          Bulletin Board 
**********************************************************************

Dear Friends,

"I want to thank you for your loving support of my father during my
years of being mesmerized by false recovered memories. I believe it
was your understanding and education that has enabled my father to
allow me back."
    The welcome words of thanks above are sent to all of you, FMSF
families and friends, from a retractor who is in the process of
reuniting with her family. The help and understanding that Newsletter
readers have given to each other has made it possible for people to
keep their hearts open and to welcome their children back with
love. That is what the FMS Foundation has worked for.
    We wish that all families were now reconciled. Unfortunately, that
is not the case. The letters from readers this month show the great
diversity of experience with the FMS phenomenon. Indeed, we just put
down the telephone after talking to a brother who is concerned because
his sister is currently deteriorating under the "care" of a therapist
who is encouraging her to recovered more and more "memories" of
childhood abuse. The brother is especially worried about his sister's
young children. It seems unbelievable that anyone would still be
practicing recovered memory nonsense, but the reality is the practice
has not died out. A big difference, however, between the time when the
Foundation began and now is that it was another therapist who told the
brother to contact the Foundation for information. In the year 2000,
he will be able to educate himself and the rest of his family quickly.
    This past month, one family wrote to ask the Foundation to respond
to a newspaper column recommending the book The Courage to Heal by
Ellen Bass and Laura Davis and another family wrote with concern about
seeing that same book on a recommended reading list for a mental
health group. A huge difference from 1992, is that those who
recommended the book now responded immediately to our letters
apologizing that they had not read it. (They had also probably not
read about the many lawsuits in which therapists are being held
accountable for recommending The Courage to Heal. The legal section of
this newsletter contains yet another such suit.)
    The contrast between what is now known about false memories or
suggestive therapy and what is still being practiced in some therapy
rooms and in some courtrooms is astounding. You may note that contrast
as you read this issue. Compare the high level of scientific
understanding of false memories in the research reports with the
recovered memory jargon used by the Florida Supreme Court. They seem
from different planets.
    The problems caused by suggestive therapy and scientifically
ignorant legal decisions are still with us. But now we have tools that
we can all use in an ongoing effort to educate the public and
professions about the constructive nature of memory. Following is a
list of just some of the articles/tools mentioned in this newsletter
in the past year:

  Dinwiddie, S. et al. "Early Sexual Abuse and Lifetime
  Psychopathology: A Co-Twin-Control Study" Psychological Medicine,
  30, 2000.

  Garven, S. et al. "The Role of Suggestive Questions, Social
  Influence, Reinforcement, and Removal in Creating Adult False
  Memories."J Applied Psychology 33, 1998.

  Gourevitch, P. "The Memory Thief" New Yorker , 6/14/99. Moss, M.
  "The Story Behind a Soldier's Story." New York Times 5/31/00.

  Melchert, T., "Relations among childhood memory, a history of abuse,
  dissociation, and repression." J of Interpersonal Violence,
  November, 1999.

  Nader, K., Schafe, G. and LeDoux, J. "Fear memories require protein
  synthesis in the amygdala for reconsolidation after retrieval"
  Nature, August 17, 2000.

  Offer, D., et al. "The Altering of Reported Experiences"J. Am
  Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 39(6) June 2000,

  Stein et al. "Memory Functioning in Adult Women Traumatized by
  Childhood Sexual Abuse" J of Traumatic Stress 12 (3) 1999.

    To this list can be added a recent Ann Landers column in which she
thanked a reader who sent in a letter about the problems of recovered
memory therapy. Landers wrote "Thanks for another opportunity to
unmask those charlatans who destroy families." There are plenty of
tools available now. But they are useless unless we all use them
whenever they are needed. Ann Landers responded because Lloyd took the
time to write to her.
    The good news is that the FMS problem continues to decrease while
society continues to increase its understanding of how false memories
may happen. The reality is that we need to continue to work together
to keep that forward momentum in scientific understanding of memory
and to make sure that we do not slip back. We need to continue to work
together to keep our hearts open so that as the climate changes, we
can welcome back the rest of our sons and daughters just as the person
whose words opened this column was welcomed back.
    To do this we need to ask for your help again. You will soon be
receiving a letter from our Fund Raising Chairmen, Lee Arning and
Charles Caviness asking you to make a donation. They explain what we
expect to accomplish with those funds to maintain the gains that have
been made and to continue to respond to those in need, while reducing
both the size of the Foundation and future funding needs.
    The Foundation asks for your help just once each year. Please help
us to finish our job.
    We wish you Happy Holidays.
                                                                PAMELA

**********************************************************************

                     PLEASE NOTE OUT NEW ADDRESS:
                          1955 Locust Street
                     Philadelphia, PA  19103-5766

                        AND NEW PHONE NUMBERS
                          215-940-1040 phone
                           215-940-1042 fax

**********************************************************************
                         FMSF Website Update

In the last newsletter we mentioned that the web site was getting an
average of three hundred "hits" a day. Our webmaster remarks, "Three
hundred was a rough estimate. The site logs for July and August show
that we actually averaged just over 480 hits daily. As the majority of
these were from web proxy hosts, the average number of readers per
logged hit will have been greater than one. How much greater is
uncertain."

        +----------------------------------------------------+
        |                   SPECIAL THANKS                   |
        |                                                    |
        |   We extend a very special `Thank you' to all of   |
        |  the people who help prepare the FMSF Newsletter.  |  
        |                                                    |
        |  EDITORIAL SUPPORT: Toby Feld, Allen Feld, Janet   |
        |           Fetkewicz, Howard Fishman, Peter Freyd   |
        |  COLUMNISTS: August Piper, Jr. and members         |
        |           of the FMSF Scientific Advisory Board    |
        |  LETTERS and INFORMATION: Our Readers              |
        +----------------------------------------------------+

**********************************************************************
                              CORRECTION

In a description of David McLoughlin's article from The [Australian]
Dominion, August 5, 2000, entitled "Academics in sex abuse row," we
miscredited the following words: "Elizabeth Loftus has shown that
memory is fallible, which is useful, but it's gone beyond that. She
argues long-term memory is fallible. That's not true. Adult memories
of childhood are quite robust."
    The speaker was "One of Dr Read's supporters, Wellington clinical
psychologist and Victoria University lecturer Judith McDougall."
    Our " Editor's Comment" should therefore have been: "McDougall
could benefit from reading `Altering of Reported Experience' by Offer
et al. The scientific evidence points strongly to the unreliability
of long-term memory.'"

 ______________________________SIDEBAR_______________________________
/                                                                    \
|             Why would someone stay in bizarre therapy?             |
|                                                                    |
|  A former patient explained what she said to herself at the time:  |
|                                                                    |
| "`I will try 200 percent to do anything to feel differently than I |
| do. If I have to stand naked in a corner on my head every day, I   |
| will do it.' That's how badly I wanted to get better."             |
|                                                                    |
| Shankar Vedantam, "Suits allege psychiatrist's sexual betrayal,"   |
| Philadelphia Inquirer, Sept. 7, 2000.                              |
\____________________________________________________________________/

**********************************************************************
  UNDERSTANDING PERSONS WHO REPUDIATE MEMORIES RECOVERED IN THERAPY
                             J. de Rivera
    Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 31 (4) 378-386

The author proposes three possible explanations for what had occurred
to people who repudiated "memories" of sexual abuse recovered in
psychotherapy. These are: mind control, the most extreme sort of
social influence; self-narrative, the idea that all persons use
narratives to construct their identity; and role-enactment, that
focuses on how persons may find themselves playing a role that was
expected of them.
    Fifty-six respondents completed questionnaires sent to 159 persons
(35%). The majority endorsed a mind-control model and a substantial
minority endorsed the other models. The processes endorsed were
consistent with retrospective descriptions of therapy.
    See FMSF Newsletter 6 (1), May, 1997 for more information about
this study.

 ______________________________SIDEBAR_______________________________
/                                                                    \
| The condition of psychiatry today can be compared to that of       |
| Russia after the fall of communism. Like Russia after Marxism,     |
| psychiatry after Freudianism has lost its once dominant doctrine.  |
| Like that vast nation attempting to operate under a rudimentary    |
| capitalism, psychiatry now labors under the sway of a classifica-  |
| tory system, the Diagnostic and Statistic Manual of Mental         |
| Disorders (DSM-IV), so crude as to foster inept educational        |
| programs and clumsy clinical practices.                            |
|                                                                    |
| Just as Russia searches for a structure to replace communism, so   |
| psychiatry, with Freudianism in ruins, struggles to find a         |
| coherent concept of the mental disorders and the best way to treat |
| them.                                                              |
|                                                  Paul McHugh, M.D. |
|         Phipps Professor of Psychiatry and Chair of the Department |
|                                           Johns Hopkins University |
|                                 The Weekly Standard, July 17, 2000 |
\____________________________________________________________________/

**********************************************************************
  COGNITIVE PROCESSING OF TRAUMA CUES IN ADULTS REPORTING REPRESSED,
     RECOVERED, OR CONTINUOUS MEMORIES OF CHILDHOOD SEXUAL ABUSE
    R. McNally, S. Clancy, D. Schacter and R. Pitman, J of Abnorm.
                     Psychology 109 (3) 355-359.

This study attempts to illuminate the issue of the reality of
repressed and recovered memories of sexual abuse by providing data on
cognitive processing of trauma cues in four groups of people: (a)
women who believe that they were sexually abused as children but who
have no explicit autobiographical memory of it, (b) women who report
having recovered memories of CSA, (c) women who report never having
forgotten their CSA, and (d) women who report never having been
abused.
    These people were all presented with words written in different
colors and asked to name the colors of words. The words varied in
emotional significance. The researchers predicted that people who have
repressed their memories of CSA should show greater interference for
trauma-related words in this "Stroop task" than people who had never
been abused. (It has already been shown that psychologically disturbed
survivors take longer to name the colors of words related to their
trauma than to name the colors of more neutral words.)
    Although the women who believed they had repressed memories of
abuse scored significantly higher than women who were never abused,
they did not have a higher interference on the Stroop task. The
authors note that "Their attribution of their symptoms to repressed
memories of CSA may represent an `effort after meaning' -- an attempt
to explain one's otherwise inexplicable unhappiness."

 ______________________________SIDEBAR_______________________________
/                                                                    \
|              Adult Personality and  Early Experience               |
|      Jerome Kagan, Harvard Mental Health Letter, October 2000      |
|                                                                    |
| "Few issues in human development are more controversial than the   |
| influence of early experience on later intellectual and emotional  |
| characteristics...{T]he experiences of the first three to five     |
| years do not affect all psychological qualities equally...the      |
| relation between early experience and later outcome is not         |
| linear..."                                                         |
|                                                                    |
| "Why does the idea of infant determinism persist? The main reason  |
| may be that it appeals to our moral values...Most Americans        |
| believe that a mother's care for her infant is inherently better   |
| than care by any other adult. They are also convinced that         |
| experience etches permanent physical changes in an infant's        |
| brain...Another reason... is an unwillingness to admit the power   |
| of social class, which is the best predictor of a child's academic |
| achievement, vocation, and psychiatric health.  Americans want to  |
| believe that their society is open and egalitarian, without rigid  |
| class boundaries. To acknowledge the importance of social class    |
| would be to question that premise. Finally the doctrine of infant  |
| determinism minimizes the role of luck in adult life, an idea that |
| Americans also find agreeable.                                     |
|                                                                    |
| "I am not suggesting that the first three years have no influence  |
| at all -- only that a fearful, quiet three-year-old who has been   |
| living in an uncertain environment can change for the better in a  |
| different environment, while a laughing, happy, intelligent        |
| three-year-old is not protected from distress if life turns        |
| harsh. The capacity for change is essential to human development.  |
| Although the experiences of the early years may start a child in a |
| particular direction, that path will eventually intersect with     |
| many others, offering new directions for a life to take."          |
\____________________________________________________________________/

**********************************************************************
                   DOES OUR PAST DECIDE OUR FUTURE?
    "The Primacy of Early Experience: A Critique, an Alternative,
                   and Some Clinical Inclinations,"
       J. Paris,  J of Psychiatric Practice 2000, May, 147-152.
                        Comments by Allen Feld

Joel Paris is persuasive when he writes that children are resilient.
While recognizing the horrendous things that happen to some children,
he differs from many of his colleagues by pointing out that horrific
experiences do not automatically sentence children to severe
psychopathology in their adult years. Scientific evidence and
impressive literature citations are used to substantiate his
conclusions.
    I felt a sense of optimism as I read his article. I was delighted
by Paris' positive portrayal of people's strength and felt that he
described a similar capacity that I've witnessed in falsely accused
parents. His conclusions fundamentally contradict the basic principles
of recovered memory therapy.
    Paris challenges beliefs held by far too many therapists and,
perhaps, the public at large. Books, cinema, soaps and made-for-TV
movies have often featured stories about people with pathology
purportedly created by trauma. Paris questions this erroneous thinking
by taking the scientifically sound but unpopular and "politically
incorrect" position that abuse does not necessarily cause
pathology. Simply but factually stated, THERE IS NO SCIENTIFIC BASIS
FOR A CAUSE-AND-EFFECT RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CHILDHOOD ABUSE AND ADULT
PSYCHOPATHOLOGY.
    It is not unusual to hear professionals claim a cause-and-effect
relationship when they are actually referring to situations that may
be at best associated. Dr. Harrison Pope[1] offers a concise
discussion describing the difference. For example, we would find an
association between alcohol consumption and lung cancer, but this is
not a causal relationship. Alcohol does not cause lung cancer, but
people who drink alcohol typically smoke more cigarettes, and we know
that cigarette smoking causes lung cancer [1]. I believe it is pure
conjecture when a therapist assigns the cause of contemporary
psychological difficulties to past events. It may be so; it may not.
    Additionally and probably of greater importance, I remain
unconvinced that it is necessary to find the historical cause of a
psychological problem to help someone. Historical accuracy is
difficult to establish and requires corroboration. Even if
corroboration is available, I'm not aware of research demonstrating
that knowing the historical cause of a person's current psychological
problems is a prerequisite for helping that person. I'm also not aware
of any research that shows positive outcomes from therapy that
requires exploring the past to deal with present troubling situations.
I would welcome receiving any such articles. Those therapists who seem
to do well by their patients engage them in their contemporary living
situations and their cognitive processes.
    Are we "determined" by the events in our past? Or, if the past is
discussed as part of therapy, is the possible impact of a person's
past on her/his current issues to be "discovered"? Therapists can
approach a client who has a history of trauma from either belief. The
former, deterministic, may combine the therapist's inclination toward
a belief in a predicated pathology and a subsequent probing to seek
clues that confirm or disprove her/his instinctive feeling.
Conversely, when a therapist initiates her/his work largely from what
I'm calling a "discover" attitude, he/she honestly admits `I don't
know the effect of these things that happened to you, but let's
jointly find out what it means to you now.' A person may never know
what caused her/his problems. While we can't change what happened in
our pasts, we can alter the way we think about the past.
    Paris's article offers the soundest reasons for not overvaluing
the importance of the past in helping a person with contemporary
issues. He reviews the empirical research that discredits four major
hypotheses as to the primacy of early experiences and replaces them
with these propositions: 1. Early learning can be reversed by later
learning; 2. Childhood experiences do not determine personality
traits; 3. Adverse events in childhood do not cause mental disorders;
4. There is no consistent relationship between severity of
psychopathology and stress at any particular stage of childhood
(Paris, 148). People are evolving; they can overcome traumatic
experiences as well as less than adequate parenting; one is not
necessarily "fixed" for life by negative (or positive) events; a
patient's childhood need not be mined to discover the origin of severe
adult psychological pathology.
    The relationship of adult problems to supposed early childhood
trauma continues to be recognized as lacking scientific foundation.
This article adds to the impressive literature that debunks the
erroneous claims that childhood abuse causes certain kinds of
problems, giving special meaning to families who are falsely
accused. When ardent supporters of therapy to recover memories of
abuse make these kinds of proclamations, it is reasonable to question
if they are aware of the current research. Therapists' duty to their
clients includes being familiar with the work of Paris and others
before making assumptions about their patients' pasts.

[1] Pope, Jr. M.D. (1997) Psychology Astray: Fallacies in Studies of
    "Repressed Memory" and Childhood Trauma. Boca Raton, FL: Upton
    Books.

  Allen Feld is Director of Continuing Education for the FMS
  Foundation. He has retired from the faculty of the School of Social
  Work at Marywood University in Pennsylvania.

 ______________________________SIDEBAR_______________________________
/                                                                    \
| "The ill effects of early traumata are by no means inevitable or   |
| irrevocable...the evidence runs strongly counter to views that     |
| early experiences irrevocably change personal development."        |
|                                                     Michael Rutter |
|                                                                    |
| "To focus upon the first three years and to downplay the later     |
| years is not warranted by either human behavioral or neuroscience  |
| research."                                                         |
|                                                  William Greenough |
|                                                                    |
|     quoted in Kagan, "Adult personality and early experience'      |
|                    Harvard Mental Health Letter                    |
|                           October, 2000.                           |
\____________________________________________________________________/

**********************************************************************
         ARE TRAUMA VICTIMS SUSCEPTIBLE TO "FALSE MEMORIES"?
          L. Zoellner, E. Foa, B. Brigidi and  A. Przeworski
              J of Abnormal Psychology 109 (3) 517-524.

This study investigates the hypothesis that individuals with PTSD have
source monitoring deficits and that would predict that they are more
likely to have an increase in distorted or false memories.
    People with PTSD, traumatized people without PTSD and people who
were not traumatized were presented with semantically associated word
lists (e.g., door, glass, pane, shade) and then asked to recall the
list immediately after its presentation. The authors predicted that
the people with PTSD would be more susceptible to falsely recalling
and recognizing words not presented (e.g., window).
    The traumatized people both with and without PTSD had more false
recalls. The authors caution, however, that the "results should not be
misinterpreted to suggest that traumatized individuals are more
susceptible to generating false memories for traumatic events."
Laboratory studies may not generalize to real-world studies of
traumatic memories.

        +------------------------------------------------+
        |  FMSF requests your help just once each year.  |
        |             Don't forget to give:              |
        |           ANNUAL FUNDRAISING APPEAL            |
        |                  Coming soon!                  |
        +------------------------------------------------+
**********************************************************************
           ABUSE OF THE PROCESSES OF FINDING PAST SEX ABUSE

Although the Nova Scotia government admits no problem with its
investigation of the Nova Scotia School for Boys in Shelburne, a
report released in September noted that the allegations leveled
against employees "appear to be concocted [and] contain blatant
falsehoods and gross exaggerations."
    The story of the past abuse in the boys' detention home began in
1995 when a few former inmates complained. After a brief inquiry, the
government responded by setting up a compensation plan and sending
agents around the country to find former inmates to whom they
explained what each incident of abuse might be worth. The result? The
government paid $30 million in compensation and another $9 million for
therapy to 1,500 claimants who never had to prove a thing. All they
had to do was tell a story and name a perpetrator. The more terrible
the story, the larger the check.
    Lee Keating, who had been a supervisor at the home, was one of
those accused of dozens of acts of physical, sexual and racial abuse,
but none of the things he is accused of ever happened. To this day,
Mr. Keating does not know the names of his accusers nor the details of
the accusations even though thousands and thousands of dollars have
been paid out in his name.

  Margaret Wente, "Nova Scotia's abuse of justice," Globe and Mail,
Sept. 26, 2000
  Donna Laframboise, "Recovered memory tide is turning," National
Post, Sept 19, 2000.

+--------------------------------------------------------------------+
|         FALSE-MEMORY  CREATION  IN  CHILDREN  AND  ADULTS:         |
|                 THEORY, RESEARCH, AND IMPLICATIONS                 |
|                    Edited by David F. Bjorklund                    |
|                 Mahway, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 2000                 |
|                                                                    |
| "Most issues investigated by psychologists doing basic research in |
| cognition, cognitive development, and psychotherapy do not have    |
| the potential for social impact that these issues have. Depending  |
| on where the truth lay, at stake were the lives of innocent        |
| victims of sexual abuse and their abusers, or the lives of falsely |
| accused family members and child-care workers and their duped      |
| accusers. People were going to jail and families were being        |
| destroyed. If the memories were true, few of us would disagree     |
| that the abusers should be punished and put away so that they      |
| cannot practice their evil on other unsuspecting children; but if  |
| the memories were false, the lives of innocent people, both the    |
| alleged victims and the alleged abusers, were being ruined."       |
|                                                                    |
| "Memory researchers responded, and studies of memory for traumatic |
| events, suggestibility and false-memory creation in children and   |
| adults boomed in the late 1980s and continued through the next     |
| decade."  David Bjorklund, Introduction                            |
|                                                                    |
| This book is the outcome of a conference held by Florida Atlantic  |
| University in February, 1998 that featured the memory researchers  |
| who had contributed to the APA's Working Group on Investigation of |
| Memories of Childhood Abuse. The book has a number of additional   |
| contributors.                                                      |
|                                                                    |
| Contents:                                                          |
|                                                                    |
| * "The History and Zeitgeist of the Repressed-False Memory Debate: |
| Scientific and Sociological Perspectives on Suggestibility and     |
| Childhood Memory" by Brown, Goldstein, & Bjorklund             |
|                                                                    |
| *"Current Directions in False-Memory Research" by Tsai,Loftus &|
| Polage"                                                            |
|                                                                    |
| * "The Changing Face of Memory and Self" by Oakes & Hyman      |
|                                                                    |
| * "Discriminating Between Accounts of True and False Events" by    |
| Pezdek & Taylor                                                |
|                                                                    |
| * "Fuzzy-Trace Theory and False Memory: Memory Theory in the       |
| Courtroom" by Brainerd, Reyna & Poole                          |
|                                                                    |
| * "Cognitive Neuroscience of Constructive Memory" by Schacter,     |
| Norman & Koutstaal                                             |
|                                                                    |
| *"Suggestibility of Children's Testimony" by Ceci,Bruck& Battin|
|                                                                    |
| * "Remembering the Distant Past: Implications of Research on       |
| Children's Memory for the Recovered Memory Debate" by Ornstein     |
| & Greenhoot                                                    |
+--------------------------------------------------------------------+

**********************************************************************
                       L E G A L   C O R N E R
                              FMSF Staff

             ___________________________________________
             Hearndon v Graham No SC92665 Sept 14, 2000,
                   Sup Ct Fla, 2000 Fla. LEXIS 1834
In a five to two decision, the Florida Supreme Court has held that
memory loss caused by the trauma of childhood sexual abuse should be
included as an exception to the statute of limitations.
    The case involves Paula Hearndon, who sued her stepfather Kenneth
Graham in 1991 for sexual abuse that she claimed began in 1968 when
she was 8 and lasted until 1975 when she turned 15. In the original
complaint, Hearndon claimed that Graham then murdered her mother. She
claimed that she suffered traumatic amnesia until about 1988. A judge
ruled that Florida's four-year statute of limitations barred the
lawsuit.
    In 1992, the Florida Legislature changed state law to allow
victims who suffer amnesia because of childhood sexual abuse to bring
lawsuits seven years after reaching adulthood or four years after
remembering the abuse. The law came too late to help Hearndon.
    Although acknowledging that there is "considerable disagreement
relative to the nature of these discovered memories," the decision
notes that "It is widely recognized that the shock and confusion
resultant from childhood molestation, often coupled with authoritative
adult demands and threats for secrecy, may lead a child to deny or
suppress such abuse from his or her consciousness."
    In allowing Hearndon to pursue her claim, the Florida Supreme
Court has included "recovered memories" within the doctrine of delayed
discovery. That means that the statute of limitations does not begin
until a victim discovers the wrongdoing. The court noted that "We do
not pass on the merits of whether she actually lost and then retrieved
her memory of these alleged events, and we do not pass on the
reliability of any psychological techniques that may have been
employed in arousing her memory."
    According to the Palm Beach Post, Hearndon's lawyer Horace Moore
said that he did not know if his client intended to pursue a criminal
case against her stepfather for the alleged killing. A spokeswoman for
the Alachia County State Attorney, where the murder was alleged to
have occurred, said that they have no record of any murder allegation
against a Kenneth L. Graham.

Associated Press. "Florida Supreme Court stops the clock in sex abuse
                             suit" St Petersburg Times, Sept 15, 2000.
"Court waives woman's deadline to sue for repressed molestation," Palm
                                           Beach Post, Sept. 15, 2000.
       _______________________________________________________
       Washington Supreme Court Allows Lawsuits Against Police
                      for Faulty Investigations
              Rodriguez v City of Wenatchee, No. 69614-4
            Sup Ct Washington , Sept. 2000 Wash. LEXIS 578
On September 7, the state of Washington Supreme Court unanimously
upheld a state Court of Appeals decision that law-enforcement agencies
can be held financially liable for conducting negligent child abuse
investigations.
    The precedent-setting decision arises from the Wenatchee child
sex-abuse cases and reinstates a $30 million civil lawsuit brought by
Pastor Robert "Roby" Roberson and others who had been accused during
the 1994-95 investigations.
    Until now, police have been immune from lawsuits claiming
negligence in investigations although they have long been liable for
knowingly making arrests on false charges.
    This decision expands a state Supreme Court holding that Child
Protective Services can be held liable for negligent investigations
that break up families.
                   ________________________________
                   Confusion About Expert Testimony
                Oliver v State of Texas 2000WL1389677
                    (Tex. App-San Antonio, Texas)
In a recent case from San Antonio, Texas, the court held that an
expert may not testify that a person's recitation of events is or is
not the product of fantasy or manipulation because such evidence is,
in effect, particularized testimony concerning the person's
credibility. An expert may, however, testify about both the common
traits or symptoms of child sexual abuse syndrome and whether the
victim exhibits these traits.
                          Contributed by Dallas attorney Skip Simpson.
                     ___________________________
                     Consequences of RMT Therapy
                           Miller v Marlow
       No. CJ2000 02505, Tulsa, OK Dist Ct, Filed June 27, 2000
A wrongful death action has been brought against Oklahoma therapist K.
Renee Marlow, LSW, by the husband and son of Starla Miller. According
to the Plaintiffs' First Amended Petition, in August 1993 Ms. Miller
suffered from depression after the birth of her child. She sought
counseling in February 1994, and during the first session, Ms. Marlow
suggested that Starla could have been abused. Defendant Marlow later
explained to Starla that she exhibited symptoms of Multiple
Personality Disorder stemming from that childhood abuse. Prior to her
therapy, Starla Miller was not suicidal, did not exhibit multiple
personalities, and had no memory of being abused as a child.
    According to the petition, the defendant instructed Starla Miller
to buy and read Repressed Memories by Renee Fredrickson, and The
Courage to Heal by Ellen Bass and Laura Davis. The therapist explained
that these books would educate her about the nature of repressed
memories and MPD. The therapist's diagnosis for the insurance company
was Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder.
    The petition states that Starla Miller's mental and psychological
condition deteriorated. After reading the assigned books, Starla
Miller started to "remember" episodes of sexual abuse. She cut off all
contact with her parents, later confronting them. After a volatile
meeting with her mother in which she reiterated her allegations of
abuse, Starla Miller slipped away from the Charter Grapevine
Behavioral Health System where she was an inpatient and attempted to
kill herself. Charter employees thwarted this. The next day, Starla
Miller hanged herself.
                Plaintiff's attorney is Skip Simpson of Dallas, Texas.

               _______________________________________
               UPDATES OF CASES WE HAVE BEEN FOLLOWING

AMIRAULT UPDATE: Gerald Amirault had his hearing before the Advisory
Board of Pardons and now waits for their decision. In the last decade,
that board has granted hearings for only 29 of 250 commutation
petitions. The hearings resulted in 13 favorable recommendations, of
which seven were granted by the governor and council.
                  Brian MacQuarrie, "Amirault ready to seek a pardon,"
                                         Boston Globe, Sept. 20, 2000.

WENATCHEE UPDATES: Henry Cunningham has filed a lawsuit in U.S.
District Court in Seattle claiming that Wenatchee authorities
negligently investigated him for child sex crimes, falsely arrested
him, interfered with his family relationships and conspired to violate
his civil rights. Cunningham, who was one of the 43 people arrested
during the 1994-95 probe, seeks $10 million in compensatory damages.
The state of Washington Court of Appeals threw out Cunningham's
convictions in March 1999.
                         Stephen Maher, Wenatchee World, Oct. 5, 2000.

DORIS GREEN, whose sex-abuse convictions were thrown out in 1999, has
filed a lawsuit seeking $12to $18 million from the city of Wenatchee
and the state Department of Social and Health Services. Green contends
she was wrongfully imprisoned and suffered emotional and psychological
damage as well as having her parental rights terminated.
                                                         Stephen Maher
              "Complaint Contends Perez Mentally Ill During Sex Cases"
                                        Wenatchee World, Oct. 5, 2000.

THE EVERETTS, who still have suits pending against the state
Department of Social Services, have settled their lawsuit against the
city of Wentachee. The money from the settlement will be put in a
special needs trust for them. Idella Everett is developmentally
disabled and Harold Everett now has terminal cancer. This is the
fourth lawsuit stemming from the 1994-95 investigations to settle with
the city. A total of $677,000 has been paid to the plaintiffs. At
least 17 other people have suits or claims pending against the city.
   Mike Barber, "Wenatchee couple settle suit in child-sex-abuse case"
                             Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Oct. 5, 2000.

 ______________________________SIDEBAR_______________________________
/                                                                    \
| Whatever any member of a cult has done, you and I could be         |
| recruited or seduced into doing -- under the right or wrong        |
| conditions. The majority of `normal, average, intelligent'         |
| individuals can be led to engage in immoral, illegal, irrational,  |
| aggressive and self destructive actions that are contrary to their |
| values or personality -- when manipulated situational conditions   |
| exert their power over individual dispositions."                   |
|         Philip Zimbardo, "What messages are behind today's cults?" |
|                                             APA Monitor, May 1997. |
\____________________________________________________________________/

**********************************************************************
           PENNSYLVANIA PSYCHIATRIST'S LICENSE IS SUSPENDED

Pennsylvania authorities suspended the medical license of psychiatrist
Byron Braid in July, charging that he recklessly endangered patients
by injecting them with an unapproved drug. The doctor diagnosed
patients with a wide variety of symptoms he claimed were related to
high mercury levels and he treated them with a drug that had not been
approved by the FDA. The suspension order also noted that Braid had
asked at least one patient to disrobe from the waist up so that he
could perform massage. Braid is facing a lawsuit by a patient who
accuses him of sexually abusing her under the guise of providing
therapy.
    Braid, a 1971 graduate of Thomas Jefferson Medical College, was
described by former patients as presenting himself as an unusual
doctor. He was an expert in orgonomy, a kind of psychotherapy.
Orgonomists believe that the body muscles and skin hold clues to
patients' mental traumas. Orgonomists knead, press and massage
patients' tension points, which is supposed to release repressed
emotions. Patients may be asked to wear only their underwear during
sessions so that a doctor can monitor the body.
    Orgone therapy was started by Wilhelm Reich, who was best known
for his attempt to measure "orgones," units of cosmic energy. His
commercialization of the orgone box brought him into conflict with
government authorities in the early 1950s. He was convicted of
contempt of court and died in prison.[1] Reich's ideas about the body
being the key to well-being is reflected in therapies such as massage,
yoga and bodywork, and also the many "power therapies" such as
Traumatic Incident Reduction.
    Complaints about Braid go back many years. A 1992 complaint to the
state licensing Bureau of Professional and Occupational Affairs, said
that Braid would "pull me onto his lap to comfort me, he said, and
pull down my underwear and rub against my private area....If he had
been stopped in 1992, [other] women would not have been abused."[2]
    How could a patient be led to do these things? Former Braid
patient Sarahkate Lohmann said that at the time she thought, "I will
try 200 percent to do anything to feel differently than I do. If I
have to stand naked in a corner on my head every day, I will do it.
That's how badly I wanted to get better."

[1] "Reich, Wilhelm" Britannica Online
[2] Shankar Vedantam, "Suits allege psychiatrist's sexual betrayal,"
    Philadelphia Inquirer, Sept. 7, 2000.

 ______________________________SIDEBAR_______________________________
/                                                                    \
| If a recalled memory is open to revision, incorrect as well as     |
| correct information can be woven into the fabric of a memory. Once |
| that happens, a person has no way of knowing what is true and not  |
| true. Yet people put faith in their memories to guide their        |
| decisions.                                                         |
|                                                   Sandra Blakeslee |
|                    "Brain-Updating Machinery May Explain Memories" |
\____________________________________________________________________/

**********************************************************************
                       EVERYDAY IRRATIONALITY:
         HOW PSEUDO-SCIENTISTS, LUNATICS, AND THE REST OF US
               SYSTEMATICALLY FAIL TO THINK RATIONALLY
               Westview Press, (to appear Spring 2001)
                            by Robyn Dawes

       With this newsletter issue, we continue a serialization
               of a chapter from Robyn Dawes' new book.

                  SEXUAL ABUSE HYSTERIA  (CHAPTER 9)

It is now necessary to denounce my parents publicly to their friends
if I am ever going to get better; again, I must believe in my
therapist's advice about the therapeutic value of such denunciation.
So I do it. My father, however "liberated" he became under my mother's
influence, still has vestiges of his middle-class New England
upbringing. He is absolutely disgraced. His gout gets worse. His ulcer
bleeds more, and he becomes depressed over the obvious conclusion that
he will now never become the University President who is subsequently
nominated by the Democratic party to become President of the United
States. My mother, who always ascribed to the (incorrect) belief about
the confounding of genius with lunacy, takes comfort in the fact that
I may -- after all this time -- be at least a bit creative. As for her
friends who abandon her after my revelations, well, they can equally
well become someone else's friend.
    Thus, I have been suckered into being a destroyer of people --
without even realizing it. I have destroyed people with the sincere
belief that I am using good judgment, destroying only those who prey
on others. I am certainly not such a predator myself, quite the
opposite. I do not even feel guilty. But I have in fact become such a
predator.
    Child sexual abuse, and child physical abuse and neglect -- which
is far more common -- are very serious matters. Because they exist at
all, they are serious. Recently (as of the mid 1980s), however, the
prevalence of child sexual abuse has become a matter of concern and
controversy. Various "experts" maintain that in the United States we
are in the midst of an "epidemic" of child sexual abuse -- with as
many as 1 in 3 females and 1 in 7 males being a victim at some time in
their childhood. (My unfavorite example is Brenda Wade, a very
personable young clinical psychologist, who appeared in CNBC not only
to share such statistics with the American public, but to inform
viewers that she could tell within thirty seconds by the way that such
victims walk as adults that they had been sexually abused as children,
"even before they knew it themselves.") The alleged epidemic is also
used as a justification for false accusations, because now that we are
all aware of the huge extent of the problem and attempting to do
something about it, it is only natural that there will be a few false
accusations sprinkled among the many valid ones.
    What do actual careful studies show about prevalence?
    Here, I am following the discussion of Ceci and Bruck, 1995 in the
section on "scope and characteristics" of the problem in their book
Jeopardy in the Courtroom, published by the American Psychological
Association. Consider first estimates based on reports about what is
happening to children at the time they are children. After the laws in
the late 1970s protected people who made "good faith" complaints that
other adults are abusing children, and after accusing a divorcing
spouse of such abuse has become a routine part of an angry custody
battle (given the child protective agencies will then not allow that
parent to see the child alone without some sort of "supervision"), the
number of accusations have mushroomed -- for example, an estimated
2000% (!) increase in reports of sexual abuse between 1976 and 1986,
consistent with an increase between 1963 and 1986 from 150,000 to
2,000,000 annual reports of all types of child abuse and maltreatment.
The number of "substantiated" cases has not increased anywhere near so
rapidly, even though many critics have argued that the criteria for
"substantiation" have become less severe as society has become less
concerned with protecting innocent people accused than with protecting
children who might be harmed (Ceci and Bruck, page 23). A reasonable
estimate of child sexual abuse ranges from one in 435 children per
year to one in 174, where the latter figure is based on the assumption
that the underreporting of child sexual abuse is the same as the
underreporting of other maltreatment cases (where apparently only 40%
are reported).
    That's a lot, but it does not justify the claims of an "epidemic."
In the first place, there is no explosion in verified cases comparable
to that in the number of accusations, and while the former number may
be quite reasonably expected to be much smaller than the latter, a
true epidemic should result in roughly comparable proportional
increase in each -- unless there is also some type of bizarre
secondary "epidemic" of successfully covering up such activity.
Second, epidemics require social interaction between people, where
this interaction leads a second person to be infected by -- or
imitate, or to at least be influenced by -- a first person. But child
sexual abuse is a "silent" crime despite lurid claims of cults or
large groups of people cooperating such abuse (claims that have
generally been debunked, especially in child-care settings -- which
will be discussed later in this chapter). While a few groups of
interacting pedophiles exist, there is little evidence of widespread
cooperative activity (other than sharing child pornography, widely
available elsewhere) that could lead to "contagion." Thus, the
preconditions for an "epidemic" are not met.
    The other source of estimating prevalence involves retrospective
accounts of adults. These reports often lead to the conclusion that
the reported prevalence is an underestimate of the actual prevalence,
but there are logical problems with this conclusion. Another problem
involves the definition of child sexual abuse. Many people who do
surveys include "non-contact abuse," include any sexual activity --
however willing or enthusiastically entered -- between someone under
18 years old and someone else five years or more older (which
incidentally would include some legal marriages as abuses), or even
abuse of which the individual is not aware until informed by the
researcher. Other researchers do not use such broad definitions. Thus,
there is naturally a huge discrepancy between claims. The problem for
the general public is that the prototype of child sexual abuse is
certainly not that of a seventeen year old woman who enthusiastically
engages in sex with a 22 year old man, or of noncontact abuse, but of
a young child who is brutally attacked by an older adult. In fact,
even the older adult/young child problem most usually involves
fondling, rather than attack and forced penetration. Thus, the member
of the public who hears a statistic may have a much different image of
the activity to which the statistic refers than does the researcher or
expert who proclaims the statistic to be valid.
    But now let us consider the argument that because the problem is
so serious -- and again it need not be as prevalent as some claim to
be extraordinarily serious -- that we should relax our criteria of
deciding whether it occurs, in order to weigh the interest of the
child against those of the person who may be erroneously
accused. Consider, for example, a simple analogy with mammography. As
pointed out earlier, the standard mammogram is set up to maximize the
probability that if there is a cancer, it will be detected; that is
technically termed the "sensitivity" of the device. In doing so, a lot
of false alarms result. In fact, when there is an indicator of cancer,
the probability is about .80 that there is no cancer there. There is,
in fact, no way of getting around the problem that by increasing
sensitivity we automatically increase the likelihood of a false alarm,
as indicated by a statistical technique termed the "theory of signal
detection." Conversely, if we were to change our criteria about
deciding something might be there to decrease the probability of a
false alarm, we would simultaneously decrease the sensitivity of the
test. That's just a matter of statistical necessity (the proof of
which lies a bit beyond the scope of this book). So, the argument
goes, shouldn't we be more concerned with sensitivity than we have
been in the past, even though that concern results in a higher false
alarm rate? This argument is often joined by one about the
differential harm of making the two types of errors -- i.e., the harm
of deciding there was not abuse when there was versus that of deciding
that there was abuse when, in fact, there was none. The argument is
made that in order to "protect the child" the first type of error is
to be avoided despite the cost of radically increasing the rate of the
second type; that argument, however, ignores the hurt to the child of
being deprived of the interaction with and protection of a parent when
in fact there is nothing wrong with that parent -- and in addition
often being told that the parent is a pathological and depraved
criminal. (This problem may be particularly acute if the accusing
parent is making the accusation in a manipulative or dishonest manner,
in which case being in the custody of the accusing parent rather than
the accused one may be particularly harmful to the child.)
    The argument about differential error rates and differential
impact of errors is, however, based on a single implicit premise. That
premise is that the method for distinguishing whether or not the abuse
has occurred has some validity to it, analogous to the validity of a
mammogram. When the method is wholly irrational, however, and hence
has no validity, considerations of "balancing errors" are
irrelevant. If there is no validity, we are simply enhancing the false
alarm rate without doing anything about the sensitivity. (Of course,
if we were to accuse everyone of being a child sexual abuser, then in
fact all people who are actually child sexual abusers would be
correctly accused, but that would be an extreme strategy that most of
us would reject out of hand.) What I hope to demonstrate is that the
standard way of making accusations on the basis of "expert testimony"
(as opposed to other corroborative evidence, such as independent
witnesses or physical trauma) is indeed often irrational. I'll do so
by considering the accusations that have occurred in day-care and in
"recovered repressed memory" therapy. In the interest of not being
profligate with space or the readers' patience, I will not cover
accusations of sexual abuse in satanic cults or aboard spaceships --
except to point out that the experts' criteria for deciding it
occurred in the day-care settings and in families where it was
subsequently repressed are often identical to those used to establish
its existence in satanic cults and aboard spaceships.

                           TO BE CONTINUED
               in the January/February 2000 newsletter.

  Robyn Dawes, Ph.D, is a member of the FMSF Advisory Board. He is the
  Charles J. Queenan Jr. University Professor of psychology in the
  Department of Social and Decision Sciences at Carnegie Mellon
  University. Dr. Dawes is the author of House of Cards and Rational
  Choice in an Uncertain World.

 ______________________________SIDEBAR_______________________________
/                                                                    \
| Just beneath the surface of the false memory debate, the           |
| psychotherapy profession is fighting for its life.                 |
|           Peter Fonagy, Recovered Memories of Abuse: True or False |
|                             International Universities Press, 1998 |
\____________________________________________________________________/

**********************************************************************
                   F R O M   O U R   R E A D E R S

Dear FMSF,
    I am the "R" from last issue's special letters.
    I want to thank you for your loving support of my father during my
years of being mesmerized by false recovered memories. I believe it
was your understanding and education that has enabled my father to
allow me back into his life after my dreadful behavior.
    I would like to offer hope to families still waiting. If you are
given time, your children will come to their senses as well. The FMS
experience is powerful.
    I shall be forever grateful to you that my father and his lovely
wife did not suffer alone.
    Respectfully,
                                                                  "R"
                ______________________________________
                Rejoicing for Some, Sadness for Others
My husband died with the loss of our youngest daughter on his
heart. We have not heard from her since 1987.
    I rejoice for families who have become reconciled, but remain
heartbroken myself at my daughter's cruelty. Am I never to meet my
grandson born in 1989?
    Thank you for the work you have done to dilute our pain and the
help you have given others to recover family love.
                                                                 A Mom
            ______________________________________________
            We Used to Read About Other Families Reuniting
Our ten-year-plus separation from our daughter ended recently when she
invited her dad and me and one of her sisters to visit her and have a
joint celebration of my husband's and my seventieth birthdays.
    What a marvelous reunion that was! She seemed genuinely glad to
see us. While there was no mention of the years apart, we had a good
time together and seemed to fall easily into a loving relationship. We
also were reunited with our granddaughter whom we hadn't seen since
she was a baby.
    We used to read in the FMSF Newsletter about other parents
reuniting with their children and wondered how it came about. We tried
to establish contact all through those years by cards, gifts and
letters. Our letters went largely unanswered at first, and she
refused to talk to us on the telephone. Finally about two years ago
came a letter from her inviting us to telephone occasionally. Then she
accepted an invitation to spend Christmas with her sister. Our calls
and letters have gradually reestablished connections between us. My
husband and I hope that soon she and her other sister and brother will
connect again.
    We had always considered ours to be a close-knit family, so our
separation from her came as a total surprise to us. She experienced
post-partum depression, was later diagnosed with clinical depression
and went into years of therapy. She developed false memories of
childhood sexual abuse and satanic rituals and totally detached
herself from all our family. Finally, she divorced her husband.
    Now she has a new job, is in graduate school at a new location and
seems to be completely over her depression. We are so thankful that
she seems to have recovered and that we can finally be reunited.
Perhaps this will give hope to parents still struggling with this
horrible situation. We are very grateful for the support and
information provided by the FMS Foundation. We hold a fervent wish
that the kind of treatment our daughter received will be totally
discredited.
                                                      Thankful Parents
                       _______________________
                       Dear Sister - With Love 
The responsibility and accountability of parents for their actions is
enormous, and should your accusations prove to be true, I would be the
first to demand accountability. However, I believe they are not true.
For what you have told me of your dreams and flashbacks does not
suggest the interpretation you have put on them. You could have put
none or other interpretations just as easily. What I have not told you
before is that just as parents are accountable, so are their children
as adults. And you, too, will be held accountable for all that you
have said and done to hurt your family and "kill a name." Kill a name?
Well, in Judaism, slander is like the killing of a name and is a very
serious offense.
    ...I certainly did not mean to preach and ramble and you may have
thrown this letter away, but I had to write it. I see Mama or Daddy
dying with no chance at that point for you to make amends to them. And
that blows my mind. How would you cope with that if you later
discovered your memories to be will-o-the-wisp images blown into a
portrait that never was? Like the child who lies in bed seeing
monsters in the corner made by shadows on the wall -- that turn into
dressers and chairs by day? Could you forgive yourself -- could we
forgive you? I don't know, because as necessary as forgiveness is, I'm
not sure it could be done if there was a death. When I weigh the
sorrows of the last several years for all of us, and especially for
Daddy and Mama; when I weigh the public opinion that has been against
us because people love to believe the worst; when I weigh the role of
the counseling community and church which has been unresponsive at
best and acidic and rude at worst, I say again there is much to answer
for here and I am not sure my heart is that large anymore.  
    ...Please open your heart. Open your mind. Look outward, toward
others -- you have such a gift for that.

 ______________________________SIDEBAR_______________________________
/                                                                    \
| If repeated trauma is easily "repressible" why haven't I repressed |
| memories of therapy?                                               |
|                                         Jaye Bartha, retractor '92 |
\____________________________________________________________________/

**********************************************************************
                        TREAT WITH SKEPTICISM

In the September/October FMS Foundation Newsletter, an accused father
advises his recanting daughter, "Check into the Court Appointed
Special Advocates (CASA) or the Guardian ad litem (GAL) programs in
your area. There you can help children who have, in fact, been abused,
abandoned, and neglected and who have real, vivid, terrible memories
of that abuse." To assume that these "memories" are authentic because
the judicial system has been involved in the accusations and Guardians
and Advocates have been appointed to "protect" the children is
analogous to assuming that his daughter's memories are real because
mental health "experts" were involved in their creation. Both
assumptions are, of course, wrong and result in terrible consequences:
monstrosities, as the father aptly describes them. Both systems,
judicial and mental health, are composed of fallible, often
well-intentioned but also often seriously erring professionals who
operate within the prevailing atmosphere of sex abuse hysteria and
mythology in this country and other nations.
    As many of the members of the FMS Foundation Scientific and
Professional Advisory Board have emphasized -- children, as well as
adults, can have apparently real, vivid, terrible "memories" which are
false. These false memories are created in much the same way as those
of the decades-delayed disclosures: through suggestion and systems of
influence and persuasion. Terence Campbell, in his Smoke and Mirrors,
The Devastating Effects of False Sexual Abuse Claims, describes the
process by which the sheer number of interviews and the biased
expectation of the interviewers (all professionals, "experts" in the
field of sex abuse evaluation) lead children into describing events
that never occurred. Robyn M. Dawes, in his House of Cards: Psychology
and Psychiatry Built on Myth, eloquently discusses the profound impact
on others' lives which mental health experts exert when they are
willing to testify in court. Often their supportive "evidence" is
simply hypothesized, while negative evidence that has actually been
collected is ignored. What is purported to be true is supported not by
direct evidence but by attacking an alternative possibility. Richard
Ofshe, in Making Monsters: False Memories, Psychotherapy, and Sexual
Hysteria, provides for us an understanding of the immensely persuasive
power of peer-group involvement. (Children and teenagers who have made
accusations or who are suspected of having been abused because of
"symptoms" exhibited are often placed in "support groups" or group
"therapy" with other abused children.) Mark Pendergrast, in his
excellent Victims of Memory: Incest Accusations and Shattered Lives,
devotes an entire chapter to the careful examination of the phenomenon
of accusations made by children.
    Perhaps the most comprehensive description of the problems
inherent in accusations of sexual abuse made by children can be found
in Stephen Ceci's and Maggie Bruck's Jeopardy in the Courtroom: A
Scientific Analysis of Children's' Testimony. Ceci and Bruck describe
their (and others') painstaking research which has demonstrated
unequivocally that individuals, of all ages, may come to believe that
they have actually experienced what they merely imagined. Ceci and
Bruck conclude that external verification is the only way to prove the
validity of an uncovered "memory." (Convictions of child sexual abuse
in our judicial system are often based solely on the testimony of
children.) They argue that, as in accusations made by adults after
undergoing recovered memory therapy, there is no "Pinocchio Test" to
determine the truth of the memories and that anyone professing to
possess such a test "ought to be treated with a large dose of
skepticism."
    We must all be treated with a large dose of skepticism. To assume
that Truth has been reached merely because a legal trial has occurred
is a profound error with devastating consequences to all involved. The
children for whom we are advocating are harmed, not helped. Those
falsely accused are deprived of their liberty as well as suffering the
loss of their children.
    The phenomenon of false memories of child sexual abuse is not
fading away. Rather, it is evolving, transforming itself into
something more virulent, as the true believers in hidden memories and
secrets operate within governmental agencies charged (with the best of
intentions) with the protection of children and the prosecution of
perpetrators.

  Kathy Begert is a registered nurse who lives and works in Wooster,
  Ohio. She has written previously for the FMS Foundation Newsletter,
  the Akron Beacon Journal, and the Wooster Daily Record.

 ______________________________SIDEBAR_______________________________
/                                                                    \
|                      MAKING  OF  AN  ILLNESS                       |
|         My Experience With Multiple Personality Disorder           |
|                         by Gail Macdonald                          |
|                Contact: Laurentian University Press                |
|                        935 Ramsey Lake Road                        |
|                    Sudbury, ON, P3E 2C6, Canada                    |
|                       Phone: (705) 675-1151                        |
|                        ISBN # 0-88667-045-4                        |
|                          129 pages $9.95                           |
|                                                                    |
| In the early 90s, the Ontario Government sponsored the training of |
| therapists in recognizing and treating "multiple personality       |
| disorder" (MPD). The number of therapists estimated to be trained  |
| varies widely, from several hundred to a couple of thousand. One   |
| of the trainees was a social worker from California, who hung his  |
| shingle in a small Ontario town. Gail, a recovering drug and       |
| alcohol addict, had been his client before he took his MPD         |
| training, and she was well on her way to regaining her long-lost   |
| self-esteem. After the indoctrination in spotting MPD, her         |
| therapist's modus operandi drastically changed. Soon after, most   |
| of his clients started to exhibit signs of MPD.                    |
\____________________________________________________________________/

**********************************************************************
                           WE NEVER GAVE UP

My husband and I have been members of the FMSF for many years.
Recently we had an unexpected family reconciliation with our lost
daughter. I would like to share this with you as briefly as I can, in
order to inspire other families to find the courage and perseverance
that we did.
    Our problems began when my daughter entered a drug rehabilitation
center that held the philosophy that all drug problems were caused by
"dysfunctional" families, and that in order to recover from drug use
an individual must disassociate from family relationships.
    In addition, one psychologist who worked there took a special
interest in our daughter. Although he had never met us, he convinced
our child that she had been molested by my husband while she was
growing up, with my knowledge and consent. All of this was based on a
"dream." As a result my daughter called and threatened that if I ever
tried to contact her again, she would call the police.
    Members of the Foundation probably know what we experienced next.
We could barely function for six weeks. On many occasions my husband
and I cried in each other's arms, trying to understand why this had
happened to us.
    Then my husband and I began to make positive decisions on how to
handle the situation. We decided that no matter what anyone said about
us, we would continue to love all of our children and always welcome
them into our home with love. We would go on living our lives to the
fullest and felt that if any of them did not want to visit us, it
would be their own loss of love in their lives. We went outside to the
tree in the front of our home and hung a red ribbon on it. We would
keep this ribbon displayed as a symbol of our love for our accusing
daughter, beckoning to her through the years until she returned.
    We never gave up. A few times a year my husband sent our daughter
a letter assuring her that we still wanted her in our lives. We mailed
invitations to all family events. We found out from another daughter
that these were torn up and discarded, but that did not deter us from
trying to communicate.
    With time some things changed. First, our accusing daughter moved
away from the Incest Survivors group and relocated in the city where
her sister lived. Second, she decided to allow only me to visit
her. We embarked on a distant, strained relationship in which we never
discussed "the issue."
    My daughter asked me if I would pay for her to get therapy in the
new city. I agreed on the condition that I be included in her therapy
and that I meet and interview the counselor first. He appeared to be a
person of kindness and open-mindedness. At our first joint session, my
daughter and I were trying to start a new relationship based on "now"
and "the future." Halfway through, my daughter's attitude changed, and
she again began to verbally attack me, quoting slogans form her Incest
Survivors group. She called me "abusive," dysfunctional and "weak". I
responded by telling her again how much we loved her and wanted her
back in our family.
    I left that session feeling weak and told myself to accept that
this was not the day her heart would bring her home.
    Ten months later a miracle happened. My daughter, who was still
married, phoned, crying and asked for help with making decisions
because of an unplanned pregnancy. She asked us to fly down to visit
her the next weekend.
    The reconciliation was not what we had expected. Perhaps we
expected music playing and banners waving. But it was much more simple
than that. She simply threw her arms around us both and started
talking as if nothing had ever happened. To this day, four months
later, she has never mentioned or acknowledged the missing four years
of our lives. But she has spoken to us of our "unconditional love" and
how glad she is to have a family once again.
    I found out later that it was her new psychologist who had advised
our daughter to come home. All of our efforts and perseverance had not
been in vain.
    I would like to express to the Foundation our most sincere thanks
for the support, ideas, information and comfort you have given us
during this most difficult time. May God bless all of you who work for
the Foundation To all its members and other suffering parents, I wish
you peace and success as you continue in your journey to fight for
justice and the children you love.
                                                         A Mom and Dad

**********************************************************************
*                           N O T I C E S                            *
**********************************************************************
*                                                                    *
*                         PSYCHOLOGY ASTRAY:                         *
*  FALLACIES IN STUDIES OF "REPRESSED MEMORY" AND CHILDHOOD TRAUMA   *
*                   by Harrison G. Pope, Jr., M.D.                   *
*                            Upton Books                             *
*                                                                    *
* This is an indispensable guide for any person who wants or needs   *
* to understand the research claims about recovered memories. A      *
* review by Stuart Sutherland in the prestigious Nature magazine     *
* (July 17, 1997) says that the book is a "model of clear thinking   *
* and clear exposition."  The book is an outgrowth of the "Focus on  *
* Science" columns that have appeared in this newsletter.            *
*                                                                    *
**********************************************************************
*                           THE ACCUSATION                           *
*              Published by Author, Charles Patrinellis              *
*                    8/2000, Online Price: $5.00                     *
*                                                                    *
* This is a story about a family's destruction as a result of a      *
* therapist treating a teen-age girl for an eating disorder. The     *
* therapist believes the child is ill because her father sexually    *
* abused her when she was younger and that it is necessary for her   *
* to find the memories of the abuse in order to get better. The      *
* daughter accuses the father who subsequently loses his job when    *
* the accusation becomes public. The father sues the therapist for   *
* malpractice for implanting false memories. The father's lawyer is  *
* determined to convince the daughter that her memories are false.   *
* Readers must decide whether he achieved his purpose.               *
*                                                                    *
* Address: http://www1.mightywords.com/shop/quicksearch.cl           *
* The book is viewable in secure PDF format on Windows 95/98/NT 4.0  *
* (and 2000). Mac and UNIX/Linux versions coming soon.               *
**********************************************************************
*                                                                    *
*                                FREE                                *
*             "Recovered Memories: Are They Reliable?"               *
*     Call or write the FMS Foundation for pamphlets. Be sure to     *
*     include your address and the number of pamphlets you need.     *
*                                                                    *
**********************************************************************
*             Recovered Memories of Child Sexual Abuse:              *
*            Psychological, Social and Legal Perspectives            *
*            on a Contemporary Mental Health Controversy             *
*                                                                    *
*                   Editor: Sheila Taub, J.D.                        *
*                   Publisher: Charles C. Thomas                     *
*                   Hardback  $44.95                                 *
*                   Paperback   $31.95                               *
*                   ISBN 0398070059                                  *
*                                                                    *
* What do we know about the families who have contacted the FMS      *
* Foundation? What were they accused of and by whom? Who has been    *
* sued? And what was the outcome?                                    *
*                                                                    *
* This book contains articles on memory, clinical treatment and      *
* social context, based on talks presented at a conference in the    *
* fall of 1997.  Authors are: Sheila Taub, J.D., Arthur Taub, M.D.,  *
* Ph.D., Mark Pendergrast, M.L.S., David K. Sakheim, Ph.D., Jerome   *
* L. Singer, Ph.D., Jonathan Schooler, Ph.D., D. Stephen Lindsay,    *
* Ph.D., Pamela Freyd, Ph.D., Anita Lipton, B.S.                     *
*                                                                    *
* Of particular interest to FMSF members may be chapters on the      *
* "History of the FMS Foundation" and on the FMS legal history,      *
* "Rise and Fall of a Social Problem."                               *
**********************************************************************
*                                                                    *
*   Back issues of the FMSF Newsletter to March 1992, the start of   *
*           FMSF, are now available at www. FMSFonline.org           *
*                                                                    *
**********************************************************************
*                       SMILING THROUGH TEARS                        *
*                 Pamela Freyd and Eleanor Goldstein                 *
*                 Upton Books ISBN No 9-89777.125.7                  *
*                               $14.95                               *
*                                                                    *
* Over 125 cartoons by more than 65 cartoonists lead the way through *
* a description of the complex web of psychological and social       *
* elements that have nurtured the recovered memory movement.  Ask    *
* your bookstore to order the book or call 1-800-232-7477.           *
*                                                                    *
*                             Comments:                              *
*                                                                    *
*   "AT ONCE BOTH THOROUGHLY INFORMATIVE AND DEVASTATINGLY WITTY."   *
*           Alan Gold, Criminal Defense Attorney, Toronto            *
*                                                                    *
*  "I THINK THE BOOK IS TERRIFIC. I LIKED IT BECAUSE IT SUPPORTED A  *
*  LOT OF THE OPINIONS I'VE HAD ON PSYCHIATRY, CULTS, BRAIN-WASHING  *
*              AND OTHER IDEAS MENTIONED IN THE BOOK."               *
*               Mort Walker, Creator of Beetle Bailey                *
*                                                                    *
*                         "IT'S A MUST READ"                         *
*                      Elizabeth Loftus, Ph.D.                       *
*                 Author of Myth of Repressed Memory                 *
*                                                                    *
* Smiling through Tears will be available in bookstores in November. *
* Ask your bookstore to order the book. For brochures about the book *
* call 1-800-232-7477 and ask for Stacey.                            *
**********************************************************************
*                                                                    *
*                          ESTATE  PLANNING                          *
*                 If you have questions about how to                 *
*             include the FMSF in your estate planning,              *
*               contact Charles Caviness 800-289-9060.               *
*            (Available 9:00 AM to 5:00 PM Pacific time.)            *
*                                                                    *
**********************************************************************
*                      WEB  SITES  OF  INTEREST                      *
*                                                                    *
*                       www.StopBadTherapy.com                       *
*      Contains phone numbers of professional regulatory boards      *
*                          in all 50 states                          *
*                                                                    *
*                        www.IllinoisFMS.org                         *
*                   Illinois-Wisconsin FMS Society                   *
*                                                                    *
*                          www.afma.asn.au                           *
*                Australian False Memory Association.                *
*                                                                    *
*                          www.bfms.org.uk                           *
*                    British False Memory Society                    *
*                                                                    *
*                    www.geocities.com/retractors                    *
*            This site is run by Laura Pasley (retractor)            *
*                                                                    *
*            www.geocities.com/~therapyletters/index.htm             *
*             This site is run by Deb David (retractor)              *
*                                                                    *
*                 www.sirs.com/uptonbooks/index.htm                  *
*                            Upton Books                             *
*                                                                    *
*              www.angelfire.com/tx/recoveredmemories/               *
*                   Having trouble locating books                    *
*               about the recovered memory phenomenon?               *
*                     Recovered Memory Bookstore                     *
*                                                                    *
*                      www.heritagetheater.com                       *
*                Information about the play "Denial"                 *
**********************************************************************
*                                                                    *
*                     LEGAL WEBSITES OF INTEREST                     *
*                                                                    *
*                          www.findlaw.com                           *
*                        www.legalengine.com                         *
*                          www.accused.com                           *
*                                                                    *
**********************************************************************
*                           DID YOU MOVE?                            *
*        Do you have a new area code? Remember to inform the         *
*                        FMSF Business Office                        *
**********************************************************************
               _____________________________________
                F M S    B U L L E T I N    B O A R D

Contacts & Meetings:
_____________
UNITED STATES

ALABAMA
  Montgomery
        Madge 334-244-7891
ALASKA
  Kathleen 907-337-7821
ARIZONA
  Barbara 602-924-0975; 602-854-0404 (fax)
ARKANSAS
  Little Rock
        Al & Lela 870-363-4368
CALIFORNIA
  Sacramento
        Joanne & Gerald 916-933-3655
  San Francisco & North Bay - (bi-MO)
        Gideon 415-389-0254 or
        Charles 415-984-6626 (am); 415-435-9618 (pm)
  San Francisco & South Bay
        Eric 408-245-4493
  East Bay Area - (bi-MO)
        Judy 925-376-8221
  Central Coast
        Carole 805-967-8058
  Central Orange County - 1st Fri. (MO) @ 7pm
        Chris & Alan 714-733-2925
  Covina Area - 1st Mon. (MO) @7:30pm
        Floyd & Libby 626-330-2321
  San Diego Area 
        Dee 619-941-4816
COLORADO
  Colorado Springs
        Doris 719-488-9738
CONNECTICUT
  S. New England
        Earl 203-329-8365 or
        Paul 203-458-9173
FLORIDA
  Dade/Broward
        Madeline 954-966-4FMS
  Boca/Delray  - 2nd & 4th Thurs (MO) @1pm
        Helen 561-498-8684
  Central Florida - Please call for mtg. time
        John & Nancy 352-750-5446
  Tampa Bay Area
        Bob & Janet 813-856-7091
GEORGIA
  Atlanta 
        Wallie & Jill 770-971-8917
HAWAII
  Carolyn 808-261-5716
ILLINOIS
  Chicago & Suburbs - 1st Sun. (MO)
        Eileen 847-985-7693 or
        Liz & Roger 847-827-1056
  Peoria
        Bryant & Lynn 309-674-2767
INDIANA
  Indiana Assn. for Responsible Mental Health Practices
        Nickie 317-471-0922; fax 317-334-9839
        Pat 219-489-9987
IOWA
  Des Moines - 2nd Sat. (MO) @11:30 am Lunch
        Betty & Gayle 515-270-6976
KANSAS
  Wichita - Meeting as called
        Pat 785-738-4840
KENTUCKY
  Louisville- Last Sun. (MO) @ 2pm
        Bob 502-367-1838
MAINE
  Bangor
        Irvine & Arlene 207-942-8473
  Rumbold
        Carolyn 207-942-8473
  Protland - 4th Sun.(MO)
        Wally & Boby 207-878-9812
MASSACHUSETTS/NEW ENGLAND
   Andover - 2nd Sun. (MO) @ 1pm
        Frank 978-263-9795
MICHIGAN
  Grand Rapids Area-Jenison - 1st Mon. (MO)
        Bill & Marge 616-383-0382
  Greater Detroit Area
        Nancy 248-642-8077
  Ann Arbor
        Martha 734-439-8119
MINNESOTA 
        Terry & Collette 507-642-3630
        Dan & Joan 651-631-2247
MISSOURI
  Kansas City  -  Meeting as called
        Pat 785-738-4840
  St. Louis Area  -  call for meeting time
        Karen 314-432-8789
  Springfield - 4th Sat. Apr,Jul,Oct @12:30pm
        Tom 417-753-4878
        Roxie 417-781-2058
MONTANA
  Lee & Avone 406-443-3189
NEW JERSEY 
  Southern
        Sally 609-927-5343
  Northern
        Nancy 973-729-1433 
NEW MEXICO
  Albuquerque  -2nd Sat. (bi-MO) @1 pm
  Southwest Room - Presbyterian Hospital
        Maggie 505-662-7521 (after 6:30 pm)
        Sy 505-758-0726
NEW YORK 
  Westchester, Rockland, etc.
        Barbara 914-761-3627
  Upstate/Albany Area
        Elaine 518-399-5749
NORTH CAROLINA
  Susan 704-538-7202
OHIO
  Cincinnati
        Bob 513-541-0816 or 513-541-5272
  Cleveland
        Bob & Carole 440-356-4544
OKLAHOMA
  Oklahoma City
        Dee 405-942-0531
  Tulsa
        Jim 918-297-7719
PENNSYLVANIA
  Harrisburg
        Paul & Betty 717-691-7660
  Pittsburgh
        Rick & Renee 412-563-5509
  Montrose
        John 717-278-2040
  Wayne (includes S. NJ) - 2nd Sat. (MO)
        Jim & Jo 610-783-0396
TENNESSEE
  Nashville - Wed. (MO) @1pm
        Kate 615-665-1160
TEXAS 
    Houston
        Jo or Beverly 713-464-8970
   El Paso
        Mary Lou 915-591-0271
UTAH
        Keith 801-467-0669
VERMONT (bi-MO) 
        Judith 802-229-5154
VIRGINIA
        Sue 703-273-2343
WISCONSIN
        Katie & Leo 414-476-0285 or
        Susanne & John 608-427-3686
_____________
INTERNATIONAL

BRITISH COLUMBIA, CANADA
  Vancouver & Mainland 
        Ruth 604-925-1539
  Victoria & Vancouver Island - 3rd Tues. (MO) @7:30pm
        John 250-721-3219
MANITOBA
  Winnipeg
        Roma 240-275-5723
ONTARIO, CANADA 
  London -2nd Sun (bi-MO)
        Adriaan 519-471-6338
  Ottawa
        Eileen 613-836-3294
  Toronto /N. York
        Pat 416-444-9078
  Warkworth
        Ethel 705-924-2546
  Burlington
        Ken & Marina 905-637-6030
  Waubaushene
        Paula 705-543-0318
QUEBEC, CANADA 
  Montreal
        Alain 514-335-0863
  St. Andre Est.
        Mavis 450-537-8187
AUSTRALIA
        Mike 0754-842-348 
         fax 0754-841-051 
ISRAEL
  FMS ASSOCIATION fax-(972) 2-625-9282 
NETHERLANDS
  Task Force FMS of Werkgroep Fictieve 
  Herinneringen
        Anna (31) 20-693-5692
NEW ZEALAND
        Colleen (09) 416-7443
SWEDEN
        Ake Moller FAX (48) 431-217-90
UNITED KINGDOM
  The British False Memory Society
        Madeline (44) 1225 868-682

          __________________________________________________
          Deadline for the Jan/Feb Newsletter is December 15
                  Meeting notices MUST be in writing
    and should be sent no later than TWO MONTHS PRIOR TO MEETING.

+--------------------------------------------------------------------+
|          Do you have access to e-mail?  Send a message to          |
|                         pjf@cis.upenn.edu                          |
| if  you wish to receive electronic versions of this newsletter and |
| notices of radio and television  broadcasts  about  FMS.  All  the |
| message need say is "add to the FMS-News". It would be useful, but |
| not necessary,  if you add your full name (all addresses and names |
| will remain strictly confidential).                                |
+--------------------------------------------------------------------+
**********************************************************************
  The False Memory Syndrome Foundation is a qualified 501(c)3 corpora-
tion  with  its  principal offices in Philadelphia and governed by its 
Board of Directors.  While it encourages participation by its  members
in  its  activities,  it must be understood that the Foundation has no 
affiliates and that no other organization or person is  authorized  to
speak for the Foundation without the prior written approval of the Ex-
ecutive Director. All membership dues and contributions to the Founda-
tion must be forwarded to the Foundation for its disposition.
**********************************************************************

Pamela Freyd, Ph.D.,  Executive Director

FMSF Scientific and Professional Advisory Board,     November 1, 2000

AARON T. BECK, M.D., D.M.S., University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia,
PA;  TERENCE W. CAMPBELL, Ph.D.,  Clinical  and  Forensic  Psychology,
Sterling Heights, MI;  ROSALIND CARTWRIGHT, Ph.D.,  Rush  Presbyterian
St. Lukes Medical Center, Chicago, IL; JEAN CHAPMAN, Ph.D., University
of Wisconsin, Madison, WI; LOREN CHAPMAN, Ph.D., University of Wiscon-
sin, Madison, WI; FREDERICK C. CREWS, Ph.D., University of California,
Berkeley,  CA;  ROBYN M. DAWES,  Ph.D.,  Carnegie  Mellon  University,
Pittsburgh,  PA;  DAVID F. DINGES, Ph.D.,  University of Pennsylvania,
Philadelphia, PA; HENRY C. ELLIS, Ph.D.,  University  of  New  Mexico,
Albuquerque, NM; FRED H. FRANKEL, MBChB, DPM, Harvard University Medi-
cal School,  Boston MA;  GEORGE K. GANAWAY, M.D.,  Emory University of
Medicine,  Atlanta,  GA;  MARTIN GARDNER,  Author, Hendersonville, NC;
ROCHEL GELMAN, Ph.D., University of California, Los Angeles, CA; HENRY
GLEITMAN, Ph.D.,  University of Pennsylvania,  Philadelphia, PA;  LILA
GLEITMAN, Ph.D., University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA; RICHARD
GREEN, M.D., J.D., Charing Cross Hospital, London;  DAVID A. HALPERIN,
M.D.,  Mount Sinai School of Medicine,  New York, NY;  ERNEST HILGARD,
Ph.D.,  Stanford University,  Palo Alto, CA;  JOHN HOCHMAN, M.D., UCLA
Medical School, Los Angeles, CA; DAVID S. HOLMES, Ph.D., University of
Kansas,  Lawrence, KS;  PHILIP S. HOLZMAN, Ph.D.,  Harvard University,
Cambridge,  MA;   ROBERT A. KARLIN,  Ph.D.,  Rutgers  University,  New 
Brunswick, NJ;  HAROLD LIEF, M.D.,  University of Pennsylvania, Phila-
delphia,  PA;  ELIZABETH LOFTUS, Ph.D., University of Washington, Sea-
tle, WA; SUSAN L. McELROY, M.D., University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati,
OH; PAUL McHUGH, M.D., Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD; HAROLD
MERSKEY, D.M., University of Western Ontario, London, Canada;  SPENCER
HARRIS  MORFIT,  Author,  Westford, MA;  ULRIC NEISSER, Ph.D., Cornell
University, Ithaca, N.Y.; RICHARD OFSHE, Ph.D., University of Califor-
nia, Berkeley, CA;  EMILY CAROTA ORNE, B.A., University of Pennsylvan-
ia, Philadelphia, PA; MARTIN ORNE, M.D., Ph.D., (deceased)  University
of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA; LOREN PANKRATZ, Ph.D.,Oregon Health
Sciences  University, Portland , OR;  CAMPBELL PERRY, Ph.D., Concordia 
University, Montreal, Canada;  MICHAEL A. PERSINGER, Ph.D., Laurentian 
University, Ontario, Canada;  AUGUST T. PIPER, Jr., M.D., Seattle, WA;
HARRISON POPE, Jr., M.D.,  Harvard Medical School,  Boston, MA;  JAMES
RANDI,  Author and Magician,  Plantation, FL;  HENRY L. ROEDIGER, III,
Ph.D.,  Washington  University,  St. Louis, MO;  CAROLYN SAARI, Ph.D.,
Loyola University, Chicago, IL;  THEODORE SARBIN, Ph.D., University of
California, Santa Cruz, CA;  THOMAS A. SEBEOK, Ph.D., Indiana Univers-
ity,  Bloomington, IN;  MICHAEL A. SIMPSON, M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., M.R.C,
D.O.M., Center for Psychosocial &  Traumatic Stress,  Pretoria,  South
Africa;  MARGARET  SINGER, Ph.D.,  University of California, Berkeley,
CA; RALPH SLOVENKO, J.D., Ph.D., Wayne State  University  Law  School, 
Detroit, MI; DONALD SPENCE, Ph.D., Robert Wood Johnson Medical Center,
Piscataway, NJ;  JEFFREY  VICTOR, Ph.D.,  Jamestown Community College,
Jamestown, NY;  HOLLIDA WAKEFIELD, M.A.,  Institute  of  Psychological
Therapies, Northfield, MN;  CHARLES A. WEAVER, III, Ph.D.  Baylor Uni-
versity, Waco, TX.

**********************************************************************
   Y E A R L Y   FMSF   M E M B E R S H I P   I N F O R M A T I O N
                                   
Professional - Includes Newsletter       $125_______

Family - Includes Newsletter             $100_______

                       Additional Contribution:_____________

PLEASE FILL OUT ALL INFORMATION

___VISA:  Card: #________-________-________-________ exp. date ___/___

___MASTER CARD: #________-________-________-________ exp. date ___/___

___Check or Money Order: Payable to FMS FOUNDATION IN U.S. DOLLARS.


______________________________________________________________________
Signature


______________________________________________________________________
Name (PLEASE PRINT)

______________________________________________________________________
Street Address or P.O.Box


______________________________________________________________________
City                                 State         Zip+4


(_____)_____________________________(_____)___________________________
Telephone                           FAX

*  MAIL the completed form with payment to: 
FMS Foundation, 1955 Locust Street, Philadelphia, PA 19103-5766

*  FAX your order to 215-940-1042. Fax orders cannot be processed 
without credit card information.