FMSF NEWSLETTER ARCHIVE - March 1, 1997 - Vol. 6, No. 3, HTML version

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ISSN #1069-0484.          Copyright (c) 1997  by  the  FMSF Foundation
    The FMSF Newsletter is published 10 times a year by the  False
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    FMS News
      Make a Difference
        Focus on Science
            Legal Corner
              Book Review
                From Our Readers

Dear Friends,
  In March 1992, the FMS Foundation was formed. Where are we five
years later? It seems fitting to use the legal cases, public opinion,
research results and personal comments that appeared in February 1997
as a measure.
  LEGAL CASES: The repressed memory case in the news in February, 1997
was not a "survivor" suing her parents as was happening in 1992, but a
former patient along with Blue Cross suing a doctor in Wisconsin for
billing group rates after diagnosing her with 120 personalities. This
widely publicized case is not helping the image of a profession that
for the past four years has been rocked by scandals of private
psychiatric hospitals paying bounties to recruiters, of reports of
people being lured into psychiatric hospitals under false pretenses
and of huge judgments in malpractice cases against recovered memory
  Will we hear from mental health professionals as we have in the
past: "That's just an extreme example," or "Every field has greedy
people," or "I'm not responsible for that." Or will we begin to see
professional articles that deal with the issue of responsibility for
what has happened to the profession. The kinds of excesses and patient
abuses that we have reported month after month after month after month
did not happen in a vacuum. They happened because too many
professionals have looked the other way, have thought that it wasn't
their responsibility or have not wanted to get involved.
  Do professional organizations have a responsibility for policing
their constituency? Do professional organizations have a role to play
in protecting the public? Will this job be left to courts and
regulatory agencies?
  PUBLIC OPINION: The price for the neglect is high. There is evidence
that public opinion is shifting away from 'unconditional positive
regard' for therapy and moving to open criticism. A bookstore in the
Boston area, for example, has opened a new section called "Anti
Psychiatry/Therapy." In a discussion about the DSM-IV and its role in
turning normal human experiences into pathologies, we read in the
February Harper's Magazine:

  "Here, on a staggering scale, are gathered together all the known
  mental disturbances of humankind, the illnesses of mind and spirit
  that cry out for the therapeutic touch of -- are you ready for this?
  -- the very people who wrote the book....Nor did the tumbrels roll
  when the psychiatric profession went on to discover (and make a
  bundle from) two entirely new nation-threatening epidemics for
  which no empirical proof exists: chronic depression (based on the
  readily observable fact that a whole lot of people, including people
  with serious or potentially fatal diseases, don't feel so hot about
  their lives) and suppressed memory." (pp.61-66, L.J. Davis, "The
  Encyclopedia of Insanity: A psychiatric handbook lists a madness for

The January 18, 1997 issue of The Economist noted:

  "Psychoanalysts have a bad reputation with other scientists for
  making up untestable propositions, dressing them up with fancy
  names, and diagnosing people as suffering from this...But
  'recovered-memory therapy'...looks like a particularly black mark
  against the profession's name."

  Psychiatry is being forced by external pressure to change the way
that it is funded and organized. A concrete example is the fact that
the oldest psychiatric institute in the nation, the Institute of
Pennsylvania Hospital in Philadelphia, the place where Benjamin Rush
founded the American Psychiatric Association, is now a part of
history. It has been sold.
  RESEARCH RESULTS: Scientific research is the engine forcing the
movement in psychiatric thinking. Several remarkable new results
appeared in February.
  At the American Association for the Advancement of Science meeting
in Seattle, Elizabeth Loftus reported on a study that moves us closer
to understanding how the act of imagining can influence what we
believe is a memory. She gave volunteers a list of 40 possible
childhood events and asked them to rate them on a scale from
"definitely did not happen" to "definitely did." Two weeks later she
asked them to imagine that they had experienced events, some of which
they had previously identified as not occurring. They did this several
times and then were asked to rate the 40 items again. The act of
imagining a memory at the direction of a psychologist makes it more
likely to seem real. Twenty-four percent of those who had at first
remembered "not breaking a window," for example, were more confident
that it had happened after the experiment... Familiarity seems to
have been mistaken for a memory.
  "But that is not traumatic memory," critics will predictably say.
New research with trauma victims, however, poses challenges for
"traumatic memories." In psychiatry's prestigious American Journal of
Psychiatry 154:2, February 1997, there are two articles that raise
doubts about the therapeutic assumptions of memory, trauma and PTSD.
One of these reports is a study by Southwick et al. (p. 173) that
examines 59 subjects who served in Operation Desert Storm and were
exposed to various traumatic war experiences. One month after their
return from the Gulf War, the subjects were given an interview that
covered 19 combat events or experiences; the same interview was given
2 years later. Most of the subjects gave inconsistent reports of at
least one event that was objective and highly traumatic, and over half
had changed at least two of their responses. The findings suggest that
memories of trauma are not always permanent or stable.
  PROFESSIONAL OPINION: Psychiatry and therapy are undergoing profound
changes in fundamental tenets and practices. From the Time Magazine in
1993 declaring "Freud is Dead" to the January '97 issue of The
Economist stating that "The weight of evidence is turning strongly
against the theory that traumatic memories of sexual abuse are
repressed in childhood and can be "recovered" in later life with the
help of a therapist," the public has perceived a change (January 18,
1997, pp 75-77 "Remind me one more time...").
  The professional community has been slow to accept the inevitable
change. But it has started. It is significant that Alan A. Stone,
former president of the American Psychiatric Association and a Harvard
professor of law and psychiatry has written:

  "Early in my career as a psychiatrist and a psychoanalyst I believed
  that every form of mental illness -- be it psychosis, neurosis, or
  personality disorder -- could be understood in terms of psychoanalytic
  developmental states...Our problem is that, in light of the
  scientific evidence now available to us, these basic premises may
  all be incorrect. Our critics may be right. Developmental experience
  may have very little to do with most forms of psychopathology, and
  we have no reason to assume that a careful historical reconstruction
  of those developmental events will have a therapeutic effect...."
                                      Harvard Magazine, Jan.-Feb. 1997
                                     Where Will Psychoanalysis Survive
                                           Alan A. Stone, M.D. p 35-39

  WHAT'S AHEAD: At the professional level, the diagnosis of multiple
personality disorder (changed in 1994 to dissociative identity
disorder) is coming under tremendous scrutiny. Two new books: Multiple
Personality and False Memory by N. Spanos and Hoax & Reality: The
bizarre world of multiple personality disorder by A. Piper raise
challenges that cannot be ignored to this diagnosis. An editorial in
the February issue American Journal of Psychiatry 154:2, indicates
that the diagnosis of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder is also under
great challenge.
  Where does this leave the FMS families caught between greed,
therapeutic notions gone astray, a sensationalized media and a public
that panicked? In the five years since the Foundation began, families
have seen fundamental tenets of the profession fall. We have seen the
legal cases based on "repression" fall, and legal cases based on
retractor lawsuits against former therapists and third party lawsuits
rise. But most of us still have not seen our own children-adults who
are so fearful that they are afraid to talk to their own parents. "I
was terrified of you...I feared for my life.....I would interpret
...your contacting me or my family members at any time to be an
attempt to intimidate or harm us." How long can professionals justify
such unreasonable fear under the guise of "recovered memories?"
  FMSF will not stop its work until more families are in respectful
dialogue. At the Baltimore conferences, we will present new survey
data showing where we currently stand with new accusations and with
family reconciliation. Don't miss this remarkable event.
                   |     The April newsletter     |
                   |    will go to the printer    |
                   |  one week later than usual   |
                   | in order for us to report on |
                   |  the Baltimore conferences.  |
    |                       SPECIAL THANKS                       |
    |                                                            |
    |       We extend a very special "Thank you" to all of       |
    |      the people who help prepare the FMSF Newsletter.      |  
    |                                                            |
    |   EDITORIAL SUPPORT: Toby Feld, Allen Feld,                |
    |          Howard Fishman, Peter Freyd, P.T.                 |
    |   RESEARCH: Merci Federici, Michele Gregg, Anita Lipton    |
    |   NOTICES and PRODUCTION: Danielle Taylor                  |
    |   COLUMNISTS: Katie Spanuello and                          |
    |       members of the FMSF Scientific Advisory Board        |
    |   LETTERS and INFORMATION: Our Readers                     |

                           F M S    N E W S 
                         Family Survey Update
  In January, the Foundation mailed a one-page Family Survey Update to
approximately 3,500 families. "I can't believe it! I just can't
believe it!" Kim repeated over and over again as she opened the 1,500
completed surveys that arrived in the office during the week of
February 10th. "I can't believe it!" she exclaimed as she noted the
pages of comments that families included. "I can't believe it!"
  Kim, who has worked at the Foundation for almost a year, has wept at
calls from desperate families, and like others on our staff has worked
overtime to get materials and information to them. But she hadn't felt
the scope of the problem until the postman started delivering the
surveys in large plastic U.S. Mail tubs.
  Thank you for taking the time to get the surveys to us quickly. Your
answers will tell us where we are in the passage of the recovered
memory fad and point to the next steps we must take.

                            Wonderful News
  At the California Central Coast group meeting in mid-January, we had
some new turns. There was one total retraction after 8 years of no
communication on either side. The accused father, who once was
extremely angry, said: "Of course I can forgive her." Our mouths
dropped! Later in the discussion the news turned up two more returners
-- both very new. Neither father seemed to know quite how to deal with
this. Later, an out-of-town family called to say they have a real
returner: "We have our former daughter back. She's like she used to
be." Another family got a letter from a son who wrote: "Dear Mom and
Dad," and "Love, Son" with an address where he lives -- another complete
change. Maybe we need Christmas holidays more than once a year!

   Massachusetts Will Disclose Derogatory Information about Doctors
                 Philadelphia Inquirer, Nov. 5, 1996
                          Katharine Webster
  The Massachusetts Board of Registration in Medicine is the first
such board to release information about malpractice payouts,
disciplinary actions and criminal records of doctors. Florida,
California, Wisconsin and New York are considering similar disclosures
  Anyone who wants information on a doctor's history can call the
Board and receive up to 10 profiles faxed or mailed free. Some doctors
are concerned that the disclosure law will cause doctors to avoid high
risk specialities that may draw more malpractice claims.

        Washington State Crime Victims Compensation -- Update 
  The Washington State Crime Victims Compensation Program hearings on
proposed administrative rule amendments were held on November 26,
1996. Fourteen people testified and 49 people submitted written
comments. As a result of the hearings there were a number of changes.
The revised rules were filed for adoption on December 31, 1997.
  The newly adopted language in one section should be of particular
interest to readers of the newsletter.
  PROHIBITED TREATMENT: The department will not allow or pay for any
therapies which focus on the recovery of repressed memory or recovery
of memory which focuses on memories of physically impossible acts,
highly improbable acts for which verification should be available, but
is not, or unverified memories of acts occurring prior to the age of
               Recovered Memory Therapist Changes Focus
  Wendy Maltz is perhaps best known to readers of this newsletter for
her statement that:

  Due to memory loss, only about half of female incest survivors in
  your practice may be able to identify themselves as victims during
  your initial inquiry...If you suspect the possibility of childhood
  sexual abuse based on physical symptoms and other clues, even when
  the patient has no conscious memory of sexual violation, share this
  information with your patient...set the stage for hidden memories of
  incest to surface...(some of the signs) Physical problems: chronic
  pelvic pain, spastic colon, stomach pain, headache, dizziness,
  fainting, chronic gynecologic complaints, sleep disturbances,
  depression, asthma, heart palpitations." (Adult survivors of incest:
  How to help them overcome the trauma. Medical Aspects of Human
  Sexuality, 1990, 42-47.

  In an article in the Eugene, OR Register-Guard (January 19, 1997)
Maltz, a social worker, is quoted as saying, "I need to move on after
15 years of focusing on the problems that come from sex. I was just
tired of it. I wanted to say, 'We know how ugly sex can get. We know
sex can be used for all the wrong reasons. Let's see sex in its most
exalted state.'" Maltz has recently edited a book of poetry which she
says represents voices not often heard in our culture -- the voices of
monogamous, caring relationships between stable, honest adults. "And
that could be the couple who lives down the street who have been
married for 50 years."

    Lawsuits Against Missouri Publisher Dismissed 'With Prejudice'
Reverend Herman Otten is the publisher of the Lutheran publication,
The Christian News. He has written extensively about the dangers of
recovered memory therapy. As a part of this effort, he published
information about the beliefs and teachings of Dr. Joseph Barbour who
was a professional counselor and a Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod
clergyman and a teacher at the LCMS's Concordia Seminary in St. Louis
Missouri. Dr. Barbour sued Reverend Otten. The case was dismissed on
January 24, 1997.
  Rev. Otten began his expose when he learned that Barbour had a
client who claimed that her father (who was on the staff at Concordia
Seminary) had sexually abused her and that she had sacrificed babies
on an altar to the devil. While these wild charges were known to the
faculty members and other church leaders, they chose to defend
Barbour. Otten decided to investigate the role that Barbour may have
had in the emergence of these bizarre and impossible memories. He
learned that Barbour relied on the book, The Courage to Heal. Otten
subsequently published some sections from it that he claimed promoted
adultery and lesbianism. He wrote that Barbour was practicing "voodoo
  What did Barbour believe? A segment of his deposition was printed in
Christian News.

  Question: Have you had any clients who believed that she or her
  father or her parents sacrificed a living or aborted baby to the
  Barbour: Uh-huh.
  Q. How many of those would you say you had?
  Barbour: Fifty maybe. Not necessarily their fetus that they were
  pregnant with, but that fetuses were used in ritual.
  Q: Fetuses were used, okay. And a ritual meaning -- what are you
  referring to as a ritual?
  Barbour: Ritual can be all kinds of things from a family who are
  basically pedophiles to -- you understand that pedophiles tend to
  group together, they carry pictures and so forth. Sometimes they'll
  meet under the guise of like a satanic ritual abuse kind of thing.
  It's really just an opportunity to share children, sexual partners.
  And then I believe that there are groups. I don't know how many,
  that go out in the woods and light fires and do things like that.

Dr. Barbour has left Concordia Seminary and has resigned from the
clergy roster of the LCMS.

               United Methodist Ritual Abuse Task Force
The United Methodist Church Ritual Abuse Task Force is an ad hoc group
of clergy and laity "who minister to survivors of ritual abuse and
their families." In response to "pleas of a number of survivors and
their families," they held a retreat to "develop training
opportunities and other educational resources on child sexual abuse
and exploitation and on ritual abuse." The event was for "those who
have encountered the issue in their ministry but have not been clear
how to respond; it was for those who are working with survivors but
feeling isolated and alone."
  The meeting was held in response to the Methodist mandate to "make
our churches safe places, protecting children and other vulnerable
persons from sexual and ritual abuse," according to the organizers of
the conference. The Methodist mandate adopted in April 1996 states,
"Ritual abuse refers to abusive acts committed as part of ceremonies
or rites; ritual abusers are often related to cults, or pretend to
  The flyers notifying church members of this conference referred
people to the Believe the Children organization.

                         Believe the Children
Believe the Children has been steadfast in its promotion of the
existence of organized satanic ritual abuse conspiracies. It has
recently joined forces with (1) Mothers Against Sexual Abuse, (2)
Survivors and Victims Empowered and (3) The International Council on
Cultism and Ritual Trauma. The International Council on Cultism and
Ritual Trauma is the new name for the Society for the Investigation,
Treatment and Prevention of Ritual and Cult Abuse (SITPRCA).
  SITPRCA was formed by Randall "Randy" Noblitt, a Dallas therapist
who has testified that ritually abused children will often not be able
to recall the events because they are so highly traumatized.
  A SITPRCA conference in March, 1995 concerned graduate student Evan
Harrington who noted that the conference introduced racist conspiracy
theories(1). According to Harrington, "Don Marqui, a self-described
former 'school teacher and witch,' lectured about the satanic
'Illuminati' conspiracy, which he alleged President Bill Clinton was
part of, serving as the 'anti-Christ.' Marqui assured the audience
that this theory is not racist; but the fact is the Illuminati theory
is the same one advocated by most members of the American militia
movement, and it was utilized by the Nazis in their effort to justify
their campaign of genocide against the Jews of Europe (Cohn, 1966)."
Harrington mentioned that the written material available at this
conference supported the racist overtones.
  (1) Harrington (1996). "Conspiracy theories and paranoia: notes from
a mind control conference." Skeptical Inquirer, September.
  (2) Cohn (1966) Warrant for Genocide: The myth of the Jewish World-
conspiracy and the protocols of the Elders of Zion. New York: Harper
and Row.
               Michigan Introduces Bill on Ritual Abuse
A bill supported by some "survivors" and their therapists has been
introduced in Michigan to amend the Penal Code. The bill seems to be
an attempt to make ritual abuse a special crime. It begins: "A person
shall not intentionally commit an act of physical abuse, psychological
abuse, or sexual abuse against or in the presence of an individual and
in connection with the display or use of a symbol, costume, mask,
ceremonial object, ceremony, or ritual."
  Editor's question: Aren't physical abuse, psychological abuse, or
sexual abuse already crimes?

/                                                                    \ 
|                Comment on One Family Survey Update                 |
|                                                                    |
| Our daughter is planning an October wedding at the same location   |
| where we were married 39 years ago. She has received her Masters   |
| in Art Education and will finish her internship in June. She is    |
| happy and well adjusted. She calls at least once a week and comes  |
| home four or five times a year because she misses us. After her    |
| long telephone apology six months after her problem began and two  |
| months after our sessions with her and a therapist, she has not    |
| brought the subject up.                                            |
|   Our "letter" came in September. At the end of October we saw a   |
| Donahue show about FMS which fit the pattern of the problem we     |
| were so bewildered about. As a result we contacted your            |
| organization, and we were very well informed By the time our       |
| meeting with our daughter and her therapist came about, we turned  |
| the tables, and we confronted a very surprised therapist. We       |
| presented our daughter with a wide selection of materials we had   |
| gathered on repressed memories, videos, books and articles, and we |
| asked her to read this material without the influence of anyone    |
| except her own intelligence. We asked that she and she alone make  |
| up her mind.                                                       |
|   To all the dear and wonderful people of the FMS Foundation and   |
| all those associated with it, we truly owe our happy family. We    |
| will always be grateful for the education you gave us all. We hope |
| "repressed memories" will be seen by all as the farce it is.       |
|                                              A Mother and a Father |

                  M A K E   A   D I F F E R E N C E

  This is a column that will let you know what people are doing to
  counteract the harm done by FMS. Remember that five years ago, FMSF
  didn't exist. A group of 50 or so people found each other and today
  more than 18,000 have reported similar experiences. Together we
  have made a difference. How did this happen?

 |   When bad men combine, the good must associate; else they will   |
 | fall one by one, an unpitied sacrifice in a contemptible struggle |
 |                                                      Edmund Burke |
 |   Thoughts on the Cause of the Present Discontent Vol. i. p. 526. | 

  CALIFORNIA - I would like to add to the list of books that was
printed in the Nov./Dec. 1996 Make a Difference column. I recommend
The Demon-Haunted World: Science as a Candle in the Dark by the late
Carl Sagan (Random House: 1995). This book exposes pseudoscience in
many forms and the chapter on "Therapy" is particularly appropriate to
newsletter readers.
  "On the one hand, to callously dismiss charges of horrifying sexual
abuse can be heartless injustice. On the other hand, to tamper with
people's memories, to infuse false stories of childhood abuse, to
break up intact families, and even to send innocent parents to prison
is also heartless injustice. Skepticism is essential on both sides.
Picking our way between these two extremes can be very tricky."
                                     Page 158, Demon Haunted World
  NEW YORK - As a student in Health Services, I spend a lot of time at
the university library. I finally decided to ask the librarian about
subscribing to the FMSF Newsletter. I spoke to the person in charge of
such requests. I told him the cost ($120.00 for all back issues and a
current subscription), and he said he would put in the request
  MISSOURI - A few families have checked hospitals and medical centers
to seek permission to put FMSF brochures on bulletin boards. Other
places to check: libraries, bookstores, doctor offices and banks.
  WISCONSIN - In a lawsuit taking place in Appleton, WI, a former
patient is suing her former psychiatrist. The patient was diagnosed as
suffering from multiple personality disorder. He found 120 different
personalities. The most incredible thing is that he billed the
insurance company for group therapy for his sessions with her.
  I am deeply angry at the thought that the insurance company paid for
group therapy (for a "disorder" that may not even exist) but they do
not pay for a new mother to stay in the hospital for more than 24
hours after giving birth to a real baby. I have written a letter to my
state Consumer Fraud Committee and my state Insurance Commission. I
have also written to Ralph Nader, PO Box 19367, Washington, DC 20036.

  Send your ideas to Katie Spanuello c/o FMSF.

  /                                                                \ 
  | How do you say anything about a charge you have not seen from  |
  | persons you do not know about something you did not do?        |
  |                                     Cardinal Joseph Bernardin  |
  |                                       The Gift of Peace, 1997  |

                   F O C U S   O N   S C I E N C E

  This is the first in a 4-part series examining the question of
  whether childhood sexual abuse causes psychiatric disorders in
  adulthood. The series is not intended to "forgive" or exonerate the
  morally repugnant phenomenon of child sexual abuse in any way. Here
  is an example of a hypothetical study of this type that childhood
  sexual abuse causes adult psychiatric disorders. The remaining three
  parts of this article will appear in the next three issues of the
                    Does Smoking Cause Arthritis?  
Hundreds, if not thousands, of simply designed studies have now
appeared in the literature, examining the prevalence of childhood
sexual abuse in various populations of patients with psychiatric
disorders. The typical hypothetical study goes something like this
  Drs. Harrison and James interviewed 50 women at a clinic who were
being treated for eating disorders. Some of the women had bulimia
nervosa, a disorder characterized by compulsive eating binges,
followed by self-induced vomiting. Other women had anorexia nervosa;
they had dieted until they weighed much less than they ought to weigh,
but they still perceived themselves to be too fat. Many of the women
had experienced both disorders at various times over the years. For
comparison, Drs. Harrison and James also interviewed 50 women of the
same age who were recruited from the community at large. The community
women were included only if they showed no evidence of a major
psychiatric disorder. The investigators found that 25 (50%) of the 50
women with eating disorders reported a history of childhood sexual
abuse, as compared to only 5 (10%) of the comparison women from the
community. This difference proved to be highly "statistically
significant." Specifically, using a statistical test called Fisher's
exact test, the investigators calculated that the odds of such a
difference occurring by chance alone were less than one in ten
thousand. Thus, in the text of the paper, the authors added the phrase
"p<0.0001 by Fisher's exact test, two tailed." On the basis of this
highly significant finding, they concluded that childhood sexual abuse
played an important causal role in the development of eating
  Are the conclusions of this hypothetical study justified? The answer
is no, for a long series of reasons. First, our hypothetical
investigators have failed to consider possible methodological errors
in their design that might produce an apparent association between
childhood sexual abuse and adult psychiatric disorders, even though a
true association might not exist. Second, even if we allow that there
is a true association between childhood sexual abuse and eating
disorders, the investigators still have failed to demonstrate that the
association is a causal association. In this article and the next, we
consider flaws in our hypothetical study which might have caused the
finding of a false association. In the following article, we move on
to the issue of causality.
  The first possible cause of a false association in our hypothetical
study -- and in countless actual studies in the literature -- is the
problem of selection bias. Selection bias refers to the possibility
that the investigators have selected subjects who are not
representative of the overall population of such people in the world
at large. This bias could appear in two places. First, the women
coming to the clinic for treatment of eating disorders may have a
higher or lower prevalence of childhood sexual abuse than women with
eating disorders in the general population. Second, the comparison
women recruited from the community may have a higher or lower
incidence of sexual abuse than community women as a whole. Let us look
at each of these possibilities.
  First, are Harrison and James' subjects with eating disorders
representative, in other words typical of people with eating disorders
as a whole? One can think of many reasons why they may not be. For
example, women with eating disorders who also happen to have a history
of childhood sexual abuse may be more likely to seek psychological
treatment than women with eating disorders who have no history of
childhood trauma at all. Another possibility is that Drs. Harrison and
James may be well known for their interest in childhood trauma. If so,
then women with eating disorders who also happen to have a sexual
abuse history may be somewhat more likely to seek treatment at
Harrison and James' clinic, whereas women without sexual abuse are
somewhat more likely to visit a different clinic across town.
  For reasons such as these, the sample of women investigated by
Harrison and James will probably show a higher prevalence of sexual
abuse than women with eating disorders as a whole. But there is likely
an equally serious reverse bias in the investigators' comparison
group. Suppose that we find that Drs. Harrison and James chose their
comparison subjects by posting an advertisement around their local
medical area seeking "woman for a study involving interviews regarding
their psychological symptoms" and offering them $30 to participate.
Clearly, the women who are willing to respond to such an advertisement
are not a random sample. In particular, women with a history of
serious childhood sexual abuse may be embarrassed to sign up for a
psychiatric interview. It is not worth $30 to them to contemplate a
stranger asking them about their childhood experiences. Thus, the
women who actually show up in Harrison and James' offices, ready to be
interviewed about their psychiatric histories, will likely exhibit a
much lower rate of childhood sexual abuse than the true rate in the
  Then, Harrison and James compound the problem even further with
their requirement that these comparison subjects be free of
psychiatric disorder. This criterion introduces a further selection
bias into the comparison group, in that it creates a sample of
"supernormals" who now have a much lower prevalence of psychiatric
disorder as a whole than the natural rate in the community.
  What is so bad about using "supernormals?" Consider an analogy from
medicine. Suppose that we wish to test the hypothesis that cigarette
smoking causes people to develop rheumatoid arthritis. (This
hypothesis, as the reader probably knows, is completely false.) We
examine 50 patients with confirmed rheumatoid arthritis and obtain
detailed histories of their lifetime cigarette consumption. We find
that 50% report some history of cigarette use. We then get a
comparison group of individuals from the community at large, choosing
them so that their average age and male/female ratio match closely
with the rheumatoid arthritis group, and exclude from this group any
individuals who show evidence of any significant medical disease. In
this group of "healthy controls," we find, not surprisingly, that the
lifetime prevalence of cigarette smoking is markedly lower than in the
patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Can we conclude therefore that
smoking causes rheumatoid arthritis? Of course not. We have simply
selected against cigarette smokers in the comparison group by our
insistence that they be "supernormals" with no serious medical illness
of any type.
  How are Drs. Harrison and James to deal with these problems?
Fortunately, these methodologic difficulties are well understood in
epidemiological research, and established methods exist to address
them. For example, Drs. Harrison and James could obtain data from
1,000 women in the community at large. Upon examining the histories of
these women, let us say that they find that 50 of the 1,000 display
eating disorders. These women are unselected, in that they represent
every case of eating disorders in the sample, regardless of whether or
not they were seeking treatment. Then, Drs. Harrison and James select
from the remaining 950 women an age-matched group of 40 comparison
subjects without regard to the presence or absence of psychiatric
disorders (except, of course, an eating disorder). Assuming that all
of the 50 subjects in each of the two groups agree to cooperate with
the investigation (thus minimizing any bias from self-selection), Drs.
Harrison and James will have two groups unlikely to be seriously
affected by selection bias.
  Although these methods are admittedly more tedious and expensive
than the "quick and dirty" hypothetical study described earlier, it is
easy to see that they would produce much more reliable results. It is
remarkable, then, to find that the great majority of published studies
of childhood sexual abuse and adult psychiatric disorder fail to
control for selection bias, and thus may produce findings just as
suspect as our bogus conclusion that smoking causes arthritis. In
short, by insisting on studies which have adequately addressed the
issue of selection bias, we have already greatly narrowed the field of
studies which meet our methodological standards for testing the
relationship between childhood sexual abuse and adult psychiatric
1. This hypothetical study, and most of the material in the next three
sections of this series are taken from a journal article which we have
previously published: Pope, H.G. Jr., Hudson, J. I. "Does childhood
sexual abuse cause adult psychiatric disorders? Essentials of
methodology." J Psychiatry Law Fall, 1995: 363-381. We refer the
reader desiring a full scientific presentation of these arguments to
the original article.

  This column appears as a chapter in the forthcoming book, Junk
  Psychology: Fallacies in Studies of 'Repression' and Childhood
  Trauma, by Harrison G. Pope, Jr. M.D., Social Issues Resources
  Series, 1996. Copies of this book will be available in March 1997
  and may be obtained by writing to Social Issues Resources Series at
  1100 Holland Drive, Boca Raton, Florida, 33427, or by calling

/                                                                    \ 
| The accusation startled and devastated me. I tried to get beyond   |
| the unconfirmed rumors and return to my work, but this lurid       |
| charge against my deepest ideals and commitments kept consuming my |
| attention. Indeed I could think of little else...Spurious charges. |
| I realized, were what Jesus himself experienced. But this evolving |
| nightmare seemed completely unreal. It did not seem possible that  |
| this was happening to me.                                          |
|                                                 Cardinal Bernardin |
|                                                Gift of Peace, 1997 |

        New Publications available from the FMSF Legal Project

# 808  FMSF Amicus Curiae Brief - Illinois Supreme Ct.          $20.00
Brief in support of Appellees in M.E.H. v. L.H., No. 81943. Brief
argues that unproven reliability of repressed memory claims are
insufficient basis to apply "discovery rule." Also reviews factors
leading to the development of false memories, the repressed memory
debate, current findings of the scientific community, and relevant
case law in other jurisdictions.

# 809  FMSF Amicus Curiae Brief - New Hampshire Supreme Ct.     $20.00
Brief in support of Appellees in State v. Hungerford, State v.
Morahan, No. 95-429. Brief argues that under either a Frye or Daubert
analysis, the theory of repression clearly fails to meet the criteria
for admitting scientific evidence. Also reviews factors leading to the
development of false memories, the repressed memory debate, current
findings of the scientific community, and relevant case law in other

# 827 Transcripts of Expert Testimony at Admissibility Hearing in
State of New Hampshire v. Hungerford, Hillsborough Superior Ct.,
Northern District, New Hampshire, March 27-April 7, 1995.    $.25/page
Day 1 (Dr. Daniel Brown, 282 pages); Day 2 (Dr. Daniel Brown, 136
pages; Dr. Bessel van der Kolk, 126 pages); Day 3 (Dr. Bessel van der
Kolk, 56 pages; Dr. Jon Conte, 200 pages); Day 4 (Dr. Jon Conte, 176
pages); Day 6 (Dr. Elizabeth Loftus, 322 pages); Day 7 (Dr. Paul
McHugh, 216 pages; Dr.  Jon Conte, 12 pages); Day 9 ( Dr. James
Hudson, 204 pages); Day 10 (Dr.  James Hudson, 160 pages).

# 841 Doe v. Maskell Decision: Maryland Court of Appeals. July 29,
1996.                                                            $2.00

/                                                                    \ 
| The former treasurer of the Episcopal Church was sentenced to five |
| years in prison despite her claim she could not even remember      |
| embezzling $2.2 million. "I condemn this crime and the greed that  |
| caused it," said the judge. The defendant claimed she suffered     |
| from a psychological disorder that caused her to steal and forget  |
| what happened later.                                               |
|                                                     Fort Wayne, IN |
|                                        News Sentinel July 12, 1996 |

                      F M S F    F E A T U R E S
                          A New Day Dawning?
                        August Piper Jr., M.D.
A recent curious little debate has merrily bubbled and squeaked along
in obscure corners of the media. The question: does the 21st century
begin in the year 2000 or 2001? Though the weight of logic supports
the latter, this seems to count for nothing, because at least in the
United States, it appears that the new age will be embraced 365 days
  Many American psychotherapists are not waiting until 2000 to embrace
and welcome another kind of new age. I refer to what might be called
the age of dissociation. To satisfy yourselves, dear readers, that
this age is upon us, merely open a recent issue of almost any
psychiatry or psychological journal. Difficult it is, you will find,
to avoid seeing one paper after another on this subject. The
prestigious American Journal of Psychiatry, for example, is quite
enamored of such papers; it published 11 in 1996 alone.
  Yes, dissociation is sexy now. But before getting too cozy with this
notion, we should become better acquainted with it.
  "Dissociation" is defined as a disruption in the usually integrated
functions of consciousness, memory, identity, or perception of the
environment (DSM-IV). Five manifestations of dissociation are said to
exist: amnesia (a specific segment of time that cannot be accounted
for by memory); depersonalization (detachment of consciousness from
the body); derealization (a sense that one's surroundings are unreal);
identity confusion (a subjective feeling of uncertainty, puzzlement,
or conflict about one's identity); and identity alteration (evidence
of actions of different identities or ego states).
  These definitions are beset by vagueness and excessive dependence on
interpretation. Consider amnesia, for instance. How can an outside
observer ever evaluate the genuineness of a claim of amnesia?
  One writer has noted that even from its earliest history,
dissociation has always been a concept in need of restraint. But the
restraints came off a few years ago, and now this nebulous concept
runs wildly around everywhere. Examples: If you don't remember parts
of conversations, that's dissociation. Do you become so involved in a
book or movie or other experience that your surroundings fade away?
You guessed it: dissociation. Unable to recall parts of a long,
boring freeway ride? Right again! -- dissociation. And if you fail to
remember large blocks of your childhood, dissociative disorder
proponents can tell you why. Some proponents go so far as to imply
that commonplace experiences like these indicate significant
psychiatric disorders, or a repressed history of childhood
  The definitions' ambiguity and subjectivity allow "dissociation" to
be defined in nearly any way people want. I recently interviewed a
woman who actually claimed she was "dissociated 100 percent of the
time" -- even while she was talking to me (and, I might add, not only
following the conversation, but also making perfect sense).
  The concept is all-explaining. Thus, one dissociative disorders
expert says that mania, panic attacks, mood swings, obsessive-
compulsive symptoms, self-mutilation, drug abuse, phobias,
hallucinations, eating disorders, suicidality, depression, sexual
dysfunction, bodily aches and pains, insomnia, and several other
psychiatric difficulties may occur in patients who have dissociative
disorders. This expert implies that dissociation causes all these
difficulties. One can only wonder if there is any psychiatric problem
that fails to make this list.
  Yet another problem is that the concept of dissociation directly
leads to intractable logical contradictions about responsibility for
one's actions. Two legal cases in which I recently consulted provide
examples. In the first, the patient in question was hospitalized to
treat dissociative identity disorder (formerly multiple personality
disorder). The patient, and the staff as well, believed she had an
alter that periodically assumed control of her body. Though she feared
this entity would compel her to harm herself or someone else, she
refused to take any responsibility for such actions. Instead, she
adopted the dissociative disorder party line: "I have no control over
my dissociation. It just happens to me, and then the alter takes
  The treating clinicians endorsed this regressive stance of
nonresponsibility. Unfortunately, this endorsement left them with just
one exceedingly unpalatable treatment choice: to assume more and more
responsibility for the patient's life. But the more they took control,
the worse she became. The staff finally decided -- unilaterally --
that, "for her own good," they would move the patient to another
state, far from her home city. They did this because they were firmly
convinced that "The Cult" was after her.
  In the second case, a defendant who claims to have MPD faces charges
of misappropriating a small mountain of money from a financial
institution. She asks the court to agree that she is not criminally
responsible for this behavior. Why? Because, she claims, she had
dissociated at those times when the funds vanished. In other words,
she didn't take the money -- her alters did.
  This argument apparently exerts a compelling attraction for one
well-known university professor. He will testify that neither the
defendant, nor any of her alters, deserves so much as even a glimpse
of the inside of a prison.
  Finally, see what a reader in Ohio says:

  In 1992, my 34-year-old daughter wrote me, saying that her therapy
  had revealed that something might have happened to her when she was
  a child. Although she never accused me directly in person, by phone,
  or by letter, she would tell her brothers and mother that I had
  committed incest with her. All these people turned against me; I
  tried to reason with them but they wouldn't listen. Now my daughter
  tells me she should not be held responsible for these comments,
  because one of her alter personalities made them. My question is:
  Should she?

These questions of responsibility revolve around two articles of faith
passionately endorsed by many MPD proponents. First, that at least
some barriers between patients' personalities are impermeable -- that
is, information does not leak between alters. Second, that patients
suffering from dissociative disorders cannot control the conditions'
  If these claims are true, then neither the main personality, nor any
of the subpersonalities, can reasonably be held responsible for what
any other personality does. According to this logic, the hospitalized
patient described above could indeed not avoid killing herself, the
defendant should not go to prison, and the daughter should be free to
make all manner of accusations against her father.
  No one, I suspect, would want to live in such a world, where any
responsibility could be lightly evaded by easy appeal to invisible
alters. Interestingly enough, some MPD-focused therapists seem to
agree. For example, one such therapist explicitly tells MPD patients
to behave responsibly -- as by demanding, under threat of legal
sanctions, that they exert sufficient control over their behavior to
keep away from his home and family. How obvious it is that this demand
contradicts the above articles of faith!
  Though the Ohio reader asks a moral, rather than clinical, question,
his question challenges those MPD proponents who urge that more people
be so diagnosed. What happens to the concept of responsibility in a
society where scores of thousands of people receive this diagnosis?
  Frankel (Am J Psychiatry July 1996 supplement) wisely warns against
premature cozy embrace of a new age centered on "unbridled versions of
the concept of dissociation" -- a concept that, he notes, has recently
been "projected as larger than life." He says although some evidence
for dissociation's existence may eventually appear, at this point in
the old millennium, it is largely just an hypothesis.

  August Piper, Jr. M.D. is in private practice in Seattle. He is a
  member of the FMSF Scientific Advisory Board and the author of the
  just-released book Hoax & Reality: The Bizarre World of Multiple
  Personality Disorder, Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson, Inc.

         Victim Compensation And "Recovered Memory Syndrome"
                        Dr. Susan Kiss Sarnoff
I have spent most of the past decade studying crime victim
compensation benefits. In general, these benefits provide minimal help
to only a small portion of eligible victims. They are particularly
insignificant to those families who lose a breadwinner and victims
permanently disabled by crime.
  Ironically, the earliest compensation programs were targeted to
these particular groups of victims. To preserve resources and limit
fraud, compensation programs also limited their funds to victims who
reported their crimes to the police (which was also meant as an
incentive to reporting) and denied compensation to victims who were
related to their offenders (not only because the offenders would
benefit from the awards, but for fear that family members might
conspire to obtain benefits they did not deserve). States were also
strict about timeliness: they denied benefits to victims who reported
late (some cases had limits as low as 72 hours) and set further limits
on filing, although they always allowed more time than they did for
reporting. These rules tended to have their greatest effect on victims
of sexual assault and domestic violence, because theirs were the
least-reported crimes and the most likely to involve family members.
  In 1986, responding to criticism that compensation programs failed
to reach a significant portion of eligible victims (only 1% of victims
of violent crimes then received compensation, although researchers
argued that a large portion of victims did not need compensation
because they either had sufficient insurance or negligible costs), the
federal Office for Victims of Crime earmarked approximately half of
the matching funds it provided to states to fund "outreach" programs
to needy victims who might otherwise be unaware of the availability of
compensation. A last-minute amendment to the legislation, railroaded
through by Senator Arlen Spector, required that 30% of the outreach
funds be allocated to "priority" categories of "previously-
underserved" victims. Victims of sexual assault, spouse abuse and
child abuse have since each received a minimum of 10% of outreach
  These priority categories were immediately protested. It was argued
that other needy victims, including Native Americans living on
reservations, homicide survivors and various other groups, categorized
not only according to the crimes committed against them but by their
ineligibility for alternative benefits, ethnicity, income and other
factors, were just as deserving as the designated groups. (In fact,
priority categories have since been expanded to include more of these
  What Spector failed to acknowledge was that additional funds were
available to these groups of victims through a variety of other
programs. Since then, still more funds have been targeted to these
groups alone, most recently through the Violence Against Women Act.
Furthermore, although their advocacy groups deny the fact, reporting
of these crimes has increased, in part because these advocates were
also effective in changing attitudes and treatment toward victims of
crime. Advocates were also effective in changing eligibility factors
to make more of "their" victims eligible for compensation. The first
to be modified was "unjust enrichment," which was considered too
sweeping. Then police reporting was modified in many states to
reporting to a criminal justice authority, which could be construed as
a 911 call or a request for an order of protection.
  More recently advocates began to challenge deadlines. In truth, some
states had very narrow guidelines, especially regarding filing for
compensation, when studies repeatedly demonstrated that the main
reason that victims failed to file, or filed late, was that they had
been unaware of the compensation availability. But this did not
justify extending reporting deadlines, which many states did, and some
did only for victims of sexual assault. Advocates who were
dissatisfied with their states' deadlines, particularly in light of
other states' changes, then sought reasons to extend deadlines
further, at least in some cases.
  It was not uncommon for victims of intrafamilial abuse to seek help
only after they had moved out of the offender's household, so many
advocates argued that the reporting and filing "clocks" should not be
started until victims did so. These arguments were not very
successful. Next it was argued that people victimized as children
should not have their "clock" started until they reached adulthood,
but this, too, was rejected. Finally advocates turned to the fact that
some victims seemed to "repress" their memories for some time after
their assaults, only to "recall" them later. However, these reports
were anecdotal, and most significantly, no one studied what victims
(or advocates) meant by "repressed." Did they understand Freud's
definition, or did they simply mean that the victims had not thought
about the assaults for some time?
  Furthermore, in my own experience as rape victim counselor and
trainer of rape victim counselors, victims "recalled" these so-called
"repressed" memories spontaneously, usually when they were victimized
again in adulthood. The "repressed" memories were a complication to
counseling because victims tended to confuse aspects of the recent and
past assaults, and to be less clear about the circumstances of both
assaults than were victims of a single assault, recent or past.
  Yet victim advocates argued that, because victims "repressed"
memories, the "clock" on reporting or filing for compensation should
not be started until these memories were "recovered." And, presumably
because the decision makers were confused and ignorant about these
issues, and possibly because they wanted to approve some form of
expanded coverage, some states approved these rules. To further
complicate matters, it can be expected that some of these "recovered"
memories will be verifiable, only because some victims who never
forgot their memories claim that they have to be eligible for
compensation. In fact, considering the timing of their development, it
could be argued that "recovered memory syndrome" was caused by victim
compensation eligibility guidelines.
  This strikes me as the greatest irony, because even if it were
possible to recover intact memories of repressed abuse, the act of
doing so could never be defined as therapeutic. Let us forget for a
moment that there is no known "technology" for "recovering" intact
memories. Let us even forget that it is unethical to break down a
patient's defenses, or to provide any service that fails to reduce
symptomatology. If recovering memories were effective -- it would be a
criminal justice -- not a therapeutic tool, because it purports to
identify a crime and the perpetrator of that crime, not to reduce the
trauma of crime.
  The pendulum appears to be swinging away from recovered memories now
that so many malpractice lawsuits against therapists who have
"uncovered" memories have been won. And expansions to victim
compensation now seem to be prioritizing spouse abuse rather than
sexual assault.
  Victim compensation programs have been invaluable to genuine victims
with significant, otherwise-unreimbursable costs. But some of them may
also have inadvertently contributed to the false memory controversy,
by failing to adequately screen the counselors they reimburse and
failing to require those counselors to use effective, proven methods
of treatment. It is incumbent upon them now to right these wrongs not
only by improving their mental health payment criteria, but by
recovering the funds paid to these counselors and establishing
criteria for compensating the victims of false reports.
  Dr. Sarnoff is a social policy analyst and the author of Paying for
  Crime: The Policies and Possibilities of Crime Victim Reimbursement
                  Suicide and MPD: An informal note
                         Harold Merskey, D.M.
  The Foundation has been asked on numerous occasions to provide
  information about suicides and suicide attempts by patients who have
  undergone recovered memory therapy. These requests have accelerated
  since we described the Washington State Victims Compensation Review
  (see FMSF Newsletter, May 1996, page 1). That report noted that in a
  sample of 30 patients, only 3 claimants thought about suicide or
  attempted suicide before recovering their first memory: twenty did
  so after memories. We asked Dr. Harold Merskey to help us formulate
  a reply to those who asked us about suicide. This is his response:

  It is difficult to obtain material on this topic in a controlled
manner, but there are very strong reasons to fear that recovered
memory treatment is a serious factor in encouraging patients to
attempt suicide.
  Deterioration is commonly experienced in the course of recovered
memory therapy. Two social workers and their patient (Bryant D, Kesler
A. & Sharar L, 1992: The Family Inside. Working with the Multiple. New
York, WW Norton ) claim "When knowledge of the abuse and/or emotional
feelings begin to return, physical feelings associated with the event
also return...the client may make guttural sounds which may be her
way of expressing terror so extreme that, for the moment, she feels as
if she had gone mad. She may weep; she may cry out for her mother."
  This deterioration is often cited in the literature. Seltzer
(A.H. Seltzer, 1994: Multiple Personality, a psychiatric misadventure.
Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 39:442-445) found a history of
deterioration in four out of five cases as recovered memories and
personalities appeared. One of his patients observed "I hallucinated,
self-mutilated and I thought I was going crazy. That's what therapy
did to me."
  Three out of four "survivors" of recovered memory treatment
described by Pendergrast (Pendergrast M, 1995: Victims of Memory
Incest Accusations and Shattered Lives. Hinseburg, VT: Upper Access
Books) clearly deteriorated at some point in treatment. Retractors,
individuals who have had recovered memory therapy, believed in it and
rejected it, subsequently report similar experiences. Several more of
these are also described by Pendergrast.
  The Courage to Heal by Bass and Davis, a notoriously harmful book
which is a "bible" of the recovered memory movement, states that in
the "emergency phase," patients need special protection and are
expected to deteriorate.
  With the help of Janet Fetkewicz at the FMS Foundation, we were able
to collect a small amount of information on 12 individuals who entered
treatment for fairly ordinary reasons such as depression or problems
in relationships. These individuals were all furnished with recovered
memories by therapists and later retracted them.
  Twenty retractors who reported a diagnosis of MPD were randomly
selected from the FMSF database. Of those 20, twelve were available
for an exploratory interview (3 were unable to participate due to
litigation; 2 could not be reached; 2 refused; 1 disclosed that the
diagnosis of MPD was not formal).
  Seven of the 12 retractors had attempted suicide. Of the five who
did not attempt suicide, four had at some time thought seriously about
suicide. One of those who had attempted suicide did so prior to the
diagnosis of multiple personality disorder being made. One made an
attempt before and after the diagnosis. Five made the attempt only
after the diagnosis of MPD. Of the five who attempted suicide only
after their MPD diagnosis, two said that they had never thought
seriously about suicide before that diagnosis. Three of the five
patients attempted suicide in the hospital after the diagnosis; none
did so before the diagnosis. Several of these attempts were dangerous
and were intended to be effective. The five patients who made their
attempts only after the diagnosis had an average of 1.8 serious
attempts. In all those cases they thought correctly that their lives
were at risk and in eight attempts they intended to die.
  It is well understood among psychiatrists that patients who make so
many attempts are a high risk group for ultimate suicide. We should
also note that "...the literature published to date inspires no
confidence that MPD practitioners preferred treatment methods result
in any timely, lasting, or significant benefits to patients." (1)
  The evidence is very suggestive that treatment for multiple
personality disorder by means of recovered memory therapy is
significantly more dangerous than the natural history of the original
prior psychiatric illness with which patients present. It appears that
the proliferation of the kinds of treatments described as recovered
memory therapy has been a disaster for many patients and also for
innocent accused people. It has also been highly damaging to the
development of the profession of psychiatry.
  (1) Piper, A., (1997). Hoax and Reality: The Bizarre World of
Multiple Personality Disorder. Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson Inc. Page

  Harold Merskey, D.M. is Professor Emeritus in Psychiatry at the
  University of Western Ontario and a member of the FMSF Advisory
  Board. He is the author of The Analysis of Hysteria: Understanding
  Conversion and Dissociation, 2nd ed. Janet Fetkewicz is on the
  staff of the FMS Foundation. She is responsible for the most
  comprehensive collection of information about retractors that is
  available. Jamie Fetkewicz assisted with the data collection.

/                                                                    \ 
|                             A Suicide                              |
|                                                                    |
|   Just before his thirty-third birthday, my son began seeing a     |
| Canadian social worker who advertised her services as a family     |
| therapist. He and his wife had just separated and he was anxious   |
| about joint parenting. After five months of counseling, he asked   |
| me some questions that indicated that he was attempting to         |
| retrieve memories of his childhood. Two months later, he told me   |
| that my father had molested him. Neither I nor any other family    |
| member believed him and there was absolutely no evidence for such  |
| a belief.                                                          |
|   Four months more and his lawyer sent a formal letter threatening |
| to file a lawsuit if my parents did not pay him a large amount of  |
| money in compensation for the alleged "abuse." My parents, who are |
| in their 80s, refused to pay and hired a defense lawyer.           |
|   Approximately a year after beginning therapy, a civil suit was   |
| filed by my son. He asked for a large amount of money,             |
| approximately the value of my parents' farm and life savings. Six  |
| weeks after his thirty-fourth birthday, my son left a letter in    |
| his apartment saying that this solution will be cheaper for the    |
| taxpayer" and walked to a nearby lake where he drowned.            |
|   In the past few months I have gained access to my son's journals |
| that were a part of his "therapy." I read dreams which were later  |
| taken as reality, fantasies that were later alleged to be reality, |
| all becoming more and more confused until eventually he was in a   |
| nightmare from which the only escape was to end his life.          |
|   I am aware that sexual abuse of children does occur and I find   |
| it repugnant. The situation that destroyed my son had to do with a |
| therapist's abuse of her position of power. That is equally        |
| repugnant.                                                         |
|                                                           A Mother |

                       L E G A L   C O R N E R

 Malpractice Suit Claims Psychiatrist Convinced Patient She had Many
 Personalities and then Billed Insurance Provider for "Group Therapy"
     (Cool, et al., and Blue Cross/Blue Shield v. Olson, et al., 
     Circuit Ct., Outagamie Co., Wisconsin, Case No. 94 CV 707.)
Nadean Cool is suing her former psychiatrist for malpractice, claiming
he convinced her she had 120 personalities -- and then charged her
insurance company for group therapy. In her suit, Nadean Cool claims
that her psychiatrist, Kenneth C. Olson, was negligent in diagnosing
her as suffering from Multiple Personality Disorder and that he
planted in her frightening and false memories through hypnosis.
  Cool's insurance company, Blue Cross and Blue Shield United of
Wisconsin, is also suing Olson, St. Elizabeth Hospital and Legion
Insurance Co. of Pennsylvania. Blue Cross, after paying about $113,000
to Olson and $114,000 to St. Elizabeth, Blue Cross said Olson billed
for group sessions, claiming he was counseling more than one person
because of her alleged split personalities.
  In opening arguments, Cool's attorney, William Smoler, accused Dr.
Olson of implanting false memories in Cool's mind, including supposed
childhood incidents of sexual assault and rape. Olson used fear to
convince Cool that her family and members of a satanic cult wanted to
kill her. Olson prescribed a regimen of drugs, some addictive, but
"far beyond what's acceptable," Smoler said.
  Another attorney for Cool, Pamela Schmelzer, told the jury that
Dr. Olson informed Cool that she had more than 120 personalities,
including those of a duck and of angels who talked to God. Cool came
to believe she had knifed the babies in the heart and passed them
around for other cult members to eat. To become Satan's bride, Olson
told Cool, she had to be raped by 60 or 70 men and have sex with
animals, Schmelzer said. He said the only way Cool would get better
was to describe such acts to him in detail. When Cool would ask after
hypnotic sessions, why she had not remembered such child abuse, Olson
convinced her that under hypnosis, "you become someone else and only
that person remembers these things." During this time, as a result,
Cool made several suicide attempts.
  According to Schmelzer, on Feb. 25, 1989, in a mental health unit at
St. Elizabeth Hospital, Olson covered the nurses' viewing windows with
newspaper, "tethered Cool spread eagle" on a bed, and ordered that no
one enter the room no matter what they heard. Armed with a fire
extinguisher, because he had told Cool that "she could burst into
flames as a result of the exorcism," Olson screamed to Satan, while
Cool begged "let me go" for several hours. Olson told Cool that many
of her personalities died as a result of the exorcism, Schmelzer said.
  During the first day of testimony, Cool described how she began
counseling sessions with Olson for help in dealing with a traumatic
event experienced by a family member and her feelings of guilt because
she had been unable to prevent it. Cool testified that the $300,000
treatment by Dr. Olson left her suicidal and haunted by false memories
of brutal rapes, incest and beatings that she had never before
remembered. The memories occurred when she was regressed back to
childhood through hypnosis. Cool testified that before Olson
hypnotized her for the first time, he never warned her of any risks
involved or that false memories might occur. He also insisted that if
Cool denied the memories evoked under hypnosis, she would never get
  Sometimes pausing to regain control of her emotions, Cool recalled
for the jury some of the memories Olson brought forth when she was in
a trance during her first year of therapy with him in 1986. Cool
testified that in 1987, she had increasingly bad nightmares and
continual flashbacks of the incidents she experienced under hypnosis
until she felt more "hopeless and crazy." But, she said, Olson
continued to tell her "sometimes you have to work things out the hard
way." Cool told the jury that Olson would often hypnotize her and
have her recall these terrifying memories.
  Cool testified that as the year progressed, her therapy sessions
with Olson became longer and she was hospitalized more frequently. She
said that she told Olson on Dec. 31, 1987, that she was discontinuing
treatment because "I felt like dying all the time because of the
constant flashbacks, and I could not see how I could ever get better."
Cool said Olson threatened to hospitalize her against her wishes on a
72-hour hold, but she finally agreed to go voluntarily because she
didn't want to be committed.
  The defense stance was outlined by defense attorney, David D.
Patton, in his opening statement on Feb. 7th. Patton said that the
psychiatrist correctly diagnosed multiple personality disorder, and
that no malpractice occurred because it was Cool who suggested she was
different personalities. That's exactly what we have here." Patton
said that because of the severity of Cool's problems, Olson was
willing to try anything, including exorcism or 'deliverance prayer' to
help her. "Evidence will show she was not harmed by it," the
psychiatrist's attorney said.
  News services across the country have published reports of testimony
which began February 7, in Appleton, Wisconsin. The trial is expected
to last 6 weeks. The report given above quoted from the following
sources: St. Louis Post-Dispatch, (2/12/97) "Woman says her
psychiatrist planted her false memories, personalities; Milwaukee
Journal Sentinel, by Chris Nelson, (2/11/97) "Malpractice suit:
Plaintiff tells horror of memories; Woman emotionally testifies that
psychiatrist planted false recollections;" Milwaukee Journal Sentinel,
by Chris Nelson, (2/8/97), "Patient cites satanic references;
Malpractice suit claims psychiatrist used fear;" Milwaukee Journal
Sentinel, by Meg Jones, (2/4/97), "Doctor accused of bogus therapy,
bills; Appleton woman says former psychiatrist convinced her of many
personalities; Billed for group therapy."
  (The hard-copy edition of this Newsletter has a mini-cartoon
  embedded in the text above. It shows a seated therapist talking to a
  horizontal client with the caption "Now that we have discovered you
  have two personalities, I shall have to charge you double." -pjf)

    Court Prohibits Use of Syndrome as Evidence in Sex Abuse Cases
(Haden v. State of Florida, 1997 Fla. LEXIS 11, decision Feb. 6, 1997)
The Florida Supreme Court ruled that prosecutors cannot use a syndrome
that describes how sexually abused children behave as evidence against
those accused of being molesters. The Child Sexual Abuse Accommodation
Syndrome (CSAAS) lists five attributes of children who have been
sexually abused: secrecy, helplessness, denial, delayed disclosure and
retraction. The court rejected the syndrome's use to prove that a
child was abused.
  The court held that prior to the introduction of a psychologist's
expert testimony offered to prove the alleged victim of sexual abuse
exhibits symptoms consistent with one who has been sexually abused,
the trial court must find that the psychologist's testimony is
admissible under the standard for admissibility of novel scientific
evidence announced in Frye v. United States, 54 App. D.C. 46, 293
F. 1013 (D.C. Cir. 1923). Justice Charles Wells wrote for the
unanimous court that CSAAS "has not been proven, by a preponderance of
scientific evidence to be generally accepted by a majority of the
experts in psychology....We will not permit factual issues to be
resolved on the basis of opinions which have yet to achieve general
acceptance in the relevant scientific community." Several other courts
have ruled similarly.(1)
  (1) See, e.g., Commonwealth v. Dunkle, 529 Pa. 168, 602 A.2d 830
(1992); Commonwealth v. Garcia, 58 A.2d 951 (Pa. Superior Ct., 1991);
Frenzel v. State, 849 P.2d 741 (Wyo., 1993); Hellstrom v. 
Commonwealth, No. 90-SC-262-MR (Kentucky Supreme Ct., 1992); Lantrip
v. Commonwealth, 713 S.W.2d 816 (Mich., 1990); People v. Peterson, 450
Mich. 349, 537 N.W.2d 857 (Mich., 1995); State v. Moran, 151 Ari. 378
(Ariz., 1986); State v. Foret, 628 So.2d 1116 (La., 1993); State v.
Cressey, 628 A.2d 696, 137 N.H. 402 (N.H., 1993).

                Updates on Previously Reported Cases:

           Two Genesis Associates Prevented from Counseling 
                 Philadelphia Inquirer, Feb. 5, 1997
                          by Suzanne Gordon
Two Pennsylvania state agencies have reached a tentative agreement
with psychologist Patricia Mansmann and social worker Patricia
Neuhausel which would involve a temporary suspension and may include
monitoring of the women's activities by the state.
  Robert DeSousa, chief counsel for the Bureau of Professional and
Occupational Affairs said that the proposed temporary suspension,
would be more stringent than revoking their licenses outright, because
it would not permit them to conduct psychological counseling or
related counseling activities during the time of the suspension. If
their professional licenses were revoked, DeSousa said, they could
still practice types of therapies and counseling methods that are not
subject to state licensing.
  Nearly a year ago, the two partners of Genesis Associates were
charged with 229 counts of misconduct and using harmful and dangerous
methods in their therapy practice. The charges were investigated by
the Pennsylvania Bureau of Professional and Occupational Affairs, the
state Board of Psychiatry, and the Board of Social Work Examiners. In
addition, a number of former clients or their relatives have filed
suit against Genesis, contending the therapy was harmful.

                    Maryland's high court's ruling 
            which rejected repressed memory claims stands
On Jan. 21, the U.S. Supreme Court (Roe v. Maskell, 1997 U.S. LEXIS
560), refused to hear a woman's appeal of a repressed memory case in
which she claimed she had been sexually abused by a priest more than
25 years ago. As a result, the decision of the Maryland Court of
Appeals stands. The Supreme Court gave no reason for declining to hear
the case.
  Last July, the Maryland Court of Appeals, Doe v. Maskell, 342
Md. 684, 679 A.2d 1087 (1996), refused to recognize "repressed
memories" as a basis for postponing the filing deadline, noting that
"studies purporting to validate repression theory are justly
criticized as unscientific, unrepresentative and biased." The Court
concluded, based on expert testimony presented at an extensive
evidentiary hearing held earlier before a Circuit Court, that science
could not even distinguish between a memory which had been "forgotten"
and one which had been "repressed." Therefore, the court concluded,
both claims must be treated in the same way. They must be dismissed as

                        B O O K   R E V I E W

 Multiple Identities and False Memories: A Socio-cognitive Perspective
                             N. P. Spanos
       American Psychological Assoc.  (1996), 382 pages,  $.35
                    Reviewer: Harold Merskey, D.M.
Nicholas P. Spanos was Professor of Psychology and Director of the
Laboratory for Experimental Hypnosis at Carleton University from 1975
until his death in 1994. He was killed when the plane he was piloting
crashed shortly after take-off from Martha's Vineyard. This book had
been submitted for publication before he died and the process was
completed by his colleagues and friends, Drs. John F. Chaves (Indiana
University School of Dentistry) and Bill Jones (Carleton University,
Ottawa). Spanos' death was a profound loss to the scientific study of
hypnosis, suggestion and social psychology. No better testimony to
that fact exists than this book, which demonstrates with clarity and
authority that Multiple Personality Disorder is no more than a
  Spanos argues that MPD is not a naturally occurring disorder, but a
social construct produced by particular environmental and cultural
factors. He emphasizes that "altered state" theories of hypnosis are
inaccurate and that current concepts of MPD are tied to them. He also
presents parallels between MPD and possession by demons, witchcraft,
glossolalia and hysteria. The author deals with the preconceptions
which have to be cleared away about hypnosis, hypnotic amnesia, and
"brain-washing." He concludes that the available data indicate that
hypnotic amnesia does not occur spontaneously following the induction
of hypnosis and that the recall deficits that follow suggestions for
amnesia do not involve an automatic and complete forgetting of events.
Instead, hypnotic amnesia (and most likely much of MPD amnesia as
well) involves goal-directed enactment aimed at meeting social
expectations. With hypnosis, the subject is doing things because that
is what is expected, and he or she satisfies himself that it is
appropriate "under hypnosis" to comply with the notions put forward.
  Spanos attends to issues connected with child sexual abuse, the fate
of memory for abuse, and trauma and symptoms of sexual abuse, and
concludes that hypnotic procedures are not reliable and age regression
procedures involving "reliving" of earlier events are not authentic.
He demonstrates the numerous points of similarity between Multiple
Personality Disorder and demonic possession, which was rife throughout
previous centuries (and occasionally still rears its "devilish" head).
A variety of questionable, if not preposterous, phenomena are
scrutinized, including Satanic ritual abuse, UFO observation,
abduction by space aliens, and the social functions of possession. For
example, Catholic and Lutheran ministers battled to show which of them
was the best exorcist and, therefore, had the better religion.
Throughout, there is a steady, almost remorseless reliance upon solid
empirical and experimental data.
  There are so many objections to Multiple Personality Disorder that
its present survival, even if only temporary, is beginning to
constitute a remarkable testimony to the human capacity for obstinate
self-deception or, at least, to accept suggestion. The flaws in the
diagnosis include an enormous variation, according to social
circumstances, so that it is essentially a North-American disease with
precarious little colonies infiltrated in the Netherlands and Norway.
  In addition to an enormous growth in numbers of cases, there is also
inflation of the number of alters. A few years ago, as Spanos makes
clear, the mean number of alters per case was perhaps ten. Now it is
up to twenty, and as long ago as 1988, the editor of Dissociation, Dr.
Richard Kluft, claimed that he had patients with more than 4,000
alters. I remain puzzled as to how he managed to interview them all,
even perfunctorily, never mind carrying out a comprehensive clinical
evaluation. The improbability of the ideas linked with Multiple
Personality Disorder is increased by the recognition that cases are
spread by contagion, in therapeutic groups, in other social groups, in
the audiences of both the print media and the electronic media, and
indeed by anyone with whom the present or future MPD case happened to
be talking.
  The improbability of the current notion of Multiple Personality
Disorder likewise provides critical examination, as well as common
sense rejection.  Detailed infantile memories have been recovered from
before the age of 3, even though they cannot possibly be laid down so
early, simply because of the maturation rate of nerve cell
sheaths. Also, frequent discredited claims of Satanic ritual abuse,
reports of regression to intra-uterine experiences and to past lives,
and claims for alien abduction have all been found with the help of
the same methods that produce MPD. MPD practitioners do not question
their basic data, while speculation about superstructures advances. A
psychotherapy patient who is asked to discover numerous alters may be
compared with a customer going to a bank which offers her twenty-fold
profits with gold produced by an alchemical therapy.
  Meanwhile, theoretical propositions designed to justify the
diagnosis on the basis of childhood sexual abuse have been undermined
by the fact that the supposed classic cases, if they had abuse at all,
reported a different level of dysfunction (much less serious),
frequent misdiagnosis and overt induction under hypnosis.
  The concept of repression on which MPD depends has also declined.
Spanos showed that the link between the measurement of
hypnotizability, so-called, and dissociative disorders, was so weak as
to be trivial. He noted that all critics could demonstrate with ease
that the largest number of reported cases are presented as being
produced by methods which involve outright instructions to multiply.
The diagnosis is not exclusive, and it violates the law of William of
Occam, whose rule favoured the simplest possible explanation.
  We may ask whether patients (or clients) get better with these
treatments. The answer is usually in the negative and many patients
deteriorate sharply. There is a sense that professional standards have
been wantonly violated, that the MPD movement, although declining, is
still harming patients and that we should not just call MPD a socially
constructed role, but a partial pyramid scheme based on make-believe.
  The book by Spanos furnishes any reader with far more information
than he needs for the particular purpose of discussing MPD with the
public but a welcome abundance for the purpose of reaching a
scientific decision. I would like to see more understanding in it of
the role played by rapid cycling bipolar affective illness in recorded
cases, including Mary Reynolds, and Janet's cases. Janet himself, in
later life, began to see a number of his cases as having been bipolar
patients who suffered frequent increases of elation and descents into
  A number of references which Spanos would no doubt have included had
he survived are missing, but this book gives a superb analysis and
review up to 1993. It deserves to be designated as a classic.

  Harold Merskey, D.M. is Professor Emeritus in Psychiatry at the
  University of Western Ontario and a member of the FMSF Advisory
  Board. He is the author of The Analysis of Hysteria: Understanding
  Conversion and Dissociation, 2nd et.

/                                                                    \ 
|                      "Multiple Personalities"                      |
|                 You would never know they existed                  |
|                                                                    |
| "The reason these cases are so hard to diagnose is the patients    |
| develop so many personalities to hide behind as a means of         |
| protection. And unless these personalities can be coaxed out from  |
| the dark shadows of the patient's mind, you would never know they  |
| existed."                                                          |
|                                                Bennett Braun, M.D. |
|                                  November 12, 1980 Palm Beach Post |
|                                       interview with Steve Rothman |

                   F R O M   O U R   R E A D E R S

                            It is too late 
It is three years since I wrote to you about my eldest daughter who,
at 40 years of age, accused her father of raping her when she was five
years old. Since then she has been denounced by my other two
daughters. When one of these daughters tried to talk to her about the
past , "P" told her that it would be better if she did not call her
  Last August my husband died. He had requested that "P" be sent a
copy of his obituary only. When "P" received the obituary, she called
her sister to say that she felt that she ("P") was the victim because
no one had contacted her about the death. (She had been told months
before by my sister that her father's terminal condition.)
  Since 1993, I have had no contact with my daughter and will not
until she recants. Unlike most of your correspondents, I have no
desire to see her or speak to her. She has put a dark shadow on our
lives with her obscene accusations.
  The most cruel thing of all is that my beloved husband died and now
it is too late for her to ever apologize to him.
  The newsletter has been a big help to me. I understand and feel the
anguish of the letters sent to you and know that I am not alone. It
has given me peace of mind. It has helped me with everyday coping.
Keep up the excellent work.
                                                             A Mom
                          Are there others?
I am writing this letter in order to locate others who have had a
similar experience.
  My daughter "J" transferred to Simon Fraser University in 1990,
after completing a year at U.B.C. She took courses in anthropology,
sociology, psychology and women's studies. Up until the time she
transferred to S.F.U., she maintained normal communications with my
wife and me and with her older sister through phone calls and visits.
  Soon after the transfer, we began noticing changes in her general
behavior. She would become very angry with us when we discussed
different topics. Differences of opinion were now met with anger,
refusal to discuss and usually with "J" walking out.
  In February, 1992, "J" wrote to us stating that she did not want to
see us or communicate with us. In her letter she stated that we were
denying the past and the abuse she had suffered and that we did not
acknowledge any of it. We were shaken.
  When my wife tried to visit her at her apartment, "J" came out
screaming and swearing. My wife was unable to say anything. The same
thing happened to me when I tried to visit, with the added threat from
a neighbor that I would be arrested for stalking. I waited for the
police to arrive and they told me my daughter had the right not to
talk to me or see me.
  In January of 1996, I was painting the house when the Royal Canadian
Mounted Police came with a warrant for my arrest. They didn't know the
particulars of the arrest and told me I would be free if I signed a
bond. I didn't want to sign anything that might indicate that I was
admitting guilt. A lawyer put the matter straight.
  My wife and I often cry together. Our family has been torn apart and
we can't seem to put it together again. We have tried many approaches,
but don't know what to do about it. If there is anyone else out there
who has been affected in a similar way after your child has attended
S.F.U. please write to me "L.M." care of the FMS Foundation.
                                                       A grieving dad

  Editors comment: We have received many letters from parents whose
  children attended what we generally consider to be the finest
  universities when they became convinced that they had been sexually
  abused. In the week the above letter arrived, a similar situation
  was described by a family whose daughter is a graduate student at
  Columbia. Some families have been trying to connect with others so
  that they can approach the universities to hold them accountable.
  Women's Studies Programs, Psychology majors and counseling services
  are most often cited. The problem of alienation is recognized. In
  her book, Who Stole Feminism, Christina Hoff Sommers wrote "A parent
  should think very carefully before sending a daughter to one of the
  more gender-feminized colleges. Any school has the freedom to
  transform itself into a feminist bastion, but because the effect on
  the students is so powerful it ought to be honest about its
  attitude. I would like to see Wellesley College, Mount Holyoke,
  Smith, Mills, and the University of Minnesota -- among the more
  extreme examples -- print the following announcement on the first
  page of their bulletins:
    "We will help your daughter discover the extent to which she has
  been in complicity with the patriarchy. We will encourage her to
  reconstruct herself through dialogue with us. She may become enraged
  and chronically offended. She will very likely reject the religious
  and moral codes you raised her with. She may well distance herself
  from family and friends. She may change her appearance and even her
  sexual orientation. She may end up hating you (her father) and
  pitying you (her mother). After she has completed her reeducation
  with us, you will certainly be out tens of thousands of dollars and
  very possibly be out one daughter as well."
                                                            Page 91 
                 Who Stole Feminism?  How Women Have Betrayed Women 
                                  New York: Simon & Schuster (1994)

                         The Ultimate Sharing
The cardiologists said, "It could not be worse." They outlined the
many high risks of doing surgery again -- but there were no other
options. The surgical team was being assembled as we said our goodbyes
to "G" and prepared to wait. No one gave us any hope to hang on to;
but after several hours we got word that the surgery went much better
than expected, and the heart was strong."G" not only survived, but
was doing extremely well.
  What does this have to do with FMS? Did the accusing daughters
affect the condition? Maybe, but probably not; he had similar surgery
nine years ago, before we knew of recovered memory. What it does
affect, I think, is reconciliation. The incredible experience that the
rest of the family shared through this crisis, has created a bond that
our accusing daughters will never understand or share.
  I used to mourn the good family times that our accusing daughters
were missing. Now I realize they have cut themselves off from the
ultimate sharing of a family walking through the valley of the shadow
of death.
The February FMSF Newsletter article called "Restoring Relationships"
in the From Our Readers section is signed "A Father." I have never
read a better summary of my own beliefs. Please convey my deepest
thanks to the author.
                                                            A Mother
                           Bringing Sanity
I have greatly appreciated receiving your Newsletter over the last
year. Even more I appreciate the work of your Foundation in bringing
sanity into the way "recovered memory" evidence is evaluated. You
should be very proud of your extraordinary achievements. In just a
year the changes have been amazing.
  I also applaud the work of many of those associated with your group
in more generally trying to establish professional standards for the
evaluation of the testimony of children and adults regarding sexual
abuse. maybe it is time to change the foundation's name to reflect
these broader concerns.
  Please continue my subscription. As a public defender, I appreciate
it coming in the category of complimentary. I make my copies available
to other public defenders in my office.
                                        An Assistant Public Defender
                                                        Rhode Island
                              Move Ahead
In the February 1997 Newsletter, there was a box titled, "What
accounts for the resilience of so many families?" Friends have often
asked me how I have done so well after losing my two youngest
daughters and my (now former) wife.
  Ironically, the same psychotherapy cult that led them to "repressed
memories," also taught me about being there for people not atypical
for successful cults. When I dropped out of the cult because I
objected to the anti-male, extreme feminist messages of the "guru," I
alienated my daughters. The accusations followed.
  For many years now, I have run men's support groups, that help men
to overcome cultural inhibitions against acknowledging and expressing
feelings. These groups have helped me in two ways: I have been
supported by men with whom I could share my experience, and I have
been able to help others. As a result, I have been able to recover
much of the pride and confidence that are inevitably damaged when
loved family members become accusers. I believe that my resilience is
also due to the fact I do not waste my emotional energy on hate. I
keep in mind that our accusers are also victims who suffer deeply.
  If any who read this are suffering from isolation, I urge you to do
the following: learn all you can about the nature of memory and the
counterarguments of "survivors;" give serious thought to sharing your
story -- perhaps first with your clergyman and then with trusted
relatives; contact an FMSF volunteer coordinator in your state and
offer to help set up a program or other educational project.
  We all deserve the best, but often that can only be obtained through
our own initiatives. Think about it. Then move ahead.
                                                              A Dad
                          Dear Dad and Mom,
  I no longer believe Dad sexually abuse me.
  I think Carol, my therapist, meant well, but she misinterpreted my
depression, my nightmares and my drawings. I don't understand why I
went along with her. I guess I just believed that she knew more than I
did about why people get depressed and I trusted that she wanted to
help me. I just didn't want to feel depressed anymore.
  I am sorry for all the pain this has caused you. You worked hard to
be good parents and to earn a living for us and you didn't deserve
this. I feel stupid and ashamed about this whole mess. I hope you can
forgive me. I'm sorry I hurt you.
                                                       Your Daughter

/                                                                    \ 
| "The history of our race, and individual experience, evidences     |
| that truth is not hard to kill, and that a lie well told is        |
| immortal."                                                         |
|                                                         Mark Twain |
|        Mark Twain Himself! Humor, War, and Fundamentalism, Vol. II |
|                     1983, Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Co. |

                        FMSF   M E E T I N G S
  (MO) = monthly; (bi-MO) = bi-monthly; (*) = see State Meetings list

                           *STATE MEETINGS*
             Call persons listed for info & registration
                     Saturday, March 8, @ 12 noon
                         Memorial Forest Club
                    12122 Memorial Drive, Houston
                     Jo or Beverly (713) 464-8970
                     Saturday, May 3, @ 10:00 am
                     Colonial Park Hotel, Helena
                      Lee & Avone (406) 443-3189
                     Saturday, May 10, @ 1:30 pm
                     Speaker: Pamela Freyd, Ph.D.
                          Pat (416) 445-1995


        Bob (907) 586-2469
       (bi-MO) Barbara (602) 924-0975; 854-0404(fax)
  Little Rock
        Al & Lela (501) 363-4368
  Sacramento - (quarterly)
        Joanne & Gerald (916) 933-3655
        Rudy (916)443-4041
  San Fransico & North Bay - (bi-MO)
        Gideon (415) 389-0254 or
        Charles 984-6626(am); 435-9618(pm)
  East Bay Area - (bi-MO)
        Judy (510) 254-2605
  South Bay Area - Last Sat. (bi-MO)
        Jack & Pat (408) 425-1430
        3rd Sat. (bi-MO) @10am
        Cecilia(310) 545-6064
  Central Coast
        Carole (805) 967-8058
  Central Orange County - 1st Fri. (MO) @ 7pm
        Chris & Alan (714) 733-2925
  Orange County - 3rd Sun. (MO) @6pm
        Jerry & Eileen (714) 494-9704
  Covina Area - 1st Mon. (MO) @7:30pm
        Floyd & Libby (818) 330-2321
  San Diego Area  -
        Dee (619) 941-0630
  Denver  - 4th Sat. (MO) @1pm
        Art (303) 572-0407
  S. New England  - (bi-MO) Sept-May
        Earl (203) 329-8365 or
        Paul (203) 458-9173
        Madeline (305) 966-4FMS
  Boca/Delray  - 2nd & 4th Thurs (MO) @1pm
        Helen (407) 498-8684
  Central Florida  - 4th Sun. (MO) @2:30 pm
        John & Nancy (352) 750-5446
  Tampa Bay Area
        Bob & Janet (813) 856-7091
  Chicago & Suburbs  - 3rd Sun. (MO)
        Eileen (847) 985-7693
        Bill & Gayle (815) 467-6041
  Rest of Illinois
        Bryant & Lynn (309) 674-2767
  Indiana Friends of FMS
        Nickie (317) 471-0922; (317) 334-9839 (fax)
        Pat (219) 482-2847
  Des Moines - 2nd Sat. (MO) @11:30 am Lunch
        Betty & Gayle (515) 270-6976
  Kansas City
        Leslie (913) 235-0602 or
        Pat (913) 738-4840
        Jan (816) 931-1340
        Dixie (606) 356-9309
Ellicot  Louisville- Last Sun. (MO) @ 2pm
        Bob (502) 957-2378
        Francine (318) 457-2022
        Irvine & Arlene (207) 942-8473
  Freeport -  4th Sun. (MO)
        Carolyn  (207) 364-8891
   City Area
        Margie (410) 750-8694
        Ron (508) 250-9756
  Grand Rapids Area-Jenison - 1st Mon. (MO)
        Bill & Marge (616) 383-0382
  Greater Detroit Area - 3rd Sun. (MO)
        Nancy (810) 642-8077
        Terry & Collette (507) 642-3630
        Dan & Joan (612) 631-2247
  Kansas City  -  2nd Sun. (MO)
        Leslie (913) 235-0602 or Pat 738-4840
        Jan (816) 931-1340
  St. Louis Area  -  3rd Sun. (MO)
        Karen (314) 432-8789
        Mae (314) 837-1976
    Retractors group also forming
  Springfield - 4th Sat. (MO) @12:30pm
        Dorothy & Pete (417) 882-1821
        Howard (417) 865-6097
        John (352) 750-5446
        Lee & Avone (406) 443-3189
  See Wayne, PA
  Albuquerque  - 1st  Sat. (MO) @1 pm
Southwest Room -Presbyterian Hospital
        Maggie (505) 662-7521 (after 6:30 pm)
        or Martha 624-0225
  Westchester, Rockland, etc. - (bi-MO)
        Barbara (914) 761-3627
  Upstate/Albany Area  - (bi-MO)
        Elaine (518) 399-5749
  Western/Rochester Area -  (bi-MO)
        George & Eileen (716) 586-7942
  Oklahoma City
        Len (405) 364-4063
        Dee (405) 942-0531
        HJ (405) 755-3816
        Rosemary (405) 439-2459
        Paul & Betty (717) 691-7660
        Rick & Renee (412) 563-5616
        John (717) 278-2040
  Wayne (includes S. NJ) - 2nd Sat. @1pm
        Jim & Jo (610) 783-0396
  Wed. (MO) @1pm
        Kate (615) 665-1160
  Central Texas
        Nancy & Jim (512) 478-8395
        Jo or Beverly (713) 464-8970
        Keith (801) 467-0669
        (bi-MO) Judith (802) 229-5154
        Sue (703) 273-2343
        Pat (304) 291-6448
        Katie & Leo (414) 476-0285
        Susanne & John (608) 427-3686

  Vancouver & Mainland - Last Sat. (MO) @ 1- 4pm
        Ruth (604) 925-1539
  Victoria & Vancouver Island - 3rd Tues. (MO) @7:30pm
        John (604) 721-3219
        Joan (204) 284-0118
  London -2nd Sun (bi-MO)
        Adriaan (519) 471-6338
        Eileen (613) 836-3294
  Toronto /N. York
        Pat (416) 444-9078
        Ethel (705) 924-2546
        Ken & Marina (905) 637-6030
        Paula (705) 692-0600
        Alain (514) 335-0863
  St. Andre Est.
        Mavis (514) 537-8187
        Irene (03) 9740 6930
  FMS ASSOCIATION fax-(972) 2-259282 or
  Task Force FMS of Werkgroep Fictieve Herinneringen
        Anna (31) 20-693-5692
        Colleen (09) 416-7443
        Ake Moller FAX (48) 431-217-90
  The British False Memory Society
        Roger Scotford (44) 1225 868-682
            Deadline for the April Newsletter is March 13
      Meeting notices MUST be in writing and should be sent no 
      later than 2 months prior to meeting. You must be a State 
      Contact or GroupLeader to post notices in this section.

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| if  you wish to receive electronic versions of this newsletter and |
| notices of radio and television  broadcasts  about  FMS.  All  the |
| message need say is "add to the FMS-News". You'll also learn about |
| joining  the  FMS-Research list  (it distributes reseach materials |
| such as news stories, court decisions and research  articles).  It |
| would be useful, but not necessary, if you add your full name (all |
| addresses and names will remain strictly confidential).            |
  The False Memory Syndrome Foundation is a qualified 501(c)3 corpora-
tion  with  its  principal offices in Philadelphia and governed by its 
Board of Directors.  While it encourages participation by its  members
in  its  activities,  it must be understood that the Foundation has no 
affiliates and that no other organization or person is  authorized  to
speak for the Foundation without the prior written approval of the Ex-
ecutive Director. All membership dues and contributions to the Founda-
tion must be forwarded to the Foundation for its disposition.

Pamela Freyd, Ph.D.,  Executive Director

FMSF Scientific and Professional  Advisory Board,       March 1, 1997:
AARON T. BECK, M.D., D.M.S., University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia,
PA;  TERENCE W.  CAMPBELL,  Ph.D.,  Clinical and Forensic  Psychology,
Sterling Heights,  MI; ROSALIND CARTWRIGHT,  Ph.D., Rush  Presbyterian
St. Lukes Medical Center, Chicago, IL; JEAN CHAPMAN, Ph.D., University
of   Wisconsin, Madison,  WI;    LOREN CHAPMAN,  Ph.D.,  University of
Wisconsin, Madison, WI;    FREDERICK C.  CREWS,   Ph.D., University of
California, Berkeley,   CA; ROBYN M.    DAWES,  Ph.D., Carnegie Mellon
University,  Pittsburgh,  PA; DAVID F.   DINGES,  Ph.D., University of
Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA; HENRY C.   ELLIS, Ph.D., University of
New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM; GEORGE K. GANAWAY, M.D., Emory University
of Medicine, Atlanta,  GA; MARTIN GARDNER, Author,  Hendersonville, NC
ROCHEL GELMAN, Ph.D., University of California, Los Angeles, CA; HENRY
GLEITMAN, Ph.D., University   of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia,  PA; LILA
GLEITMAN, Ph.D., University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA; RICHARD
GREEN, M.D., J.D., Charing Cross  Hospital, London; DAVID A. HALPERIN,
M.D., Mount Sinai School  of Medicine, New  York, NY; ERNEST  HILGARD,
Ph.D., Stanford  University, Palo Alto, CA;   JOHN HOCHMAN, M.D., UCLA
Medical School, Los Angeles, CA; DAVID S. HOLMES, Ph.D., University of
Kansas, Lawrence, KS; PHILIP  S.  HOLZMAN, Ph.D., Harvard  University,
Cambridge,   MA; ROBERT A.  KARLIN,  Ph.D.   , Rutgers University, New
Brunswick,  NJ;   HAROLD  LIEF,  M.D.,  University    of Pennsylvania,
Philadelphia, PA; ELIZABETH  LOFTUS, Ph.D., University  of Washington,
Seattle,   WA; SUSAN L.   McELROY,  M.D.   , University of Cincinnati,
Cincinnati,   OH;  PAUL    McHUGH,  M.D.,   Johns  Hopkins University,
Baltimore, MD;  HAROLD  MERSKEY, D.M., University  of Western Ontario,
London, Canada;  SPENCER  HARRIS  MORFIT, Author, Boxboro,   MA; ULRIC
NEISSER, Ph.D.,  Emory University, Atlanta,  GA; RICHARD OFSHE, Ph.D.,
University  of  California, Berkeley,  CA;   EMILY CAROTA ORNE,  B.A.,
University  of Pennsylvania,   Philadelphia, PA;  MARTIN  ORNE,  M.D.,
Ph.D., University  of Pennsylvania,  Philadelphia, PA; LOREN PANKRATZ,
Ph.D.,   Oregon  Health Sciences  University,  Portland,  OR; CAMPBELL
PERRY,  Ph.D.,  Concordia   University, Montreal,  Canada;  MICHAEL A.
PERSINGER, Ph.D.,  Laurentian University,  Ontario, Canada;  AUGUST T.
PIPER, Jr.,   M.D., Seattle, WA;  HARRISON   POPE, Jr.,  M.D., Harvard
Medical  School,  Boston,  MA;  JAMES   RANDI,  Author and   Magician,
Plantation,   FL; HENRY L.    ROEDIGER,  III, Ph.D.  ,Rice University,
Houston,  TX; CAROLYN  SAARI, Ph.D., Loyola   University, Chicago, IL;
THEODORE   SARBIN, Ph.D., University of    California, Santa Cruz, CA;
THOMAS A.  SEBEOK, Ph.D., Indiana University, Bloomington, IN; MICHAEL
A.    SIMPSON,  M.R.C.S.,   L.R.C.P.,   M.R.C,   D.O.M., Center    for
Psychosocial &   Traumatic Stress,  Pretoria, South   Africa; MARGARET
SINGER, Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley, CA; RALPH SLOVENKO,
J.D.,  Ph.D., Wayne State University   Law School, Detroit, MI; DONALD
SPENCE, Ph.D.,  Robert Wood  Johnson  Medical Center,  Piscataway, NJ;
JEFFREY VICTOR,  Ph.D.,  Jamestown Community  College, Jamestown,  NY;
HOLLIDA   WAKEFIELD,  M.A.,   Institute   of Psychological  Therapies,
Northfield, MN; CHARLES A. WEAVER, III, Ph.D. Baylor University, Waco,

   Y E A R L Y   FMSF   M E M B E R S H I P   I N F O R M A T I O N
Professional - Includes Newsletter       $125_______

Family - Includes Newsletter             $100_______

                       Additional Contribution:_____________


___VISA:  Card: #________-________-________-________ exp. date ___/___

___MASTER CARD: #________-________-________-________ exp. date ___/___

___Check or Money Order: Payable to FMS FOUNDATION IN U.S. DOLLARS.



Street Address or P.O.Box

City                                 State         Zip+4

Telephone                           FAX

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          M E E T I N G    R E G I S T R A T I O N   F O R M

PLEASE  COMPLETE  AND MAIL TO: False Memory Syndrome Foundation, 3401
MasterCardMarket, Ste 130, Philadelphia, PA 19104-3315. Include a check payable
to False Memory Syndrome Foundation. FAX: (215) 387-1917 (for  credit
card registrations only)

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mailing address

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Professional/Family                    $100/person   $125/person
Additional family member                $50/person    $60/person

Professional/Family                    $175/person   $200/person
Student* or additional family members   $50/person    $60/person
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