FMSF NEWSLETTER ARCHIVE - May 1998 - Vol. 7, No. 4, HTML version


Return to FMSF Home Page

**********************************************************************
ISSN #1069-0484.           Copyright (c) 1998  by  the  FMS Foundation
**********************************************************************
    The FMSF Newsletter is published 10 times a year by the  False
    Memory  Syndrome  Foundation.  A hard-copy subscription is in-
    cluded in membership fees (to join, see last page). Others may
    subscribe  by  sending  a  check  or  money  order, payable to 
    FMS Foundation, to the address below. 1998 subscription rates:
    USA: 1 year $30,  Student $15;  Canada: $35 (in U.S. dollars);
    Foreign: $40;  Foreign  student  $20;  Single issue price: $3. 
    3401  Market  Street  suite  130,  Philadelphia, PA 19104-3315

This address and the phone numbers have changed as of July 15, 2000
                 Phone 215-387-1865, Fax 215-387-1917
**********************************************************************
IN THIS ISSUE:
  Allen Feld
    Legal Corner
      Goodyear-Smith, M.D.
        Kathy Begert
          From Our Readers
            Bulletin Board
**********************************************************************

Dear Friends,

    ``Numerous studies in children and adults have found that
    psychologically traumatic events often result in an inability to
    forget, rather than a complete expulsion from awareness. Amnesia
    for prolonged recurrent abuse is rare. Adult patients suffering
    from amnesia are well aware of the gap in their memory.''

    ``The issue of false or recovered memories should not be allowed
    to confuse the recognition and treatment of sexually abused
    children. We concluded that when memories are 'recovered' after
    long periods of amnesia, particularly when extraordinary means
    were used to secure the recovery of memory, there is a high
    probability that the memories are false, i.e. of incidents that
    had not occurred''

         British Journal of Psychiatry 172  294-307 April 1998
         Review Article: Recovered memories of childhood sexual abuse:
                         Implications for clinical practice
         Brandon, S., Boakes, J., Glaser, D., and Green, R.

In May 1995 the Royal College of Psychiatrists in England set up a
working party to examine the issue of recovered memories. The Working
Party submitted its report in the summer of 1996. In October 1997, the
Royal College published consensus recommendations for good practice.
(See FMSF Newsletter November, 1997). On April 1, 1998 the report
commissioned by the Royal College was published in the British Journal
of Psychiatry. Rather than describe the report, which speaks for
itself, we will print a few comments from it.

The report is unambiguous about techniques that have been promoted to
``recover memories'':

   * CHECK-LISTS: There is no evidence that any check lists,
   syndromes, symptoms or signs indicate with any degree of
   reliability that an individual has been sexually abused in the
   remote past.

   * DRUG-INDUCED ABREACTION: It is inappropriate to use repeated
   abreaction to `trawl' for traumatic events. There is considerable
   anecdotal clinical evidence that in repeated sessions patients will
   eventually generate material which is a produce of fantasy. Even in
   a single session of abreaction great caution is required.

   * HYPNOSIS: This technique has been shown to be unreliable as a
   means of eliciting memories of past events, and such `memories' are
   no longer admitted as legal testimony.  

   * AGE REGRESSION: There is no evidence for the efficacy of this
   technique, nor can it be shown that the subject's `memories'
   actually do regress to the target age.

   * DREAM INTERPRETATION: There is no evidence that dreams are a
   `royal road' to historical accuracy; and interpretations usually
   reflect the training and personal convictions of the therapist.

   * IMAGISTIC AND `FEELINGS' WORK AND ART THERAPY: Although many of
   these techniques are applications of accepted clinical practice,
   they can be powerfully suggestive and induce trance-like states.
   The beliefs of the therapist are the determining factor in how a
   patient's productions are shaped.

   * SURVIVORS' GROUPS: Whilst these can be supportive, the practice
   of mixing those who clearly remember abuse with those who are
   suspected by the therapist of having repressed their memories has
   been strongly criticized because of the risk of suggestion and
   contagion among group members.

The authors of the report examined a great number of articles,
research and reports. Their conclusion:

   ``There is a vast literature but little acceptable research.
   Opinions are expressed with great conviction but often unsupported
   by evidence.''

The report carefully defines what it means by the term ``recovered
memories'' and FMS:

   ``A recovered memory, in the context of this paper, is the
   emergence of an apparent recollection of childhood sexual abuse of
   which the individual had no previous knowledge. An individual who
   had always had a memory of sexual abuse, but who chose not to think
   or talk about it, is excluded by this definition, as are memories
   of non-sexual events. Reports of childhood abuse which had never
   been forgotten, and reports by children of current abuse are also
   excluded. We were concerned exclusively with adults, often in their
   30s and 40s, who reported memories of child sexual abuse after
   decades in which no such suspicion had been raised and of which
   they had no prior memory. `Recovery' of memory should be
   distinguished from `retrieval' of memory by active recall or simple
   `remembering,' which are normal, everyday occurrences.''

   ``FMS is more than a simple recollection of a forgotten event, or
   even of a disputed event. It entails major disruption of the
   personality and family relationships.''

The report notes that:

   ``The very inability to recall abuse is taken as a sign that abuse
   has occured but is being `denied' through the process of
   repression.''

And that:

   ``Not all cases of false memory arise from therapeutic practice.
   Increasingly the request for `memory recovery therapy' is initiated
   by a client who has read one of a number of self-help books.''

In commenting on the statements from professional organizations, the
report notes:

   ``In their efforts to remain impartial they have failed to resolve
   the impasse between research and clinical observation.''

The report observes that:

   ``The growth in the USA of `recovered memory therapy' for past
   sexual abuse has caused great public and professional concern. It
   became apparent that the polarisation of views and fierce
   controversy within the American psychiatric community was in danger
   of bringing psychotherapy into disrepute and it seemed important to
   examine objectively the scientific evidence before such
   polarisation developed in the UK.''

The report commissioned by the Royal Society of Psychiatrists sets a
standard that challenges those organizations that made earlier
statements to revise them. Making such changes will probably meet with
resistance. The commentary by Felicity Goodyear-Smith in this issue
observes that professionals who support the belief system of recovered
memory therapy still hold to its fundamental tenets while
acknowledging that false memories can be created in therapy.

                                * * *
As usual, the past month was filled with events. In the legal section
there are two instances in which appeal-level courts have given third-
parties the right to pursue legal actions. A comment by the judges in
one of the cases deserves consideration.

   ``While we recognize that great social utility arises from allowing
   therapists to diagnose sexual abuse, no social utility can be
   derived from shielding therapists who make cavalier diagnoses that
   have profound detrimental effects on the lives of the accused and
   their family.''

In contrast to the legal decisions mentioned, the Arizona Board of
Medical Examiners seems not to consider it even worth disciplining a
psychiatrist who destroyed a family (see page 5). As we wrote about
that situation, we could not help but reflect on the fact that when
the doctor had a complaint filed against him, he was afforded the
privilege of having a hearing and a lawyer to represent him. In
contrast, the family members who have been accused in this FMS panic
were never afforded such a forum in which to defend themselves. They
were found guilty by accusation. Because the ethics committees of the
professionals organizations and the license boards that seem to
represent the professionals rather than the public have not responded
to the FMS problem, it is likely that the amount of legal activity
will continue to increase.

Justice and fairness should belong to all citizens.
                                                                PAMELA

     +----------------------------------------------------------+
     |                      SPECIAL THANKS                      |
     |                                                          |
     |      We extend a very special `Thank you' to all of      |
     |     the people who help prepare the FMSF Newsletter.     |  
     |                                                          |
     |  EDITORIAL SUPPORT: Toby Feld, Allen Feld,               |
     |         Janet Fetkewicz, Howard Fishman, Peter Freyd     |
     |  RESEARCH: Merci Federici, Michele Gregg, Anita Lipton   |
     |  NOTICES and PRODUCTION: Ric Powell                      |
     |  COLUMNISTS: Katie Spanuello and                         |
     |      members of the FMSF Scientific Advisory Board       |
     |  LETTERS and INFORMATION: Our Readers                    |
     |                                                          |
     | Thank you to Patrick Fitzgerald who maintains a Web site |
     | for the FMS Foundation. The address of the site is:      |
     |              http://advicom.net/~fitz/fmsf/              |
     +----------------------------------------------------------+

 ______________________________SIDEBAR_______________________________
/                                                                    \
| ``I have this absolute belief that everyone who has benefited has  |
| an obligation to do for others if that chance arises.''            |
|                                   Former Senator George Mitchell   |
|                                                                    |
| If you have benefited from the existence of the FMS Foundation,    |
| please be generous with your ongoing support and contributions so  |
| that we can continue to help others. The problem, alas, is not     |
| over.                                                              |
\____________________________________________________________________/

      _________________________________________________________
      Foundation Involved in Continuing Education for Attorneys 
The Litigation and Criminal Law Sections of the Connecticut Bar
Association have been joined by the Foundation in sponsoring
``Eyewitness Testimony and False Memories.'' This legal continuing
education program will be held Friday, May 15, from 9:00 AM until 1:30
PM at the Holiday Inn in Hartford, CT and awards four hours of CLE
Credit. The featured speakers and their topics are: Elizabeth Loftus
Ph.D., ``Research on Memory Creation;'' Thomas Pavlinic, ``How Science
is Used in the Courts'' and Charles W. Fleischmann, ``A Case Example:
Defending the Accused.''
  Registration information can be obtained from the Connecticut Bar
Association, 101 Corporate Place, Rocky Hill, CT 06067; phone (860)
721-0025; fax (860) 257-4125. CBA Web Site: http://www.ctbar.org.
  The Foundation will cooperate with other attorneys who would like to
plan a suitable CLE program in their area. Call the Foundation CE
staff at (215) 387-8663.

Note added August 2002: The CT Bar Association is now located at
30 Bank St., PO Box 350, New Britain, CT 06050-0350; tel. 860-223-4400,
fax 860-223-4488.

    ____________________________________________________________
    Normative Sexual Behavior in Children: A Contemporary Sample
Friedrich, W.N., Fisher, J., Broughton, D. Houston, M. and Shafran C.
                 Pediatrics Vol. 101 No 4 April 1998
A study of 1114 children between 2 and 12 years conducted through the
Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota concluded that: A broad range of
sexual behaviors are exhibited by children who there is no reason to
believe have been sexually abused. Their relative frequency is similar
to two earlier studies, and this reinforces the validity of these
results.
           _______________________________________________
           Lawsuits against University Counseling Programs
Many families have written to the Foundation complaining about the
therapy their children received through university counseling
programs. Legal actions in this area are starting. In the past few
months there has been news of suits by former students brought against
counseling programs for implanting memories at Drake University,
Syracuse University and three suits at the University of Wisconsin. If
the number of complaints received by the Foundation is any indication,
it is likely there will be many more such suits.

                _____________________________________
                Right to Urge Feds to Probe Wenatchee
                  Seattle Post Intelligencer 4/10/98
A call for congressional hearings into the Wenatchee tangle has
support in an editorial in the Seattle Post Intelligencer. Organized
by Jack Hill, Pierce County public defender and Kathryn Lyon, author
of ``Witch Hunt,'' a petition is being circulated asking for
congressional hearings and an investigation by the Justice Department
or by the Department of Health and Human Services.
  According to the PI, the Washington state government is the
perpetrator in the Wenatchee prosecutions and appears too biased to
subject itself to reform. Hill and Lyon note that all of the
``notorious prosecutions'' have occurred under the umbrella of a
federal law, the Mondale Act, that governs and finances child-
protection systems nationwide. While the systems are run by the
states, the blueprint is federal.
  Pierce and Lyon write: ``The events in Wenatchee were not a local
aberration. Instead, they may one day prove to be the most egregious
of many notorious prosecutions and family interventions in the
nation.''
  Readers may add their names to the petition by writing:

    John H. Hill
    Pierce Cnty Dept Assigned Counsel
    949 Market St. No 334

This address and the phone numbers have changed as of July 15, 2000
    Tacoma, WA  98402-3696
    Fax: 253-798-6715
    Email: jhill@co.pierce.wa.us

                    _____________________________
                    Remember Those Justice Forgot
               Editorial, Globe and Mail,April 15, 1998
Hundreds of people in Canada appear to have been imprisoned solely on
``recovered memory'' evidence. This editorial notes that ``recovered-
memory therapy was one of the most pernicious trends to sweep North
America in the late 1980s and early 1990s, fracturing thousands of
families and leading to hundreds of arrests and financially crippling
lawsuits.'' It calls on Minister Anne McLellan to order an ``inquiry
into all convictions based on this internationally discredited
therapeutic theory.'' The editorial notes that there is a precedent
for doing this in Canada. In 1995 Ontario reviewed approximately 100
cases of women convicted of murder before 1990 when the Supreme Court
ruled that battered-women syndrome was a legitimate defence. With the
publication of position papers from America, Australia, Canada and
most recently from the Royal College of Psychiatrists in England,
there is no longer any question about the fact that ``recovered
memories'' triggered in adults during psychotherapy are unreliable and
should not be accepted without corroborating evidence. The editorial
concludes that ``an urgent and powerful need exists to act on this
matter without delay.''

   Honourable Anne McLellan, P.C., M.P., Minister of Justice and
   Attorney General of Canada, Room 350, Justice Building, 239
   Wellington Street, Ottawa K1A 0H8

**********************************************************************
 S E P A R A T I N G   T H E   T R E N D Y   F R O M   T H E   T R U E
                              FMSF Staff

    ``Before a new drug is approved for use by the public, it must
    undergo rigorous scientific trials that include testing against
    control groups and specific tracking to see whether the drug works
    as advertised.''[1]

Similar statements have appeared in past FMSF Newsletters in reference
to recovered memory therapy practices. This quotation, however, comes
from an article in the Arizona Republic regarding a recent report on
prevention and treatment programs for family violence.
  According to a recent report by the National Research Council, an
arm of the National Academy of Sciences, ``taxpayers spend billions of
dollars a year on programs to treat domestic violence and child and
elder abuse that haven't been measured using scientifically valid
evaluations.'' But money's not the only thing at stake. There's also
the health and lives of some of society's most vulnerable members,
especially children and the elderly. The article concludes with the
obvious: Only scientific evaluations can separate the trendy from the
true.
  A ``trendy'' healing program was exposed this month when the Journal
of the American Medical Association published an article written by an
11-year-old girl debunking ``therapeutic touch.''[2] Practitioners of
``therapeutic touch'' are called ``healers.'' Healers pass their hands
over a patient's body without touching it, supposedly manipulating a
``human energy field'' that enhances recovery.
  Tens of thousands of people have been trained in the use of this
technique. It is offered by more than 80 hospitals nationwide and
qualifies for insurance reimbursement. Emily Rosa, a fourth-grader,
set out to challenge this technique. She designed an experiment for a
school science project in which she and one of several healers were
separated by a screen. Emily used a coin flip to determine whether to
put her hand over the healer's left or right hand. The healers were
then asked to say whether they felt energy over their left or right
hand. The subjects picked the correct hand only 44% of the time, worse
than guessing.
  ``Facilitated Communication''[3] is another widely-used program that
has been debunked by a simple experiment. In FC, a facilitator gives
physical assistance to non-speakers (usually autistic children) by
guiding their hands to letters on a keyboard. Children who had not
previously uttered a word suddenly began writing beautiful poetry and
expressions of love for their parents.
  When alleged cases of sexual abuse were reported through FC writing,
researchers began to pay attention. Several empirical studies
concluded that facilitators were manipulating the outcomes though they
claimed to be unaware of their influence.
  ``With so little scientific evidence that these programs work, how is
it that they are adopted and flourish?'' asked the article in the
Arizona Republic. How, indeed.

[1] Frerking, Beth.  ``Lives at Stake'', Arizona Republic , March 29,
    1998.
[2] Rosa L and Rosa, Emily, Sarner, L & Barrett, S ``A close look at
    therapeutic touch,'' JAMA 279:(13) 1005-1010,   April 1, 1998
[3] Facilitated Communication. See FMSF Newsletters June 1993, March
    1994, October 1994, March 1995, November 1995

 ______________________________SIDEBAR_______________________________
/                                                                    \
|             ``Psychiatrists condemn a trendy therapy''             |
|                                                                    |
| ``The worst aspect of all this is that so far no one has done      |
| anything about helping the therapists' victims. We are going to    |
| press for counter-therapy systems to be set up to undo the damage. |
| It will cause even more problems as the therapists who caused the  |
| problems will claim they are right. But we have to think of the    |
| people they have damaged.''                                        |
|                             Professor Brandon, Daily Mail (4/1/98) |
\____________________________________________________________________/

**********************************************************************

                 P L A Y I N G   A T   S C I E N C E
                              Allen Feld

Recently, I was speaking with parents Renee and Richard Althaus, whose
daughter Nicole had accused them of sexual abuse, leading to their
arrest. The daughter has since retracted and they have successfully
sued psychiatrist Judith Cohen, who was used as a consulting
psychiatrist after the false accusations were made.
  My call to the family was prompted by a discussion of their legal
case in a book written by Daniel Brown, Alan W. Scheflin and D.
Corydon Hammond [1], three advocates of legal and clinical positions
antithetical to those held by supporters of the False Memory Syndrome
Foundation.
  This 786-page book carries the hefty price of $100.00. I have read
only selected portions and this personal essay is not intended to be a
review of the book. Rather it is to draw a comparison between the
manner in which the Althaus case was documented by Brown, Scheflin and
Hammond and by Carl Sagan in The Demon-Hunted World.[2]
  After hearing the several paragraphs from the Brown, Scheflin and
Hammond book, Richard and Renee pointed to some misinformation in that
book that could have been readily avoided. Rather than reviewing the
actual trial transcript, it appears the authors chose to rely on the
interpretations provided by defense expert witness Thomas G. Guthiel,
M.D. via personal correspondence. Thus the three advocates wrote
things like: Dr. Cohen ``...did not believe her patient...''; ``...did
not accept the full story...'' without citing a source for those
claims. In fact, it is easily discernible from the pleadings and the
judge's decisions that the therapist believed that the ``...abuse
allegations were valid.'' While using personal correspondence is
neither unusual nor inappropriate, its use in replacing a readily
accessible primary source is unheard of in a scientific book.
  In contrast, when Carl Sagan decided to describe the same case in
Demon-Haunted World, a fact-checker contacted the family to verify the
information. His description of the case, therefore, was quite
different.
  The Althauses, parents of the patient, have had their case under
appeal, and on April 14, 1998 the Superior Court of Pennsylvania ruled
in their favor. (A discussion of that decision is in the Legal Corner
of this issue.) Some of the language in the majority decision is
important for this commentary. Judge Justin M. Johnson, writing for
the majority, includes these important observations:

   Dr. Cohen became deeply enmeshed in the legal proceedings against
   the Althauses and, in doing so, placed herself in a role that
   extended well beyond the therapeutic treatment context.

   However, because she chose to take this active role, the Althauses,
   as alleged child abusers, had a reasonable expectation that
   Dr. Cohen's diagnosis of Nicole, affecting them as it did, would be
   carefully made and would not be reached in a negligent manner.

  The majority of this court, after reviewing the same facts, disagreed
with the ill-founded position taken in the book. Brown, Scheflin and
Hammond distort the facts in Althaus v. Cohen.
  As readers of this newsletter are all too aware, much of what is
passed off as scholarly work in this field may be nothing more than
``junk science.'' We assuredly cannot judge any book by its cover,
price or length. Despite the fact that it looks like science, sounds
like science and is big and expensive like some scientific books, it
may not be science.

[1] Brown, D. Scheflin, A. W. & Hammond, D. C. (1998). Memory, Trauma
    and the Law: An Essential Reference for Clinicians, Researchers,
    Attorneys and Judges. New York: W. W. Norton & Company. pp. 565-6.
[2] Sagan, C. (1995). The Demon-Hunted World: Science as a Candle in
    the Dark. New York: Random House, p 166.

   Allen Feld is Director of Continuing Education for the FMS
   Foundation. He has retired from the faculty of the School of Social
   Work at Marywood University in Pennsylvania.

**********************************************************************
                ______________________________________
                Idaho Passes Mental Health Legislation
In March, 1998 Idaho passed consumer protection legislation. The bill
states that: ``the purpose of this legislation is to provide
safeguards for the public against unqualified providers practicing
professional counseling without a license by changing the Idaho
Counselor Licensing Law from a title act to a practice act. This
legislation would prevent all mental health practitioners, i.e.
psychologists, social workers, and counselors, who have lost their
license for misconduct or those who have not obtained a minimum
standard of competence from practicing as a counselor.'' The need for
change in legislation in Idaho was evidenced when psychologist Mark
Stevenson had his license suspended by the psychology licensing board
because of implanting false memories and violations of the ethics
code. (See FMSF Newsletter June, 1996) Stevenson continued in business
but called himself a ``counselor.''

                           ________________
                           Vigil for Souzas
On April 9, 1998, Good Friday, a vigil to voice hope and support for
the Souzas was held in Lowell, MA. The Souzas, who have been under
house arrest for the past six years, may be sent to prison on April 27
when they have a hearing before Judge Dolan who found them guilty of
child abuse in 1992.

             ___________________________________________
             False Memory Doctor Gets Minimal Discipline
                 Tucson Citizen Writer, April 2, 1998 
A woman had no previous history of mental disorder or aberrant conduct
and had functioned well prior to therapy. She had a masters degree and
a good job, was married with children. After therapy, the patient was
hospitalized several times, attempted suicide, lost her job and was
forced to go on disability.
  In response to questions about why his patient's condition worsened,
Dr. Donald J. Garland explained that a patient who has developed
dissociation typically regresses into instability before improving.
Dr. Garland, who found 30 to 40 personalities in this patient, was
criticized for failing to keep adequate records and documentation of
his treatment of the patient. The patient told investigators that the
idea of multiple personalities was first suggested by her doctor, but
she did not believe she had been harmed by his treatment. Family
members, including the sister of the patient, told investigators that
there had been no childhood abuse and her body showed no physical
evidence of abuse. They said she had close and affectionate ties to
her parents and grandparents until therapy started. A complaint was
brought by family members against Dr. Garland. The Arizona Board of
Medical Examiners gave the smallest penalty possible. No limits or
sanctions will be levied against his ability to practice psychiatry in
Arizona. The complaining parent who had wanted his license revoked may
appeal this decision.

  Editor's Comment: This appears to be another example of the failure
  of license boards to protect the public.

**********************************************************************
                       L E G A L   C O R N E R
                              FMSF Staff
                 ____________________________________
                 Two State Appellate Courts Hold that
Therapists Owe a Duty to Third-Party Accused Parents in Malpractice
Suits Two state appellate courts have recently held that under certain
circumstances therapists may owe a duty to the person their patient
accuses of sexual abuse. In each case, the therapist's patient had no
memory of sexual abuse by her parents prior to entering therapy. The
accused parents argued that their injury was serious and foreseeable
and was directly caused by allegations which developed during therapy.
Furthermore, the parents argued, the therapist was the only one in a
position to ensure that the treatment did not cause harm to others
when that harm was foreseeable.
  Defendants in both cases argued that to extend their duty beyond
their patients to a third party would impose too great a burden on the
therapist because it would cause therapists to be overly concerned
about the possible impact of their actions on some third party who was
not a patient. In addition, defendants argued, imposing a duty to a
third party would have a chilling effect on the treatment and
reporting of child abuse and is, therefore, contrary to public policy.
  The two recent decisions reported below rejected defense arguments.
The Wisconsin Appellate Court emphasized that the serious harm a false
accusation of sexual abuse inflicts [1] cannot be easily dismissed:
``We cannot conclude that public policy requires such injured
plaintiffs to go without a remedy simply because they are the parents
of the accuser.'' The Pennsylvania Superior Court similarly concluded:
``While we recognize that great social utility arises from allowing
therapists to diagnose sexual abuse, no social utility can be derived
from shielding therapists who make cavalier diagnoses that have
profound detrimental effects on the lives of the accused and their
family.''
    ______________________________________________________________
    Wisconsin Appellate Court Revives Third-Party Malpractice Suit
                         Sawyer v. Midelfort
 Court of Appeals, Dist. III, Wisconsin, No. 97-1969, March 17, 1998.
In March 1998, a Wisconsin Appeals Court revived a third-party
negligence lawsuit that contends a psychiatrist and a therapist caused
a woman to falsely accuse her parents of sexually abusing her as a
child. The court reversed the portion of the summary judgment that
ordered the dismissal of the accused parents' malpractice complaint,
holding that under the facts of the case, a duty was owed to the
parents, that public policy does not preclude recovery of damages, and
that the claim was not barred as a matter of law by the statute of
limitations. The court, therefore, remanded the case for trial.
  The case alleged negligence by psychiatrist H. Berit Midelfort and
therapist Celia Lausted in their treatment and care of Plaintiff's
adult daughter Anneatra. The Sawyers claim that Lausted negligently
used hypnosis and age regression and Midelfort negligently diagnosed
multiple personality disorder in their daughter, causing her to
develop allegedly false memories of sexual abuse by her father and
various other acquaintances.
  At a meeting in 1985, in her therapist's office, Anneatra accused
her parents of the abuse. Then in 1988, Anneatra initiated a lawsuit
against her parents for damages arising from the alleged abuse.[2]
Anneatra and her parents never spoke again, and Anneatra died of
cancer in 1995.[3]
  After Anneatra died, her mother Delores Sawyer was appointed
administrator of her estate and obtained Anneatra's treatment records.
The Sawyers claim that only after they read their daughter's therapy
records, did they discover the role her treatment had in the recovery
of her allegedly false memories. Prior to that time, the Sawyers say
they were unsure why Anneatra accused them. Soon after, in 1996, the
Sawyers filed this suit on their own behalf, and Delores Sawyer
brought a claim on behalf of Anneatra's estate.
  The Wisconsin Court of Appeals first considered whether the Sawyers'
claims were time-barred as a matter of law. The court held that the
record did not indicate as a matter of law whether plaintiffs
unreasonably delayed in bringing the suit. The court continued that if
it is true, as the Sawyers asserted, that they had no reason to
believe negligent treatment by Anneatra's therapists caused her to
make allegations, and if it is true that they had unsuccessfully tried
to contact their daughter to discern what caused their allegations,
the delay would not be unreasonable.
  Defendants countered that had the Sawyers used reasonable diligence,
they would have discovered the use of hypnosis to develop Anneatra's
memories. Defendants also argue that the Sawyers were on notice in
1985 when the allegations were made in Lausted's office or at least by
1988 when Anneatra filed a lawsuit against her parents. The court
disagreed, ``The facts Lausted offers to prove that the Sawyers should
have known she probably caused the injury are insufficient to
demonstrate this as a matter of law.''
  ``First, the fact that Anneatra's accusations occurred in Lausted's
office does not establish that Lausted caused them through
malpractice. On the contrary, the record suggests the Sawyers could
have attributed the accusations to any number of possible causes
(including psychiatric illness, Anneatra's involvement in survivor
groups, ill will or spite, or the reading of popular literature on
childhood sexual abuse).''
  The court also held that the Sawyers cause of action accrues when it
is complete, that is when the ``last act occurs in a continuum of
negligent acts, and when the plaintiff has a basis for objectively
concluding that the defendant was the cause of the plaintiff's
injuries and damages.'' (emphasis in original) This means that the
Sawyers' allegations would not accrue until Anneatra's therapy ended
in 1994, less than 2 years before this suit was filed and within the
limitations period in Wisconsin.
  The appeals court then considered whether allowing recovery for
psychological harm due to negligence would put too great a burden on
the therapist. The court reasoned, ``The harm such [false accusations
of sexual abuse] inflict cannot be easily dismissed. We cannot
conclude that public policy requires such injured plaintiffs to go
without a remedy simply because they are the parents of the
accuser. The injury alleged by the Sawyers is not one of witnessing
their daughter suffer the injury; rather, the injury is a direct harm
caused by their daughter's accusations...Under Wisconsin law, the
doctrine of public policy, not the doctrine of duty, limits the scope
of the defendant's liability. In Wisconsin, a party is negligent when
he or she commits `an act when some harm to someone is foreseeable.'
While public policy may preclude recovery for purely emotional
injuries that fall within this broad rule, we have already determined
that in this case it does not. Further, although Lausted argues that
she had no duty to determine the truth of what her patient is saying,
she did have a duty to insure that her treatment did not cause harm to
others when some harm was foreseeable. Based on these considerations,
we conclude that the Sawyers stated a proper claim.'' (citations
omitted)
  The case is the first of its kind in Wisconsin and one of the
landmark cases nationally involving false memory, said William Smoler,
attorney for the Sawyers. The defendants have filed an appeal to the
Wisconsin Supreme Court.

[1] ``Society's justifiable repugnance toward (sexual abuse of a
    child) ...is the reason why a falsely accused [person] can be
    gravely harmed.''  Doe v.  Archdiocese of Milwaukee, 211 Wis.2d
    312, 355.
[2] The 1988 lawsuit was apparently dismissed fairly early on,
    although the record does not reveal the reason for dismissal.  
[3] Apparently, the Sawyers were not informed of Anneatra's death
    until an anonymous note appeared on their doorstep three weeks
    later.
                      __________________________
                      Pennsylvania Appeals Court
         Upholds Psychiatrist's Liability to Accused Parents
       Althaus v. Cohen, 1998 Pa. Super. LEXIS 631, 4/13/98.[4]
A psychiatrist who negligently misdiagnosed and treated a patient for
alleged parental sexual abuse, and who participated in criminal
proceedings against the parents, owed a duty of care to the parents
under the facts of the case, a Pennsylvania appeals court decided,
because it was reasonably foreseeable that the parents would be harmed
by the psychiatrist's negligence. In finding a duty owed to the
parents as well as the daughter, the court cited the fact that the
psychiatrist specifically treated the daughter for parental sexual
abuse, that the parents were directly affected by the psychiatrist's
negligent misdiagnosis and treatment, that the psychiatrist was aware
of and actively participated in the criminal proceedings, and that it
was foreseeable that the parents would be harmed by the negligence.
  In a case of first impression, a divided (5-4) Pennsylvania
appellate court affirmed that a psychiatrist owes the parents of a
patient a duty of care when the doctor's actions ``extend well beyond
the psychiatric treatment of the child.'' The court upheld a 1994
Pennsylvania jury award of $272,232 in favor of Richard and Cheryl
Althaus and their daughter as entered against psychiatrist Judith
Cohen and the Western Psychiatric Institute.
  As a result of Nicole's allegations of sexual molestation and ritual
abuse, her parents were arrested on more than one occasion and
criminally charged. Psychiatrist Cohen repeatedly stated that she was
not required to make any determinations about the credibility of
Nicole's allegations, though Cohen testified at a preliminary hearing
in the criminal case against the Althaus parents that she believed
that Nicole had been abused. According to the court, Cohen knew at
least some of Nicole's allegations were not true, but she
``essentially validated...unwittingly false testimony.'' The charges
were finally withdrawn after Nicole underwent an independent
psychiatric examination. The court-appointed psychiatrist testified
that the girl suffered from borderline personality disorder and that
he did not believe that she had ever been abused. The court-appointed
psychiatrist further testified that the abuse allegations were the
product of the disorder, which rendered Nicole unable to distinguish
fact from fantasy.
  The majority concluded that Cohen owed a duty of care not only to
Nicole, but to her parents, who were directly affected by Cohen's
failure to properly diagnose and treat Nicole. ``Dr. Cohen became
deeply enmeshed in the legal proceedings against the Althauses and, in
doing so, placed herself in a role that extended well beyond the
therapeutic treatment context,'' the majority wrote. ``However,
because she chose to take this active role, the Althauses, as alleged
child abusers, had a reasonable expectation that Dr. Cohen's diagnosis
of Nicole, affecting them as it did, would be carefully made and would
not be reached in a negligent manner.''
  The court applied traditional negligence principles of
foreseeability [5] in defining the group of persons who might be
affected by the therapist's actions. The majority wrote that courts
must weigh policy considerations and ``limit liability to those
instances where the harmful consequences of the physician's actions
could reasonably have been foreseen and prevented by the exercise of
reasonable care.''
  The Althaus family was represented by Martha Bailor of Pittsburgh.
Larry Silverman, attorney for Cohen and the clinic, said an appeal is
likely.

[4] See FMSF Newsletters Jan. 1994, Sept. 1996, Sept. 1997 and FMSF
    Brief Bank #2.
[5] The court found support for its decision in the line of cases
    allowing claims by third parties against physicians who failed to
    fully warn their patients to protect others from communicable
    diseases.

  Editor's Note: ``Repression,'' or more recently, ``dissociative
amnesia'' or ``borderline personality disorder'' are often argued to
be the reason a complainant delayed in filing a sexual abuse claim.
Many courts have expressed skepticism about the reliability and
general acceptance of the theory of ``repression'' -- specifically
whether a reliable test exists to determine the accuracy of a
so-called recovered repressed memory. Some courts have found
``repressed'' memory claims inadmissible. Here we report two decisions
for which a diagnosis of ``dissociative amnesia'' or ``borderline
personality disorder'' was pivotal in determining whether a witness's
testimony was credible.
  We note in the report given above that criminal charges against the
Althaus parents were withdrawn after expert testimony was presented
that the girl's abuse allegations were the product of ``borderline
personality disorder'' which rendered her unable to distinguish fact
from fantasy. Though the case reported below is not a ``repressed
memory'' claim, it merits attention because the court held that it was
in error to exclude expert testimony that ``dissociative amnesia'' or
``dissociation'' could impair a witness's ability to perceive,
remember, and recount critical events accurately. We expect to see
similar challenges to claims of ``dissociative amnesia'' or
``dissociation'' in future cases.
        _____________________________________________________
        Expert Testimony: Dissociative Amnesia is a Condition
   that Impairs the Ability to Recall and Recount Events Accurately
    State of Oregon v. Gherasim, 1998 Ore. App. LEXIS 413, 4/1/98
In April 1998, an Oregon Appellate Court ruled that exclusion of
expert testimony regarding the condition, dissociative amnesia, and
specifically its impairment of the ability to recall and recount
events accurately was erroneous.
  The defendant in a kidnapping and attempted rape case said that he
was not the assailant, but was instead, a ``good Samaritan'' who found
the assault victim by the side of the road after she had been
assaulted and attempted to help her. After the event, the woman
presented various contradictory accounts of what had happened to
her. There were no witnesses and no evidence linking the defendant to
the crime other than the testimony of the victim. Defendant appealed
his conviction.
  At trial the defendant had presented expert testimony that the woman
experienced dissociative amnesia, a psychological condition in which a
victim involuntarily blocks from conscious mind the details of
traumatic events, with the resulting memory gaps being filled with
details from later events. The latter process was described by the
defense expert as ``dissociation'' and could explain the different
versions given by the victim because her ability to accurately
perceive, remember, and recount the critical events was impaired. The
appellate court held that such testimony was no different from that of
an ophthalmologist who testifies that an eyewitness has impaired
vision or that of a psychologist who testifies that a witness suffers
from dementia. The court held that expert evidence relating to a
witness's credibility is admissible only if it goes to the
``capacity'' or ``ability'' of the witness to perceive, remember, or
relate. The expert could not, however, state an opinion as to whether
the victim would testify truthfully at trial.
  The appellate court held that exclusion of the defense expert
testimony at trial was in error and was not harmless error since the
expert testimony lay at the heart of the defense. The conviction was
reversed and the case remanded for a new trial.

                   ________________________________
                   Developments in Wenatchee Tangle 
Editor's note: Forty-three people were arrested in Wenatchee
Washington in 1994 and 1995 on 29,726 counts of sexually abusing 60
children. Of the 28 people charged in 1994-95, 14 pleaded guilty, five
were convicted, and charges were dismissed or greatly reduced against
six others. Many of the investigations surrounding the purported sex
rings are now discredited and authorities say the sex-rings never
existed.  Recent months have seen an appeals court overturn
convictions in one case, a judge specially appointed by the state
appeals court sharply criticize techniques used by investigators, a
civil rights trial against investigators begin, and numerous oversight
investigations ordered. Some of these developments are outlined below.
  For more information about the history of the situation in
Wenatchee, see the five-part series of articles in the Seattle
Post-Intelligencer by Andrew Schneider and Mike Barber. The series,
called ``The Power to Harm: A Record of Abuses in Wenatchee'' was
excerpted in The Village Voice during April 1998. The Voice concluded
that the series deserves to win the Pulitzer Prize.

  SPECIAL HEARINGS JUDGE CRITICIZES WENATCHEE INVESTIGATION
TECHNIQUES: Late in March, a judge specially appointed by the state
appeals court sharply criticized techniques used by Wenatchee Police
Detective Robert Perez and other investigators, recommending two
convicted adults be retried. Judge Wallis Friel's 68-page report will
be considered by the appellate judges, who are considering whether to
allow Harold and Idella Everett, an illiterate and developmentally
disabled couple, to have new trials. The Everetts' daughters made
abuse allegations against scores of people after they were placed in
the home of Perez as foster children.

  WENATCHEE DEFENDANTS REFUSED BAIL DESPITE NEW TRIAL ORDER: On March
20, a Superior Court Judge refused to release Carol and Mark Doggett
on bail after their 1995 child-abuse convictions were overturned [6]
and a new trial ordered. The judge explained that because of a 1996
law passed to ``improve the supervision of convicted sex offenders,''
they must wait for the state Supreme Court to rule on an appellate
court reversal of their child-rape convictions. Eric Neilsen, the
Doggetts' attorney, said he would appeal this decision. In December, a
Washington appeals court held that if the Doggetts were retried, a
hearing must first be held to determine the propriety of the police
and Child Protective Services actions that led to the original
charges.

[6] State of Washington v. Carol M.D. and Mark A.D., 1997 Wash. App.
    LEXIS 2021, Dec. 9, 1997.  See FMSF Newsletter March 1998.

  WENATCHEE PUBLIC OFFICIALS ARE DEFENDANTS IN CIVIL TRIAL: Rodriguez,
et al v. Perez, et al, Superior Court Chelan County, Washington, No.
96-2-00704-2.
  Some of those accused of abuse in Wenatchee, but not convicted, are
now suing law enforcement officials, state social workers, and others
for $70 million, claiming their civil rights were violated. Eight
people and three different families have brought this suit.[7] They
are claiming they were arrested falsely, prosecuted maliciously and
denied due process. In addition, they claim that state social workers
acted in concert with law enforcement officials to get children to
make false accusations.
  The civil trial, which began April 6, is expected to provide an
in-depth airing of investigatory techniques used by Wenatchee police
Detective Bob Perez and state Child Protective Services caseworkers.
The trial is being held before a Seattle jury -- it was moved from
Central Washington to ensure fairness -- and is expected to run six to
eight weeks. Up to 200 people have been listed as potential witnesses.
  At issue is whether Perez and other city, county and state officials
abused their authority by falsely accusing Roberson and others of
child sex abuse, accusations resulting from what the plaintiffs say
were months of intimidation and threats to children, the mentally
disabled, the illiterate and the impoverished. Defendants include
Perez, the state Department of Social and Health Services and
individual caseworkers, state-paid mental health therapists, private
therapist Cindy Andrews, the city of Wenatchee and Wenatchee police
chief, and Chelan and Douglas County officials.
  Attorney Robert Van Siclen, who successfully defended several of the
plaintiffs against criminal charges in 1995, represents the plaintiffs
in this action. The Seattle Times and the Seattle News Tribune are
reporting daily highlights of the trial testimony.

[7] The trial is based on a lawsuit filed by pastor Robert ``Roby''
    Roberson and his wife, Connie who were acquitted in 1995 of
    charges of organizing a sex-ring at the Pentecostal church where
    Roberson is pastor. Additional plaintiffs are Honnah Sims, a
    teacher at the church, and Donna Rodriguez. Sims was also
    acquitted, and charges against Rodriguez were dropped when most of
    her accusers recanted.

  TAXPAYERS IN WASHINGTON TO PAY DEFENDANTS' COSTS ASSOCIATED WITH
WENATCHEE CIVIL SUIT: Defendants in the civil suit described above
include city, county, and state agencies, and several law enforcement
agents and social workers working for them. Washington state taxpayers
are paying for the state's attorney general to defend the state's
action in the civil rights case described above. Washington state
taxpayers will also have to cover any damages assessed to the state in
that case.
  Wenatchee city leaders reportedly have taken measures to plan for
the payment of any judgment that might be assessed against the city or
its agents. A major city parking-garage development has been postponed
pending the trial and a routine road-repair project is reportedly in
jeopardy. Attorneys for the City of Wenatchee, its police chief and
Robert Perez told the judge on the eve of trial that the city would
not cover Perez against possible punitive damages and that there was
``significant difference in agreement'' between Perez and the city.

  FIRED DSHS SOCIAL WORKER IN WENATCHEE AWARDED $1.57 MILLION: On
March 18, a Washington jury awarded fired DSHS social worker Jauna
Vasquez $1.57 million. Vasquez was fired not long after she questioned
the propriety of the Wenatchee child sex-abuse investigations. State
officials deny a connection between the investigations and Vasquez's
firing.

  SEVERAL INVESTIGATIONS UNDERWAY IN WENATCHEE: U.S. Attorney General
Janet Reno said she may order a thorough investigation of the
information contained in an investigative series by the Seattle
Post-Intelligencer for new evidence of civil-rights violations
associated with some of the Wenatchee investigations. In 1996, an
earlier Justice Department ``investigation'' reviewed court papers
only and concluded that it did not find sufficient evidence of
criminal wrongdoing by police or prosecutors. At that time, under
Reno's orders, FBI agents were not allowed to question anyone --
police, judges, or defendants.
  Washington State's Family and Children's Ombudsman is heading a team
of investigators that will detail CPS interviewing techniques and the
mental-health treatment given to children in Wenatchee. Gov. Gary
Locke gave $100,000 in emergency funds to the agency in March to hire
four more investigators to speed the review.
  The Washington Senate approved a nonbinding resolution urging the
state Department of Social Health Services to suspend any final
termination of parental rights or adoptions of children from families
convicted in the Wenatchee sex-abuse cases until ``many serious issues
surrounding these cases can be resolved.''

                _____________________________________
                Updates: Cases We Have Been Following

  LATEST SOUZA APPEAL REJECTED: On March 31, the Massachusetts Supreme
Judicial Court rejected the latest appeal by Shirley and Raymond
Souza. The Souzas are expected to move for a new trial on the grounds
that their constitutional right to effective assistance of counsel was
violated. A trial lawyer failed to object to the seating arrangements
for the child witnesses against them. In court, their grandchildren
were seated at an angle so they did not face the Souzas directly.

  RULING IN AMIRAULT CASE EXPECTED MAY 15: Massachusetts Judge Isaac
Borenstein is expected to issue a ruling by May 15 on whether Cheryl
Amirault LeFave should get a new trial. A hearing was held April 14,
in which attorneys for LeFave argued that she deserves a retrial
because recent psychological studies indicate that preschool children
can make up and believe stories suggested to them through questioning
and that they may be manipulated into testifying about abuse that
never happened. They say the studies were published after the Amirault
trials and amount to new evidence.
  At the hearing, Middlesex District Attorney Lynn Rooney admitted
that improperly suggestive techniques were used in interviews with
children who said they were molested at the day care center operated
by the Amiraults. Rooney also admitted that some of the techniques
used during the 1984 interviews were flawed by today's standards.

  UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN CLINIC CLEARED IN CHILD EVALUATION:[8] In
November 1997, a Michigan Circuit Court jury cleared Dr. Kathleen
Faller and the University of Michigan's Family Assessment Clinic of
allegations they botched a 1992 child-abuse evaluation and mislabeled
a father as a pedophile. University of Michigan officials reportedly
spent much of the trial suggesting Larry Champney was a child
molester.
  Champney's lawyers, Lynn Shecter and Demosthenes Lorandos, had
argued that the clinic was ``professionally negligent'' in evaluating
the case and had acted in bad faith.

[8] See FMSF Newsletter December 1997, J. Kresnak, ``Father loses
    lawsuit over abuse inquiry,'' Detroit Free Press, 11/26/97.

  ``REPRESSED MEMORY'' ON TRIAL: Beginning in March 1998, pre-trial
hearings in two cases in two states were called to determine whether
memories of childhood sexual abuse can be ``repressed'' and then
``recovered'' years later and whether a ``recovered memory'' is
sufficiently reliable evidence to be admitted into a courtroom.
  One hearing followed a 1996 Rhode Island Supreme Court ruling[9]
which expressed skepticism about recovered memories and reversed a
conviction based on a woman's recovered memory claims. The court
ordered John Quattrocchi III retried, saying the trial judge failed to
hold a preliminary hearing first, without a jury, to determine whether
his accuser's ``flashbacks'' of abuse, revealed during therapy, were
reliable.
  Another pre-trial evidentiary hearing is being held in Arizona
following remand by an appellate court [10] for further proceedings to
determine whether ``evidence of the underlying claim of repressed
memory is admissible'' under Frye.[11]

[9]  State of R.I. v. Quattrocchi, 681 A.2d 879 (R.I., 1996).
[10] Logerquist v. Danforth, 932 P.2d 281 (Ariz. App., 1996).
[11] Frye v. United States, 283 F. 1913 (D.C. Cir., 1923). Under Frye,
     scientific evidence must be accepted by the relevant scientific
     community in order to be admissible at trial.

  SNOWDEN FREE AFTER ABUSE CLAIMS DISCREDITED:[12] In March 1998,
Grant Snowden was allowed to go free on $50,000 bond. Snowden, 51, a
decorated police officer, was convicted in 1986 of sexually abusing
two children at his wife's home day care. The 11th U.S. Circuit Court
declared Snowden's 1986 trial ``fundamentally unfair,'' reversed his
conviction last month, and ordered the state of Florida to release him
or grant him a speedy trial.

[12] For more information, see Rabinowitz, D. ``Commentary, Through
     the Darkness,'' Wall Street Journal, 4/8/98.  FMSF Newsletter
     April 1998
 ______________________________SIDEBAR_______________________________
/                                                                    \
| ``While we recognize that great social utility arises from allow-  |
| ing therapists to diagnose sexual abuse, no social utility can be  |
| derived from shielding therapists who make cavalier diagnoses that |
| have profound detrimental effects on the lives of the accused and  |
| their family.''                                                    |
|                                       Superior Court Judge Johnson |
|                       writing for the majority in Althaus v. Cohen |
|                              Superior Court, Penn., April 13, 1998 |
\____________________________________________________________________/

 ______________________________SIDEBAR_______________________________
/                                                                    \
| One of the principal lessons of the Wenatchee ``witch hunt'' is    |
| that when the due process of law is ignored or unenforced, it is   |
| frightfully easy for vested interests to manipulate, coerce and    |
| trample the rights of parents and children. Proper procedures,     |
| regulations and guidelines offer little protection when those who  |
| `know what is best for us' circumvent the law. It's a lesson we    |
| need to learn-again.                                               |
|                                     Seattle Times, March 18, 1998  |
|                                                    Richard Warner  |
\____________________________________________________________________/

**********************************************************************
                        B O O K   R E V I E W
  __________________________________________________________________
  Recollections Of Trauma: Scientific Research and Clinical Practice
             Proceedings of NATO Advanced Study Institute
 edited by J. Don Read & D., Stephen Lindsay, Plenum Press, NY, 1997.
                Review by Dr. Felicity Goodyear-Smith

  The aim of the NATO Advanced Study Institute on ``Recollections of
trauma: scientific research and clinical practice'' was to create an
opportunity for international experts from diverse perspectives to
share information and carry out probing discussion on the topic of
memory for trauma. This book is the published proceedings of the
meeting.
  I was one of the conference participants and took detailed notes
throughout. The 600-page book includes 13 full papers complete with
commentaries plus selected excerpts of the resulting discussion, 20
brief papers, 5 working-party reports and the abstracts of 58 poster
presentations. Given the volume of material, it is impossible to
provide a critique of the contents in any depth. I have therefore
focused specifically on the main flavor and conclusions of the
meeting, and my opinion regarding their implications. These comments
are colored by my own perspective on the topic.
  Most of the 95 participants were psychologists (clinicians and
researchers) with a splattering of other professionals (I am a medical
practitioner) such as legal scholars and anthropologists. Countries
represented included the United States, Canada, Britain, Australia,
New Zealand, European countries (including Sweden, Denmark, the
Netherlands, Belgium, Germany, France, Italy and Spain), Turkey and
Israel. According to Dr. Stephen Lindsay, one of the organizers of the
conference, he and fellow-organizer Don Read wanted to ``keep
politicization, polarization, and emotionalism within bounds'' and
with the exception of a few professionals (eg Briere, Courtois and
Loftus) chose to exclude anyone who was strongly identified with one
side or the other.
  From my perspective, this focus on preventing emotionally loaded
criticism and polarized debate was both the strength and the weakness
of the meeting and, hence, of the resulting Proceedings. On the
positive side, participants tended to respect the request to avoid ad
hominem attacks and polemic buzzwords, to be sensitive to each others
perspectives and to be open to new evidence. There was an absence of
heated debate, and people maintained politeness and courtesy in their
interactions. Interpersonal benevolence was assisted by the remote and
beautiful French Atlantic setting of the conference where participants
lived together for 11 days, sharing good food and recreational times
as well as long and intense work periods.
  The politeness, however, seemed one-sided. Clinicians presenting
case studies and retrospective self-reports from ``trauma victims''
were seldom challenged as to whether they were describing alleged or
corroborated traumas. Those presenting research findings generally
received more criticism as well as demands for scientific and ethical
stringency, especially when findings were unpopular to clinicians.
  The standard of the presentations and subsequent published lectures
was high. Both researchers and clinicians gave comprehensive accounts
of major research projects and detailed intellectual and philosophical
arguments about aspects of trauma and memory from their particular
perspective.
  One of the points made repeatedly by researchers is that we lose
source memory quickly, and whilst we may remember something as
familiar, we may easily attribute the wrong source to our memory (for
example, incorrectly remember that something we read about actually
happened to us).
  Experimental researchers Professor Elizabeth Loftus and Dr. Maggie
Bruck contributed papers outlining the malleability of memory. In her
eloquent ``Dispatch from the (un)civil memory wars,'' Loftus describes
experiments that indicate that it is possible to create entire false
memories. She emphasizes that this did not mean that all memories
produced in experimental situations were entirely false memories.
Sometimes there is a source misattribution and a memory fragment from
a different source (for example, something seen in a movie or read
about) that becomes incorporated into the reconstructed memory.
  In ``Children's reports of pleasant and unpleasant events,'' Bruck
reports a series of studies which demonstrate the ease with which
children's memories can be molded by suggestions that were implanted
by adult interviewers. While children may at times recall events
completely accurately, they may also give very unreliable accounts of
alleged events. Findings generally indicate that adults are unable to
ascertain whether a child is reporting a true or false
memory. Accurate testimony is more likely if the interviewer is
neutral and unbiased, if the number of interviews and the number of
leading questions are kept to a minimum, and if threats, bribes and
peer-pressure are avoided.
  Although widely discussed, no decision could be reached as to
whether or not ``repression'' exists. By ``repression,'' I mean the
unconscious blocking of memories of severe and ongoing childhood
trauma, until these memories are made accessible to conscious memory
in adulthood, usually but not exclusively through processes of
psychotherapy.
  In ``The predictions of accurate recollections of trauma,''
Constance Dalenberg reports a study of seventeen of her own patients.
Some had continuous memory of abuse and others recovered memory
elements in therapy. She reports four cases in which there was
corroboration, such as confession by the accused offender or witness
of the event by a sibling. She also notes that ``clients were unable
to remember with accuracy which of their memories had been recovered
in therapy, which recovered elsewhere, and which were continuous.''
  Researcher Jonathan Schooler in ``A cognitive corroborative case
study approach for investigating discovered memories of sexual abuse''
also reports several case stories where there appears to be
corroborative evidence to support recovered memories. In general these
are reports of traumatic events but not of the ongoing and repeated
abuse that has been the focus of the recovered memory controversy. An
example is someone who found the dead body of a suicide parent but
later remembered that she had been told about the death at camp. In
therapy she recovered the memory of being the one to find the body
(which is then corroborated by her family).
  This may indicate that it is possible to forget childhood traumatic
events and later have these memories triggered during psychotherapy or
elsewhere, but it does it not support the theory of ``repression.''
Research indicates that adult memories of childhood events are
extremely fallible and malleable, and in the absence of corroboration,
therapists and others have no way to determine whether their clients'
recollections represent actual and accurate events, distorted versions
or complete fabrications. It should of course also be noted that
corroboration of part of a story does not mean that all the story is
necessarily true. Furthermore, if we have discussed our memories with
others who participated in the events from our past, there is a chance
that our version will color or influence the way they remember the
incident, and their subsequent recall may come to closely approximate
ours as well as others, even if our own reconstruction is a very
inaccurate account. For this reason, the testimony of siblings or
other people from our childhood does not necessarily provide
independent external corroboration.
  Some clinicians who have been enthusiastic proponents of recovered
memories demonstrated that they have made shifts in their thinking.
For example, in his NATO lecture, ``An integrated approach to treating
adults abused as children with specific reference to self-reported
recovered memories,'' John Briere acknowledges that memory recovery
techniques are potentially harmful, and admits that ``a minority of
therapists have used questionable `memory recovery' techniques, have
told their clients that their problems were due to repressed memories
despite the client's statements that no abuse occurred.'' While he
sees that ``the goal of treatment is greater psychological health, not
exorcism of specific trauma memories,'' he still advocates therapy
that requires exploring for past trauma, identifying and
``processing'' it by repeated ``exposure'' or reliving it in
therapy. Briere sees that ``abuse-focused therapy'' should encompass
what he calls ``increasing self capacity'' using a
cognitive-behavioral approach to teach skills such as self
relaxation. Briere does not address the apparent incongruity that
traumatic events need not be ``identified'' and ``processed'' in a
cognitive behavioral approach nor does he provide research for the
efficacy of his treatment suggestions.
  Christine Courtois gave the final lecture of the conference,
entitled ``Informed clinical practice and the standard of care:
guidelines for treating adults who report delayed memory for past
trauma.'' In the late 1980s and early 1990s Courtois was a major
contributor to the sexual abuse survivor literature. As late as 1992
she wrote about the high likelihood of an incest survivor having
memory loss for many years, then later retrieving distressing memories
of childhood trauma. She concurred with Susan Blume's [1] belief that
``perhaps half of all survivors do not remember the abuse'' and that a
clinician can pick up cues that the client has been abused from
presenting symptoms ``without direct knowledge or disclosure.'' In
1992, Courtois referenced Blume's book which lists 180 items that
indicate likely abuse, so universal that nearly everyone would find
several that applied to them. They include nightmares, headaches,
avoiding mirrors, wanting privacy when using the bathroom, eating
disorders, phobias, obsessions and depression. In 1992 Courtois
emphasized that the client cannot be healed ``until enough
representative abuse memories'' have been captured to allow the
processing of the trauma. She advocated use of various techniques to
assist recovery of repressed memories, including hypnosis, guided
imagery, body-work, autobiographical ``journaling.''[2]
  The informed consent recommendations she gave at this conference,
therefore, represented a major shift in her perspective in the past
few years. She acknowledges that there may have been some ``clinical
excesses and errors'' but says ``clinicians have made it clear that
they have changed some of the ways they practice'' in response to
false memory critics.
  In her guidelines Courtois now warns clinicians not to assume a past
history of trauma if the client has no memory and that ``post-
traumatic'' treatment should not be used unless ``that memory returns
and/or other evidence emerges to support the occurrence of trauma.''
She warns that ``hypnosis for memory retrieval, guided imagery,
expressive therapies (art work, journaling, storytelling), reading of
self-help books and membership in self-help support groups might lead
to the possible production of false memories.'' Courtois cautions
therapists to have adequate training and to be careful with the use of
these techniques.
  Like Briere, Courtois advocates that therapy should involve ``trauma
work'' -- getting the patient slowly to face and make sense of past
trauma events. This usually involves experiencing intense emotional
pain and anguish, and therefore patients must get worse before they
get better. She advises that self care skills should be taught before
the slow and painful ``trauma work'' is embarked on.
  The cautions and safeguards these therapists now advance are a step
forward in reducing the risk of their patients generating false
memories. In my opinion, however, this does not go far enough. Both
Briere and Courtois advocate therapy treatments that are slow and
painful and that involve exploring and re-exploring the past. There is
no scientific evidence, however, that psychotherapy focused on
``working with'' past events, especially past trauma, is effective in
helping people change behavior.
  While there was a reluctant admission that there had been some
clinical ``excesses and errors'' in the past, no one ever addressed
the issue of what to do about them. The topic of accountability or
assistance to those who have suffered what Briere calls ``unwanted
iatrogenic effects'' was never discussed. Indeed, there was little
acknowledgment of the extent of the problem, the possible number of
families involved or the effect of these false memories on the client
and her extended family. No one offered suggestions about what can be
done to help these people. A number of clinicians expressed the view
that they believed the problem had been grossly overstated by the
media and by groups such as the FMS Foundation. Even when it was
acknowledged that maybe clients had come up with stories of childhood
sexual abuse that were not historically accurate, some expressed the
view that clients would not come up with feelings of severe childhood
trauma unless they had experienced abuse as children. They assumed
that parents had traumatized their children, even if the actual
details were sometimes inaccurate.
  Only some of the recorded discussion is included in the book, and of
interest is what has been omitted. While people largely avoided
personal attacks, the FMS Foundation and the false memory societies in
other countries were targeted on occasions. Some participants at the
conference implied that the FMS Foundation ``harbors pedophiles'' and
several people advised strongly that professionals should not
associate themselves with such organizations. Elizabeth Loftus was the
only member of the FMSF Scientific and Professional Advisory Board
invited to attend, and largely the Board was painted as a group of
extremists, rather than concerned professionals who had perceived a
serious problem in our society and had set about trying to rectify it
by disseminating accurate scientific information.
  Many of the topics relating to memory and trauma were covered in
depth in this conference and the Proceedings incorporates a wealth of
combined information in this field. I do not wish to understate the
breadth and quality of the material that is presented. My concern
rests with some of the underlying issues that I feel were not
addressed, that were indeed not the focus of this meeting, but which I
believe are fundamental.
  While there was apparent consensus amongst the clinicians and
researchers attending the conference that it is possible to implant
false memories through suggestive interview and therapy techniques,
still remaining are the unscientific assumptions that a huge range of
adult psychopathology is primarily caused by childhood sexual abuse
and that people need to remember that trauma and re-experience it to
heal. These assumptions were promoted by a number of clinicians at the
meeting and they were not challenged in any significant manner.
  The casualties of these unscientific assumptions, the clients who
have developed false memories and their families whose lives have been
irreparably damaged, are seldom acknowledged in these Proceedings.
People agreed that it was important that therapy ``does no harm,'' but
no solutions were offered to undo the terrible harm that has already
occurred. The conference and its subsequent Proceedings achieved a
great deal, but the price of diplomacy is that some of the underlying
and vital issues of the ``trauma memory war'' remain unaddressed.
References:

[1] Blume, E. S (1990). Secret survivors: uncovering incest and its
    after-effects in women, John Wiley and Sons, New York.
[2] Courtois, Christine ( 1992). The memory retrieval process in
    incest survivor therapy, Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 1(10)
    15-29.

  Dr. Felicity Goodyear-Smith, MB, ChB, MGI' MRNZCGP is associated
  with the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Science,
  University of Auckland, PB 92019 Auckland. She is the editor of the
  newsletter for COSA (Casualties of Sex Abuse Accusations), email:
  fgoodyear-smith@auckland.ac.nz

 ______________________________SIDEBAR_______________________________
/                                                                    \
|          It's Not Too Late to join the ``Satanic Panic''           |
|                                                                    |
| There are still seminars promoting SRA (new name: ``ritualistic    |
| abuse''). On May 2, there will be a one-day seminar for survivors  |
| of ritualistic abuse in Oakland, CA co-sponsored by Survivorship,  |
| Orange County Chapter of the International Society for the Study   |
| of Dissociation, California Graduate School of Psychology, and the |
| Bay Area Women Against Rape.                                       |
\____________________________________________________________________/

**********************************************************************
     J U V E N I L E   A N D   A D U L T   A C C U S A T I O N S
                             Kathy Begart

  Just as juvenile-onset diabetes mellitus is often more virulent and
destructive than its adult-onset counterpart, so too juvenile-onset of
false memory syndrome. When false accusations of sexual abuse are made
by children, the sequelae are particularly devastating.
  When a false accusation is uttered and believed by a child, that
child's mind has been contaminated. Common sense dictates to us that
the minds of children are more susceptible than those of adults. The
two phenomena, adult-onset and juvenile-onset of false memory
syndrome, have both similarities and differences in the preconditions
for their development, the content and form of the accusations, and
the ramifications for all parties involved.
  In the August, 1997 FMSF Newsletter, false memory syndrome was
described as a ``social phenomenon founded on a belief system that
includes erroneous notions of memory, sexual abuse, society and
therapeutic practice.'' This belief system, or paradigm, is the
precondition that supports the development of false accusations by
adults AND by children. The suggestibility of human beings of all ages
seems to be the operative principle: suggestibility which is enhanced
by vulnerability. Adults, already vulnerable due to perceived life
problems that lead them to therapy, are made even more vulnerable as a
result of questionable therapeutic practices and the ``group-think''
processes operating in some support groups. Children, even more
inherently vulnerable, have often been subjected to repeated and
sometimes coercive interviews by parents and investigators. Sometimes,
one parent is the source of the contamination as he or she vilifies
the other parent in the context of a divorce and custody battle.
  The content and form of the allegations made by adults and children
have similarities and differences. False accusations made by children
are more likely to involve incidents in the recent past and less
likely to involve references to past-life experiences or space-alien
abuse. Accusations of satanic ritual abuse have occurred both in
day-care cases and as a result of regression therapy for adults. When
children are the accusers, the explanation offered for any delay in
disclosure is not ``repression'' of memory, but rather fear of
retribution by the alleged perpetrator. The increased
``believability'' of accusations made by children fans the flames of
zealotry for validators who seem to forget the wisdom of the ages: the
more closely a lie resembles truth, the more powerful is its ability
to deceive.
  The consequences of false allegations of child sexual abuse, whether
made by adults or by children, are numerous and grave. Unfortunately,
they are not limited to injury to the falsely accused. Families are
destroyed and great harm is done to the adult patients or to the
children involved. When an accuser's identity (whether child or adult)
and interpersonal relationships are based on a memory of traumatic
experience which is objectively false but in which the person strongly
believes, the potential for long-term psychological consequences is
significant. False allegations made by children have resulted in the
conviction and incarceration of many innocent people.
  We must combat the erroneous notion that a false accusation of child
sexual abuse is justified as an ``error on the side of children.'' The
consequences of belief in lies are devastating and debilitating for
adults, and perhaps even more so for children. False memory syndrome,
juvenile-onset or adult-onset, causes injury to all involved. Those
who profess to protect and nurture children and those who offer their
services as counselors and therapists to adults in need must be
mindful of the Hippocratic warning to ``do no harm.''

  Kathy Begart is a registered nurse, living and working in Wooster,
  Ohio. She has written previously as a guest columnist for the
  Wooster Daily Record and the Akron Beacon Journal.

          +------------------------------------------------+
          |         E S T A T E   P L A N N I N G          |
          |                                                |
          | If you have questions about how to include the |
          |     FMSF in your estate planning, contact      |
          |         Charles Caviness 800-289-9060.         |
          |  (Available 9:00 AM to 5:00 PM Pacific time.)  |
          +------------------------------------------------+
**********************************************************************
                  M A K E   A   D I F F E R E N C E

  In November 1997, FMSF Advisory Board member Elizabeth Loftus, Ph.D.
delivered two Whidden lectures at McMaster University in Hamilton,
Ontario. These prestigious lectures are open to everyone at the
University and the general public. In spite of inclement weather, both
lectures drew audiences so large that an ``overflow'' room with a TV
screen had to be provided. The reception was warm and friendly, a far
cry from the happenings at McGill, in the Fall of 1993, where
Professor Lief was prevented from delivering his lecture by an
anti-FMSF mob.
  Nevertheless, a small group of women distributed a pamphlet called
``Facts about traumatic memory.'' This ``fact sheet'' was loaded with
false, deceiving and irrelevant information and it contained open
attacks at Loftus and the FMS Foundation. Members of the Foundation
were called ``accused perpetrators,'' and their activities described
as ``denying the reality of childhood sexual abuse and silencing the
survivors.''
  The action of this small group of women was endorsed by 24 publicly
funded organizations, such as McMaster's Women's Health Office, YWCA,
and the Catholic Family Services. I wrote to the heads of the most
prominent organizations, mailing 13 letters to local and 5 letters to
the provincial headquarters.
 I expressed concerns about the endorsement of taxpayer-sponsored
organizations sponsoring blatantly untruthful information contained in
the ``fact sheet,'' about the potential harm that spreading lies and
deceiving data could cause to therapy patients and their families, and
my dismay over the ``accused perpetrators'' label. By mid February I
received 6 replies from the local organizations (46% ``success'' rate)
and 3 replies from the provincial headquarters (60% ``success'' rate).
The provincial respondents wrote that they do not interfere with the
activities of their local branches. The local respondents all defended
the pamphlet and none of them addressed specific issues brought up in
my letter. Four out of six replies from the local groups contained the
identical political proclamation.
  The letter from the executive director of Catholic Family Services:
stated: ``...Our expertise and experience has led us to conclude that
there is clinical substance to traumatic memory and to the place of
recovered memory in a professional therapeutic process...''
  As a ``rebuttal'' to Loftus' lectures, McMaster's Women's Health
Office hosted a luncheon seminar titled ```False' Memory Syndrome?''
The invitation claimed that ``...the seminar will address...the
growing body of research that supports the validity of repressed/
dissociated memory...'' The key speaker, local psychotherapist
Dr. David Cree, believes in satanic ritual abuse and in body
memories. How can an organization associated with one of the most
prestigious medical schools in the country promote unscientific and
potentially harmful claims of recovered memory believers.
  Was it worth it? I hope that my actions at least planted seeds of
doubt. This whole affair confirmed for me that the ``recovered
memory'' ideology is far more spread and engrained than we originally
thought and that in spite of six years of concentrated efforts, our
mission is far from being accomplished.
                                                  P. T., Ph.D.

 ______________________________SIDEBAR_______________________________
/                                                                    \
|                    Research Participants Wanted                    |
|                                                                    |
| Psychologists and psychiatrists at the Johns Hopkins University    |
| School of Medicine are seeking volunteer participants. They are    |
| seeking adults (age 18+) who have ever claimed to have first       |
| forgotten and then remembered childhood physical or sexual abuse,  |
| regardless of whether they now believe those memories to be true   |
| or false.                                                          |
|                                                                    |
| This study has been reviewed and approved by the Joint Committee   |
| on Clinical Investigation of the Johns Hopkins University School   |
| of Medicine and by the Ad Hoc Research Committee of the FMS        |
| Foundation.                                                        |
|                                                                    |
| To volunteer for this study, or for more information, contact the  |
| Johns Hopkins investigators directly at (410) 955-3268 or the FMS  |
| Foundation at (800) 568-8882 and one of the investigators will     |
| call you. Leave your name, telephone number, and the best time to  |
| reach you.                                                         |
\____________________________________________________________________/

**********************************************************************
                   F R O M   O U R   R E A D E R S
                         ____________________
                         Our Feelings Exactly
The letter in the April 1998 Newsletter entitled ``She must apologize
first'' and signed ``A Father and Mother'' reflects our feelings 100
percent. In fact, we could have written it.
  You now have letters that reflect a variety of parental coping
styles. Using the diversity of these styles, it would be interesting
research to see how many of the 18,000 families identify with any one
letter.
  Our deep thanks to the writers of that letter and to you. Keep up
the good work.
                                                         A Mom and Dad
                    ______________________________
                    Room for Warmth and Tolerance?
All of the reactions to false accusations as yet described in your
newsletter over the years surely have their place.
  But to me the position taken in the recent letter located on page 15
of the April 1998 issue and titled, ``She Must Apologize First, seems
one of the most clear-headed and thoroughly reasonable ever described
in your newsletter. To me it is on target.
  The letter's stance is hard however, like polished steel. Strike it
with a little hammer and it rings. Is this what is required of
thorough realism, fairness, justice? In consideration of an all-
pervading human fallibility, (no exceptions!) isn't there room for a
little more warmth and tolerance without giving up realism?
                                                                 R.R.''
             ___________________________________________
             First Meeting of Accused Families in France
On March 6th, a first meeting of three families, victims of the false
memory syndrome, was held near Paris. A fourth identified family could
not join due to distance. Our daughters' histories are, alas, very
classical: rather coddled childhood, good or bright studies, then
depression episodes, psychotherapy and finally accusations either
sudden or preceded by a gradual deterioration of relations with
parents and family. The terrible consequences that you all know:
further family dislocation and for two families suicide of a father or
of a brother.
  France presents a rather peculiar case. It seems that the FMS
phenomenon is growing here later than in other European countries, but
this may be only the surface of things. In addition to its peculiar
cultural characteristics, since last year France has been the theater
of a widespread police operation against pedophilia. On the other
hand, when journals or magazines publish papers on the FMS, the
authors conclude that it is a specifically American problem. In these
conditions, it is understandable that other accused families hesitate
to make themselves known.
  Therefore, we are still too few to contemplate any organized action.
This short report is therefore also a call to you for help. If during
your travels or friend's visits, other cases come to your knowledge in
France or in French speaking Belgium or Switzerland, this information
will be precious to us in particular if these people are seeking
help. Please forward through FMSF Philadelphia. Thank you.
                                                                 A Dad
                     ____________________________
                     I Finally Met Gerry Amirault
My friend Frank Kane called me last week and invited me to go with him
to the prison to visit Gerry Amirault.
  It's nearly impossible for anyone to visit a prison and not feel
oppressed and demeaned. Inside the barbed-wire covered walls, freedom
and bondage are not abstract concepts. The locked doors, guards, and
thick glass plates separating prisoner from visitor are too tangible.
When Gerry entered the cubicle he placed his palm against the glass,
and Frank and I in turn did the same -- a poor substitute for a
handshake, touching cold glass instead of warm flesh.
  Gerry is a good-looking man, even in the horrid bright-orange prison
garb he's forced to wear -- something of a surprise to someone who
knows him mainly from the awful pictures published by the Boston
Globe. (The Globe always managed to make Cheryl and Violet look bad
too.) He is very spirited, talkative, even cheerful. He speaks with
great passion about the things he cares about -- his family
(especially Patti and the kids, his sister, and his late mother) and
the terrible injustices that the Commonwealth continues to inflict
upon that family.
  Gerry is very excited about a two-hour show that David Brudnoy plans
to do on their case on radio.
  I find it difficult to be a good visitor because the prison weighs
too heavily upon me -- I realize that in an hour Frank and I will walk
out but that Gerry will not. The Fells Acre nightmare has dominated
Gerry's life since September of 1984-nearly 14 years ago. I try to
imagine what it might be like to be imprisoned for 14 years for
something you did not do. I can't. I think I'd go mad. But perhaps
that's how Gerry once felt, and his present strength and patience grew
in him slowly.
  I remember seeing a picture recently of Nelson Mandela showing
President Clinton the prison where Mandela had been confined for 18
years. Perhaps if one becomes sufficiently spiritually strong to
survive unjust confinement, one can survive anything. Perhaps only a
Nelson Mandela can understand the soul of a Gerry Amirault -- and vice
versa.
  After an hour and a half a guard signals to Gerry that it's time to
end the visit. Once again we place our hands against the hard glass.
We wave goodbye one final time, and then go to the lockers where we
were asked to stow our belts, keys, watches, etc. We walk out into the
absurdly unseasonable 90+ degree March day, relieved to have the
freedom to walk away from that terrible place. And yet I can't enjoy
the relief, because Gerry remains behind bars, and the politicians who
put him there remain successful and honored.
  What happened to Gerry could happen to me. It could happen to
you. As long as Gerald Amirault remains imprisoned, none can call
themselves free.
                                                          Bob Chatelle
                          __________________
                          Showing by Example
I have just returned from spending a week with my son and his family.
I honestly can't remember having more fun with them -- ever. It was
amazing. It was as if nothing had ever changed. I felt that my son
must have been in a coma all those years and just woke up. Or,
perhaps, as if he had been abducted by aliens for a period of time and
had returned to earth. This was not an overnight transition, however.
It came after many phone calls and shorter visits with others present.
  It has taken much time and much soul searching for me to come to the
conclusion that I do not need a retraction or an apology. As painful
as it was during those years of alienation and living with the hateful
accusations, I feel it would be more painful for him to acknowledge
his mistakes at this time. Rather, I believe he is showing by example
(his apology): by being concerned for my well-being and his
willingness to share his life, his family and his interests with me.
  I can live with this. As a mother I know I have put myself aside in
the interest of my child and the future.
                                                                 A Mom
                        _____________________
                        `Thank You,' Families
During the last two years it has seemed that nothing worse could have
happened to us than to have our beloved children come to think such
awful things of us. Now I realize that what we have been through
actually could have been worse had it not been for the efforts of
other families and the FMS Foundation to educate the public,
therapists and all others about false memory.
  At a recent meeting I listened to a father tell of the difficulties
he and his wife have been experiencing since 1989. I became much more
aware that there is a wide spread of knowledge now that tends to
smooth the way for those of us who have been more recently accused. I
am sure we are met with more understanding than the families who were
accused several years ago. I thank those families whose work has made
things easier for us.
                                                                 A Mom
                             ____________
                             A Suggestion
I would like to see a suggestion made in the FMSF Newsletter that in
lieu of flowers, memorials be made to FMSF and that acknowledgments
will be made to the family.
                                                                 A Mom
                        _____________________
                        We Never Gave up Hope
I am very happy to write we have heard from our daughter. Although
things aren't like they were, our faith is strong and we will continue
to pray to God that soon she will again be the loving and caring
daughter we knew.
  It has been a long time since we received ``the letter'' in May
1991. But we have never given up. Thank you FMSF for all the help you
have been. We are truly grateful.
                                                                 A Mom

**********************************************************************
*                    S T A T E   M E E T I N G S                     *
**********************************************************************
*                              ________                              *
*                              MICHIGAN                              *
*     ``What Are The Courts Doing To Stop Junk Psychotherapy?''      *
*                      May 5, 1998   7:00 P.M.                       *
*          Temple Beth Emeth, St. Clare's Episcopal Church           *
*               2309 Packard Road  Ann Arbor, Michigan               *
*                                                                    *
*             Speaker: DEMOSTHENES LORANDOS, J.D., Ph.D.             *
*        Presented by the Ann Arbor Friends of FMS Foundation        *
*           For more information call Martha: 734-439-4055           *
*           (leave a message if necessary) or 734-439-8119           *
*                                                                    *
*                       Ride-share information                       *
*     Grand Rapids or Kalamazoo areas - Marge: 616-383-0382          *
*                  Troy area - Nancy: 248-642-8077                   *
**********************************************************************
*                              ________                              *
*                              NEW YORK                              *
*        Family Meeting  Sunday May 3, 1998   2 P.M. - 5 P.M.        *
*                   Shenendehowa Methodist Church                    *
*                     Rt. 146  Clifton Park, NY                      *
*                                                                    *
*        Speakers:   PAMELA FREYD, Ph.D.   ELEANOR GOLDSTEIN         *
*                                                                    *
*                     For more information call                      *
*            Dorothy: 518-399-5749, Evelyn: 518-371-7661             *
**********************************************************************
*                         _________________                          *
*                         MINNESOTA MEETING                          *
*             Saturday May 16, 1998   9 A.M. - 2:30 P.M.             *
*              Ft. Snelling Officers Club, St. Paul, MN              *
*                                                                    *
*                     For more information call:                     *
*                     Dan or Joan: 612-631-2247                      *
*                   Terry or Colette: 507-642-3630                   *
**********************************************************************
*                            ____________                            *
*                            PENNSYLVANIA                            *
*            Saturday, May 9, 1998 1:00 P.M. - 4:00 P.M.             *
*                     Family Meeting, Wayne, PA                      *
*          For more information call: Jim or Jo:  610-783-0396       *
**********************************************************************
*                              ________                              *
*                              ILLINOIS                              *
*              Illinois FMS Society Semi-Annual Meeting              *
*               Sunday, May 31, 1998  1 p.m. - 5 p.m.                *
*              Double Tree Hotel, Glenview  Salon E & F          *
*           1400 Millwaukee Ave.  Glenview, IL  60025-1400           *
*                                                                    *
*            Keynote Presentation - ZACHARY BRAVOS, Esq.             *
*                                                                    *
*                       For hotel reservations                       *
*             call:  847-803-9800 or fax:  847-803-8026              *
**********************************************************************
*                         _________________                          *
*                         VANCOUVER MEETING                          *
*               Friday May 8, 1998   6 p.m. - 10 p.m.                *
*                  Mount Pleasant Community Centre                   *
*                  3161 Ontario St.  Vancouver, BC                   *
*                          Pot Luck Dinner                           *
*                                                                    *
*                             Speakers:                              *
*              PAMELA FREYD, Ph.D.   ELEANOR GOLDSTEIN               *
*          For Further Information call  Ruth 604-925-1539           *
*                                                                    *
*                Pam & Eleanor will also be speaking:            *
*                    Saturday May 9, 1998, 2 P.M.                    *
*         Simon Fraser University, Harbour Centre, Room 1700         *
**********************************************************************
*                              _______                               *
*                              ONTARIO                               *
*                Annual Meeting of Ontario and Quebec                *
*                 Families, Friends & Professionals              *
*              Saturday May 30, 1998   10 A.M. - 4 P.M.              *
*    Edwards Gardens Centre  777 Lawrence East  Toronto, Ontario     *
*                                                                    *
*                             Speakers:                              *
*             PAMELA FREYD, Ph.D.     ELEANOR GOLDSTEIN              *
*             CAMPBELL PERRY, Ph.D        ALAN GOLD                  *
*                         DONNA LAFRAMBOISE                          *
*                                                                    *
*            For more information call Pat:  416-445-1995            *
**********************************************************************
                _____________________________________
                F M S    B U L L E T I N    B O A R D
  Key: (MO)-monthly; (bi-MO)-bi-monthly; (*)-see State Meetings list


Contacts & Meetings:
_____________
UNITED STATES

ALASKA
  Bob (907) 556-8110
ARIZONA
  Barbara (602) 924-0975; 854-0404(fax)
ARKANSAS
  Little Rock
        Al & Lela (501) 363-4368
CALIFORNIA 
  Sacramento - (quarterly)
        Joanne & Gerald (916) 933-3655
        Rudy (916) 443-4041
  San Francisco & North Bay - (bi-MO)
        Gideon (415) 389-0254 or
        Charles 984-6626(am); 435-9618(pm)
  East Bay Area - (bi-MO)
        Judy (510) 376-8221
  South Bay Area - Last Sat. (bi-MO)
        Jack & Pat (408) 425-1430
        3rd Sat. (bi-MO) @10am
  Central Coast
        Carole (805) 967-8058
  Central Orange County - 1st Fri. (MO) @ 7pm
        Chris & Alan (714) 733-2925
  Orange County - 3rd Sun. (MO) @6pm
        Jerry & Eileen (909) 659-9636
  Covina Area - 1st Mon. (MO) @7:30pm
        Floyd & Libby (818) 330-2321
  San Diego Area 
        Dee (619) 941-4816
COLORADO
  Colorado Springs
        Doris (719) 488-9738
CONNECTICUT
  S. New England  - (bi-MO) Sept-May
        Earl (203) 329-8365 or
        Paul (203) 458-9173
FLORIDA
  Dade/Broward
        Madeline (954) 966-4FMS
  Boca/Delray  - 2nd & 4th Thurs (MO) @1pm
        Helen (407) 498-8684
  Central Florida - Please call for mtg. time
        John & Nancy (352) 750-5446
  Tampa Bay Area
        Bob & Janet (813) 856-7091
GEORGIA
  Atlanta 
        Wallie & Jill (770) 971-8917
HAWAII
  Carolyn (808) 261-5716
ILLINOIS *
  Chicago & Suburbs - 1st Sun. (MO)
        Eileen (847) 985-7693
        Liz & Roger (847) 827-1056
  Joliet
        Bill & Gayle (815) 467-6041
  Rest of Illinois
        Bryant & Lynn (309) 674-2767
INDIANA
  Indiana Assn. for Responsible Mental Health Practices
        Nickie (317) 471-0922; fax (317) 334-9839
        Pat (219) 482-2847
IOWA
  Des Moines - 2nd Sat. (MO) @11:30 am Lunch
        Betty & Gayle (515) 270-6976
KANSAS
  Kansas City - 2nd Sun. (MO)
        Pat (913) 738-4840
        Jan (816) 931-1340
KENTUCKY
  Louisville- Last Sun. (MO) @ 2pm
        Bob (502) 367-1838
LOUISIANA
        Francine (318) 457-2022
MAINE
  Bangor
        Irvine & Arlene (207) 942-8473
  Freeport -  4th Sun. (MO)
        Carolyn  (207) 364-8891
MARYLAND
   Ellicot City Area
        Margie (410) 750-8694
MASSACHUSETTS/NEW ENGLAND
   Andover - 2nd Sun. (MO) @ 1pm
        Frank (508) 263-9795
MICHIGAN *
  Grand Rapids Area-Jenison - 1st Mon. (MO)
        Bill & Marge (616) 383-0382
  Greater Detroit Area - 3rd Sun. (MO)
        Nancy (810) 642-8077
  Ann Arbor
        Martha (734) 439-8119
MINNESOTA *
        Terry & Collette (507) 642-3630
        Dan & Joan (612) 631-2247
MISSOURI
  Kansas City  -  2nd Sun. (MO)
        Pat 738-4840
        Jan (816) 931-1340
  St. Louis Area  -  3rd Sun. (MO)
        Karen (314) 432-8789
        Mae (314) 837-1976
  Springfield - 4th Sat. (MO) @12:30pm
        Dorothy & Pete (417) 882-1821
        Tom (417) 883-8617
MONTANA
  Lee & Avone (406) 443-3189
NEW JERSEY (So.)
  See Wayne, PA
NEW MEXICO
  Albuquerque  - 1st  Sat. (MO) @1 pm
  Southwest Room - Presbyterian Hospital
        Maggie (505) 662-7521 (after 6:30 pm)
        Sy (505) 758-0726
NEW YORK *
  Westchester, Rockland, etc. - (bi-MO)
        Barbara (914) 761-3627
  Upstate/Albany Area  - (bi-MO)
        Elaine (518) 399-5749
  Western/Rochester Area -  (bi-MO)
        George & Eileen (716) 586-7942
NORTH CAROLINA
  Susan (704) 481-0456
OHIO
  Cleveland
        Bob & Carole (440) 888-7963
OKLAHOMA
  Oklahoma City
        Dee (405) 942-0531
        HJ (405) 755-3816
        Rosemary (405) 439-2459
PENNSYLVANIA *
  Harrisburg
        Paul & Betty (717) 691-7660
  Pittsburgh
        Rick & Renee (412) 563-5616
  Montrose
        John (717) 278-2040
  Wayne (includes S. NJ) - 2nd Sat. (MO)
        Jim & Jo (610) 783-0396
TENNESSEE
  Wed. (MO) @1pm
        Kate (615) 665-1160
TEXAS 
    Houston
        Jo or Beverly (713) 464-8970
   El Paso
        Mary Lou (915) 591-0271
UTAH
        Keith (801) 467-0669
VERMONT (bi-MO) 
        Judith (802) 229-5154
VIRGINIA
        Sue (703) 273-2343
WASHINGTON
        Phil & Suzi (206) 364-1643
WEST VIRGINIA
        Pat (304) 291-6448
WISCONSIN
        Katie & Leo (414) 476-0285
        Susanne & John (608) 427-3686
_____________
INTERNATIONAL

BRITISH COLUMBIA, CANADA *
  Vancouver & Mainland - Last Sat. (MO) @ 1- 4pm
        Ruth (250) 925-1539
  Victoria & Vancouver Island - 3rd Tues. (MO) @7:30pm
        John (250) 721-3219
MANITOBA, CANADA
  Winnipeg
        Joan (204) 284-0118
ONTARIO, CANADA *
  London -2nd Sun (bi-MO)
        Adriaan (519) 471-6338
  Ottawa
        Eileen (613) 836-3294
  Toronto /N. York
        Pat (416) 444-9078
  Warkworth
        Ethel (705) 924-2546
  Burlington
        Ken & Marina (905) 637-6030
  Sudbury
        Paula (705) 692-0600
QUEBEC, CANADA
  Montreal
        Alain (514) 335-0863
  St. Andre Est.
        Mavis (514) 537-8187
AUSTRALIA
        Irene (03) 9740 6930
ISRAEL
  FMS ASSOCIATION fax-(972) 2-625-9282 
NETHERLANDS
  Task Force FMS of Werkgroep Fictieve 
  Herinneringen
        Anna (31) 20-693-5692
NEW ZEALAND
        Colleen (09) 416-7443
SWEDEN
        Ake Moller FAX (48) 431-217-90
UNITED KINGDOM
  The British False Memory Society
        Roger Scotford (44) 1225 868-682
              __________________________________________
              Deadline for the June Newsletter is May 15
                  Meeting notices MUST be in writing 
    and should be sent no later than TWO MONTHS PRIOR TO MEETING.

**********************************************************************
+--------------------------------------------------------------------+
|          Do you have access to e-mail?  Send a message to          |
|                         pjf@cis.upenn.edu                          |
| if  you wish to receive electronic versions of this newsletter and |
| notices of radio and television  broadcasts  about  FMS.  All  the |
| message need say is "add to the FMS-News". You'll also learn about |
| joining  the  FMS-Research list (it distributes research materials |
| such as news stories, court decisions and research  articles).  It |
| would be useful, but not necessary, if you add your full name (all |
| addresses and names will remain strictly confidential).            |
+--------------------------------------------------------------------+
**********************************************************************
  The False Memory Syndrome Foundation is a qualified 501(c)3 corpora-
tion  with  its  principal offices in Philadelphia and governed by its 
Board of Directors.  While it encourages participation by its  members
in  its  activities,  it must be understood that the Foundation has no 
affiliates and that no other organization or person is  authorized  to
speak for the Foundation without the prior written approval of the Ex-
ecutive Director. All membership dues and contributions to the Founda-
tion must be forwarded to the Foundation for its disposition.
**********************************************************************

Pamela Freyd, Ph.D.,  Executive Director

FMSF Scientific and Professional  Advisory Board,          May 1, 1998

AARON T. BECK, M.D., D.M.S., University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia,
PA;  TERENCE W. CAMPBELL, Ph.D.,  Clinical  and  Forensic  Psychology,
Sterling Heights, MI;  ROSALIND CARTWRIGHT, Ph.D.,  Rush  Presbyterian
St. Lukes Medical Center, Chicago, IL; JEAN CHAPMAN, Ph.D., University
of Wisconsin, Madison, WI; LOREN CHAPMAN, Ph.D., University of Wiscon-
sin, Madison, WI; FREDERICK C. CREWS, Ph.D., University of California,
Berkeley,  CA;  ROBYN M. DAWES,  Ph.D.,  Carnegie  Mellon  University,
Pittsburgh,  PA;  DAVID F. DINGES, Ph.D.,  University of Pennsylvania,
Philadelphia, PA; HENRY C. ELLIS, Ph.D.,  University  of  New  Mexico,
Albuquerque, NM; FRED H. FRANKEL, MBChB, DPM, Harvard University Medi-
cal School,  Boston MA;  GEORGE K. GANAWAY, M.D.,  Emory University of
Medicine,  Atlanta,  GA;  MARTIN GARDNER,  Author,  Hendersonville, NC
ROCHEL GELMAN, Ph.D., University of California, Los Angeles, CA; HENRY
GLEITMAN, Ph.D.,  University of Pennsylvania,  Philadelphia, PA;  LILA
GLEITMAN, Ph.D., University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA; RICHARD
GREEN, M.D., J.D., Charing Cross Hospital, London;  DAVID A. HALPERIN,
M.D.,  Mount Sinai School of Medicine,  New York, NY;  ERNEST HILGARD,
Ph.D.,  Stanford University,  Palo Alto, CA;  JOHN HOCHMAN, M.D., UCLA
Medical School, Los Angeles, CA; DAVID S. HOLMES, Ph.D., University of
Kansas,  Lawrence, KS;  PHILIP S. HOLZMAN, Ph.D.,  Harvard University,
Cambridge,  MA;   ROBERT A. KARLIN,  Ph.D.,  Rutgers  University,  New 
Brunswick, NJ;  HAROLD LIEF, M.D.,  University of Pennsylvania, Phila-
delphia,  PA;  ELIZABETH LOFTUS, Ph.D., University of Washington, Sea-
tle, WA; SUSAN L. McELROY, M.D., University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati,
OH; PAUL McHUGH, M.D., Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD; HAROLD
MERSKEY, D.M., University of Western Ontario, London, Canada;  SPENCER
HARRIS MORFIT, Author, Boxboro, MA; ULRIC NEISSER, Ph.D., Cornell Uni-
versity, Ithaca, N.Y.; RICHARD OFSHE, Ph.D., University of California,
Berkeley,  CA;  EMILY CAROTA ORNE,  B.A.,  University of Pennsylvania, 
Philadelphia, PA;  MARTIN ORNE, M.D., Ph.D., University of Pennsylvan-
ia, Philadelphia,  PA;  LOREN PANKRATZ, Ph.D.,  Oregon Health Sciences
University, Portland, OR; CAMPBELL PERRY, Ph.D., Concordia University,
Montreal, Canada;  MICHAEL A. PERSINGER, Ph.D., Laurentian University,
Ontario,  Canada; AUGUST T. PIPER, Jr.,  M.D.,  Seattle, WA;  HARRISON
POPE, Jr.,  M.D.,  Harvard Medical School,  Boston,  MA;  JAMES RANDI,
Author  and  Magician, Plantation, FL;  HENRY L. ROEDIGER, III, Ph.D.,
Washington  University,  St. Louis, MO;  CAROLYN SAARI, Ph.D.,  Loyola
University,  Chicago, IL;  THEODORE SARBIN, Ph.D., University of Cali-
fornia,  Santa Cruz, CA;  THOMAS A. SEBEOK, Ph.D., Indiana University,
Bloomington,  IN;  MICHAEL  A.  SIMPSON,  M.R.C.S.,  L.R.C.P.,  M.R.C, 
D.O.M.,  Center for Psychosocial & Traumatic Stress,  Pretoria,  South
Africa;  MARGARET SINGER, Ph.D.,  University of California,  Berkeley,
CA;  RALPH SLOVENKO, J.D., Ph.D.,  Wayne State  University Law School,
Detroit, MI; DONALD SPENCE, Ph.D., Robert Wood Johnson Medical Center,
Piscataway,  NJ;  JEFFREY VICTOR, Ph.D.,  Jamestown Community College,
Jamestown,  NY;  HOLLIDA WAKEFIELD,  M.A.,  Institute of Psychological
Therapies, Northfield, MN;  CHARLES A. WEAVER, III, Ph.D.  Baylor Uni-
versity, Waco, TX.

**********************************************************************
   Y E A R L Y   FMSF   M E M B E R S H I P   I N F O R M A T I O N
                                   
Professional - Includes Newsletter       $125_______

Family - Includes Newsletter             $100_______

                       Additional Contribution:_____________

PLEASE FILL OUT ALL INFORMATION

___VISA:  Card: #________-________-________-________ exp. date ___/___

___MASTER CARD: #________-________-________-________ exp. date ___/___

___Check or Money Order: Payable to FMS FOUNDATION IN U.S. DOLLARS.


______________________________________________________________________
Signature


______________________________________________________________________
Name (PLEASE PRINT)


______________________________________________________________________
Street Address or P.O.Box


______________________________________________________________________
City                                 State         Zip+4


(_____)_____________________________(_____)___________________________
Telephone                           FAX

*  MAIL the completed form with payment to: 
FMS Foundation, 3401 Market ST, Suite 130, Philadelphia, PA 19104-3315

This address and the phone numbers have changed as of July 15, 2000

*  FAX your order to (215) 287-1917. Fax orders cannot be processed 
without credit card information.

**********************************************************************
              V I D E O   T A P E   O R D E R   F O R M
                                 for
               ``W H E N   M E M O R I E S   L I E...
              T H E   R U T H E R F O R D   F A M I L Y
                S P E A K S   T O   F A M I L I E S''

Mail Order To:
  FMSF Video
  Rt. 1 Box 510
  Burkeville, TX 75932

                                   DATE:   /   /

Ordered By:                        Ship to:








Please type or print information:
+--------+-----+------------------------------------+-------+--------+
| QUANT- |  #  |            DESCRIPTION             | UNIT  | AMOUNT |
|  ITY   |     |                                    | PRICE |        |
+--------+-----+------------------------------------+-------+--------+
|        | 442 | The Rutherford Family              | 10.00 |        |
|        |     |               Speaks to Families   |       |        |
+--------+-----+------------------------------------+-------+--------+
                                                   SUBTOTAL |        |
                                                            |        |
                                                            +--------+
                                    ADDITIONAL CONTRIBUTION |        |
                                                            |        |
                                                            +--------+
                                                  TOTAL DUE |        |
                                                            |        |
                                                            +--------+

U.S. Shipping & packaging charges are included in the 
price of the video.

FOREIGN SHIPPING AND PACKAGING
  Canada                $4.00 per tape
  All other countries  $10.00 per tape.

Allow two to three weeks for delivery. Made all checks payable to FMS
Foundation. If you have any questions concerning this order, call
Benton, 409-565-4480.

The tax deductible portion of your contribution is the excess of goods
and services provided.

                     THANK YOU FOR YOUR INTEREST
**********************************************************************