FMSF NEWSLETTER ARCHIVE - January 1, 1996 - Vol. 5, No. 1, HTML version

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This address and the phone numbers have changed as of July 15, 2000
    The FMSF Newsletter is published 10 times a year by the  False
    Memory  Syndrome  Foundation.  A hard-copy subscription is in-
    cluded in membership fees (to join, see last page). Others may
    subscribe  by  sending  a  check  or  money  order, payable to 
    FMS Foundation, to the address above. 1994 subscription rates:
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    Foreign: $40;  Foreign  student  $20;  Single issue price: $3. 
    ISSN #1069-0484
     Highlights of 1995
       Focus on Science
           Legal Corner
             Make a Difference
               From Our Readers

Dear Friends,

  Why has the mental health community become so polarized over the
issue of false memory syndrome and the FMS Foundation?
  As we enter 1996, we look for answers to that question. One answer
may be that there has been a misunderstanding of the domain of concern
of the Foundation.

  "Recently the traditional reflective approach in psychotherapy has
  been challenged by a confrontational stance on behalf of patients.
  As a result, the place of truth and the validity of long-delayed
  memories of abuse in childhood have become the focus of a debate
  that has polarized the behavioral-science community. Neither side
  has attempted to minimize the incidence of or the damage caused by
  the sexual or physical abuse of children. Memories suspected or
  sustained throughout childhood and adolescence, even partial
  memories, are not at issue. What is at issue is the accuracy of the
  recall of childhood trauma by adults in their 30s and even 40s who
  have previously never entertained the idea that they might have been
  abused."  Fred Frankel, M.B., CH.B., D.P.M.  Beth Israel Hospital
  and Harvard Medical School New England Journal of Medicine, Vol 333
  No 9 591-594

  Some professionals have stated that the False Memory Syndrome
Foundation has taken an "extreme" position. Is it "extreme" to ask
professionals to follow their own codes of ethics?


  "NONSCIENTIFIC PRACTITIONERS. It is unethical to engage in or to aid
  and abet in treatment which has no scientific basis and is
  dangerous, is calculated to deceive the patient by giving false
  hope, or which may cause the patient to delay in seeking proper care
  until his or her condition becomes irreversible."  
         Section 3.01 AMA Code of Ethics

  "INFORMED CONSENT...The physician has an ethical obligation to
  help the patient make choices from among the therapeutic
  alternatives consistent with good medical practice..." 
         Section 8.08 AMA Code of Ethics
  Would any profession not accept these statements? Is it "extreme" to
suggest that the public should expect the same standards to apply to
mental health professionals as to those who practice other forms of
medicine? Professionals answered that question when they accepted
payments from insurers and the government based on a medical model.
  In "Memory Wars," Frederick Crews chided "middle of the road
extremists." He suggested that the really "extreme" position is that
of professionals who think that they can remain neutral or take some
sort of middle-of-the-road position on the topic of the accuracy of
the recall of childhood trauma by adults in their 30s and 40s who have
previously never entertained the idea that they might have been
abused. The professional organizations have cautioned their members
that there is no way to tell the truth of such memories in the absence
of external corroboration. That has been the position of the
Foundation since its inception. Is that "extreme?"
  The pharmacological component of modern therapy, the descriptions of
proven safe and effective therapies and the scientific information
about the malleability of memory are part of the scientific base that
should inform professionals in the performance or art of their 
practice. To ignore this scientific base and the cautions of the
professional organizations is dangerous. It is unethical according to
the standards of the American Medical Association.
  When the Foundation started in March, 1992, proponents of memory
recovery offered studies by Herman & Schatzow (1987), Briere and Conte
(1993) and then Williams (1994) as scientific evidence for the
accuracy of recovered "repressed" memories. These studies, however,
show that some people may not remember or not report childhood abuse
just as they may not remember or not report other events. As it has
became clear that these studies do not represent scientific evidence
for a special mental mechanism for "repression," the claim changed to
one of a special mental mechanism that produces amnesia for selected
traumatic events. The problems with this new claim, however, are the
same as with that for the claim of repression, namely a mechanism, an
account of how the mechanism both leaks (to account for symptoms) and
is inaccessible, and that can account for accuracy of recall. There is
currently no scientific evidence that satisfies these conditions.
Maybe such a mechanism will be found in the future, maybe not. We,
however, live in the present and must make decisions based on the best
evidence at the present time.
  "If someone has been charged and acquitted in a child abuse case,
would you still be suspicious of them?" Dateline asked 502 adults.
Poll results showed that 12% were not sure, 11% said no, an acquittal
would remove all suspicions, and an overwhelming majority, 77% said
yes, they would still be suspicious, even if the suspect was cleared.
When a therapist makes a diagnosis of incest based on a "recovered
memory," he or she gives a lifetime sentence to the accused. Given
these consequences of a false accusation, is it "extreme" to ask that
therapists ground their work in science?
/                                                                    \
| "So massive and disruptive have the effects of this kind of        |
| therapy been that there seems little doubt that in a hundred years |
| time historians and sociologists will still be studying one of the |
| most extraordinary episodes in twentieth century history, and that |
| in all probability they will still be arguing about its causes."   |
|                                       Richard Webster, page 512.   |
|     Why Freud Was Wrong: Sin, Science, and Psychoanalysis (1995)   |

/                                                                    \
| What is the Difference Between Believing and Validating a Client?  |
|                 Fred H. Frankel, M.B.Ch.B., D.P.M.                 |
|                                                                    |
| This question is deceptively simple. However, as it has become the |
| focus of a debate, it needs to be addressed: 
|                                                                    |
|   Psychotherapy entails reflecting respectfully, empathically, and |
| non-judgmentally, on the clinical material reported by clients, in |
| an attempt to understand them. It should consider with care the    |
| factors that might be influencing the narrative such as the        |
| client's perceptions and hidden disappointment, rage or envy.      |
| Believing the client's feelings, a sine qua non of psychotherapy,  |
| is different from believing the reported facts. When a client      |
| requests that the therapist acknowledge belief in a recovered      |
| memory, the therapist owes it to the client to try to understand   |
| the meaning of that wish. When the therapist's knowledge of the    |
| material recovered is limited, the therapist may honestly share    |
| that limitation with the client, rather than profess belief in or  |
| openly challenge the accuracy of the narrative.                    |
|   The expectation or demand that a narrative be believed closes    |
| the door on an exploration of the report and its multiple          |
| affective meanings. Emphasizing the importance of believing or     |
| disbelieving the reports, especially in the absence of             |
| corroborating information, is likely to impede the process of      |
| therapy, reshape it, and leave it incomplete.                      |
|                                                                    |
|   Dr. Frankel is a Professor at Harvard Medical School and         |
|   Psychiatrist in Chief at Beth Israel Hospital. He is a           |
|   member of the FMSF Scientific Advisory Board.                    |


  Imagine what you'd think if there had been a TV documentary about a
surgeon who amputated the wrong leg and the International Society of
Surgeons responded with a complaint about slanted news coverage
because most surgeons, after all, don't amputate wrong legs.
  You can easily imagine what you'd think about such a Society. And
it would be a matter of much wonderment that the Society in question
couldn't just as easily imagine what you'd think.
  What then are we to make of the ISSD, the International Society for
the Study of Dissociation (until recently known as ISSMP&D, the
International Society for the Study of Multiple Personality and
Dissociation)? It formally issued: "This statement is a response to
misleading implications about the diagnosis and treatment of
Dissociative Identity Disorder (formerly called Multiple Personality
Disorder) that were presented on Ofra Bikel's documentary 'The Search
for Satan,' broadcast on October 24, 1995, as part of the PBS
television series Frontline...The majority of people who suffer from
Dissociative Identity Disorder are not diagnosed impulsively or
capriciously, as was implied by this Frontline segment...Although some
persons with Dissociative Identity Disorder allege that they
experienced ritual abuse during childhood, most do not make
allegations of this kind, as was implied by this segment of
Frontline...Contrary to the impression conveyed by this segment of
Frontline optimal primary treatment method (and the approach used for
most people diagnosed with Dissociative Identity Disorder) is
individual outpatient psychotherapy using techniques that are widely
accepted by psychiatrists and psychologists...We urge the media to
educate the public by presenting scientific information on this and
all mental illnesses in a balanced and responsible manner."
  It was this very Society that was shown in the Frontline program
honoring the chief subject of the documentary, Bennett Braun, M.D. The
ISSD complains about the documentary in general but is entirely silent
on the particulars. It makes no statement about practices -- portrayed
in the Frontline program -- such as keeping two children (five and
seven years) hospitalized for more than two years to deprogram them
from an intergenerational satanic cult.
  The ISSD statement concludes with the following paragraph: "The ISSD
strongly discourages therapists and members of the media from
sensationalizing the diagnosis of Dissociative Identity Disorder and
from publicly appearing with, portraying, or otherwise exploiting
individuals who suffer from this painful disorder."
  "Strongly discourages"? We'd like to see some evidence. One of the
most egregious examples of "publicly appearing with, portraying, and
otherwise exploiting individuals who suffer from this painful
disorder" was the infamous 1993 HBO program "Multiple Personalities:
Search for Deadly Memories" conceived of and narrated by Gloria
Steinem. Many ISSD members were listed in the credits, among them, of
course, was Bennett Braun, M.D.
  Apparently the ISSD had to wait until two ex-patients of an ISSD
past-president (Dr. Braun) voluntarily appeared on a TV documentary
before it decided on its present policy to "strongly discourage."


  Professionals in two states have introduced legislation designed to
protect the public. In Maryland, the Department of Health and Mental
Hygiene plans to introduce legislation during the 1996 session of the
General Assembly that would, among other things, give more powers to
the Board of Social Work Examiners to enable them to enforce their
practice acts. (See Bulletin of the Maryland Board of Social Work
Examiners Vol. 1 (2) Fall 1995.) In Pennsylvania, a coalition of
professionals has already introduced legislation in both houses that
would require some qualifications for a wide branch of counselors.
Currently in Pennsylvania and many other states there are no
  Shirley Siegel, Director of Stop Abuse by Counselors, suggests that
people interested in legislation of this type should contact Delores
Spice, Executive Director, Health Unit #2, Washington State Department
of Health, P.O. Box 47869 Olympia, WA 98504-7869 (phone
360-586-0453). They should ask for a copy of Washington State's
Ominibus Credentialing Act.

                   STATUS OF FMSF AS A CE PROVIDER 

  In November, an effort to pressure the American Psychological
Association to rescind the status of FMSF as a provider of continuing
education credits for psychologists was mounted by some of the Women
in Psychology, Division 35 of the APA, including the current
president. This letter-writing campaign was initiated by Kenneth
Pope, Ph.D. with a letter distributed on the internet that some have
suggested was misleading about FMSF.
  In early December, the written formal approval of FMSF as a
continuing education provider was received from APA. The Foundation
has met all the criteria for approval.
  The FMSF has long been concerned about the quality and the content
of continuing education programs. (See FMSF Newsletter: March 5, 1993;
June 3, 1993; August 30, 1993; March 8, 1994; and July 6, 1994.) We
are eager to work with professionals to see that programs of the
highest quality are offered.

                           Jointly Sponsor

                      Basic  Standards  of  Care
      in  Diagnostic  and  Therapeutic  Practices  with  Memory
            and  the  Process  of  Family  Reconciliation

                        CONFERENCE DESCRIPTION

  This continuing medical education conference will focus on: defining
the scope of the problems created in psychotherapy by memory work, the
clinical practice and ethical issues involving the rational management
of patients with recovered memories of doubtful validity and the
process of family reconciliation after the discernment of a false
memory. With the overall goal of restoring the integrity and good
reputation of psychotherapy, the conference will determine the
educational needs of participants and teach the basic standards of
care in diagnostic and therapeutic practices with memory. The
conference will identify the desirable rehabilitation climate for
families who have suffered the consequences of false allegations, and
will suggest some essential steps to initiate the process of family
                        CONFERENCE OBJECTIVES

Following this program, the participant should be able to --

* understand the potential scope of the problems created by false
* analyze the experimental and clinical research literature on 
* discern the particular therapeutic practices that may generate FMS
  in patients
* use basic standards of care in diagnostic and therapeutic practices
  with memory
* differentiate the therapeutic, ethical, and legal implications
  between narrative and historical truth 
* identify the necessary steps to initiate the process of family
Morning Session

 8:00  Registration and Coffee

 8:30  Opening Remarks - Paul R. McHugh, M.D., Allen Feld, ACSW, LCSW

 8:45  Scope of the Problem - Pamela P. Freyd, Ph.D.

 9:30  (San Diego) Experimental Research on  Memory, Suggestibility,
         and Repression   - Elizabeth F. Loftus, Ph.D.
       (Boston) Understanding Memory: Perspectives from Basic
         Research - Daniel L. Schacter, Ph.D.
       (Chicago) False Memory Syndrome: A Neurobiological Perspective
         - Stuart Zola, Ph.D.

10:30   Clinical Research Findings on Memory, Suggestibility, and
          Repression - Jason Brandt, Ph.D.

11:15   Question and Answer Forum

11:45   Summary of Morning Session

12:00   Lunch (on your own)

Afternoon Session

 1:30   Basic Standards of Care: Diagnostic Practices with Memory
          and Treatment Issues - Paul R. McHugh, M.D.

 3:00   Question and Answer Forum

 3:30   Family Reconciliation: A Process, Not an Event 
          Live Interview - Discussion
            John Hochman, M.D. (San Diego); 
            Elizabeth Feigon, M.D. (Boston); 
            Carolyn Saari, Ph.D. and 
               Terence W. Campbell, Ph.D. (Chicago)

 5:00  Program Summary and Concluding Remarks - Paul R. McHugh, M.D.

 5:15  Program Adjourns, Evaluations

  This conference is intended for psychiatrists, psychologists, social
workers, and other mental health counselors. Registration will be
accepted on a first-come, first-served basis. 6.5 continuing medical
education credits and 7 hours of continuing education for
psychologists available.

  San Diego,  Westgate Hotel,    Saturday, March 30, 1996 
  Boston,     Haborside Hyatt,   Saturday, April 20, 1996
  Chicago,    Loyola University, Saturday, June   1, 1996

Professional Registration Fee           $225
Professionals who are FMSF Members Fee  $175

                             TO REGISTER

Contact  Hopkins/False Memory, 
    Office of Continuing Medicat Education, 
    Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions 
    Turner 20, 720 Rutland Avenue
    Baltimore, MD  21205-2195
    FAX 410-955-2195

                     reported in FMSF Newsletters
                             January 1995  
  * American Psychological Association Working Group on the
Investigation of Memories of Childhood Abuse issues an Interim Report.
Some conclusions of that report: Most people who were sexually abused
as children remember all or part of what happened to them; It is
possible for memories of abuse that have been forgotten for a long
time to be remembered; It is also possible to construct convincing
pseudomemories for events that never occurred.
  * Nicole Althaus and her parents are awarded over $272,000 in
compensatory damages by a PA jury. Dr. Judith Cohen and the University
of Pittsburgh's Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic were found
guilty of negligence for improper diagnosis of Nicole.(1/16/95)
  * Mary Shanley files a $50 million malpractice suit against Spring
Shadows Glen Psychiatric Hospital and the therapists who had treated
her. Shanley sued for conspiracy, negligence and insurance fraud. (The
suit against the doctors has been settled.)
  * U.S. District Ct., in Oklahoma (Peterson v. Wallentiny) refuses to
grant therapists blanket immunity from liability to a third party
(1/9/95 Not reported in Newsletter)
                            February 1995 
  * FMSF files first amicus curiae brief (Vesecky v. Vesecky Texas
Supreme Court). Brief reviews scientific literature questioning
reliability of repressed memories and whether the "discovery rule"
applies. (2/6/95)
  * British Psychological Society issues report. They noted that The
possibility that therapists could create false memories in clients
warrants careful consideration.
                              March 1995
  * Texas jury finds therapist Michael Moore negligent in his
treatment of Diana Halbrooks. Halbrooks claimed Moore did not treat
her presenting problems but convinced her that she suffered from MPD
and had been a victim of child sexual abuse.
  * A U.S. District Court in Arizona (State v. Dorsey) dismisses, at
prosecution request, repressed memory claims of sexual abuse, satanic
rites and ritual murder. Dismissal followed a court ruling that
evidence of memories retrieved through hypnosis and expert testimony
regarding the retrieval of repressed memories through hypnosis would
not be admitted. (3/10/95)
  * First mental health professional to be examined by a licensing
board on the basis of a third party complaint about recovered memory
therapy. Linda Rae MacDonald in Seattle Washington was notified by the
Health Professionals Quality Assurance Division that she would lose
her license to practice unless she successfully defended herself
against administrative charges.
  * National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect announces that a study
could find no substantiation in more than 12,000 accusations of ritual
cult abuse. (Goodman et al.)
  * New York Supreme Court Appellate Division (Steo v. Cucuzza)
affirms dismissal of a repressed memory claim where Plaintiff failed
to show her alleged psychological and emotional problems constituted
disability under the "insanity" statute. (3/27/95)
  * U.S. Ct. of Appeals, 2nd Cir. (Overall v. Klotz) affirms dismissal
of a repressed memory claim on the grounds that Plaintiff did not show
duress which would extend the statute of limitations. (3/31/95)
                              April 1995  
  * Frontline airs 4-hour documentary "Divided Memories" about
recovered memory therapy.  April 11 & 18.
  * U.S. District Ct., CA (Franklin v. Duncan) overturns the murder
conviction of George Franklin. His conviction in 1990 was based on his
daughter's new recovered recollections of the death of her childhood
friend over 20 years earlier (4/4/95)
  * Lucy Abney's malpractice suit against her former therapist in
Texas is settled through mediation. Abney claimed her psychologist
convinced her she had been sexually and ritually abused, misdiagnosed
her with MPD and fraudulently misrepresented her condition to her
medical insurance carrier.
  * Arizona Board of Behavioral Health Examiners orders one year's
probation for Alfred Ells, director of Samaritan Counseling Services
in Phoenix in response to complaints from parents.
                               May 1995 
  * Superior Ct., NH judge Willian Groff (Hungerford v State of New
Hampshire) dismisses two repressed memory suits after a pre-trial
hearing to consider the admissibility of repressed memory testimony.
He concludes that "...the phenomenon of memory repression and the
process of therapy used in these cases to recover the memories, have
not gained general acceptance in the field of psychology; and are not
scientifically reliable." (5/23/95)
  * Baltimore judge Hillary Caplan ( Doe v. Maskell) dismisses two
repressed memory suits after a pre-trial hearing to consider the
admissibility of repressed memory testimony. He concludes that
repressed memories did not " meet the test of scientific reliability.
...No empirical studies verify the existence of repressed memory.
There is no way to test the validity of these memories."  (5/5/95)
  * Michigan Psychological Association adopts strong statement on
repressed memories noting that "Given the nature of the scientific
evidence to date, there is substantial potential for harm in treating
claims of recovered memories of sexual abuse presumptively valid."
  * NC Appeals Ct. overturns the 1992 convictions of 2 Little Rascals
Day Care workers, because of improperly admitted testimony. The trials
are believed to be the longest and most expensive in NC history. (In
September, 1995, the NC Supreme Court grants, on appeal, the right to
new trials to Robert Kelly and Dawn Wilson.) (5/3/95)
  * California jury awarded $7.3 million in general damages to 4
individuals who had sued Los Angeles Co. The four had been charged
with 17 counts of child molest in 1984, but the charges were later
dropped. (5/11/95)
                              June 1995
  * FMSF files its second amicus curiae brief (McDuffie v. 
Sellers-Bok, Alabama Supreme Court). Brief argues that mental health
professionals may owe a duty to third parties not to misdiagnose
sexual abuse in their patients.
  * Laura Deck agrees to a settlement offer made by her former
Washington therapist just prior to trial. Deck claimed that the
therapist used suggestive techniques, including hypnosis, to induce
memories of sexual and ritual abuse.
  * Saskatchewan Ct. of Appeals overturns a 1992 conviction in the
famous Martensville case. The Court held that police had improperly
questioned the alleged victims.
                           July/August 1995
  * New England Journal of Medicine publishes article about FMS by
Fred Frankel, M.D. The article presents an overview of the issues of
FMS. (8/31/95)
  * The Michigan Supreme Court (Lemmerman v. Fealk) holds that neither
the discovery rule nor the insanity disability statue extend the
statute of limitations. The court writes, "We cannot conclude with any
reasonable degree of confidence that factfinders could fairly and
reliably resolve the questions before them, given the state of the art
regarding repressed memory and the absence of objective verification."
  * U.S. District Ct., PA (Tuman v. Genesis) upholds parents' third-
party rights to pursue a breach of contract claim against their
daughter's therapist (7/19/95)
  * A Wisconsin jury finds psychiatrist Kenneth Olson guilty of
negligence and awards his former patient $204,000. The patient claimed
Olson had misdiagnosed MPD and provided inappropriate treatment. This
is the first of 3 such suits against Dr. Olson (7/18/95)
  * Minnesota District Ct. (Hamanne v. Humenanskey) jury awards more
than $2.6 million to Vynnette Hamanne, finding her former psychiatrist
guilty of malpractice. The therapist was accused of planting false
memories of sexual abuse and satanic ritual by using drugs, hypnosis
and threats. (7/31/95)
  * A British Columbia Appeals court grants a new trial to a man who
had been found guilty of sexually assaulting a 35-year old woman over
20 years before. The court questions admission of the repressed memory
testimony as the memories had been recovered under hypnosis. (7/10/95)
  * A U.S. District Ct. jury in Maine awards $850,000 in damages to
Peter Murray and his family after therapist, Judith Osting, said
Mr. Murray had molested his daughters. (7/22/95)
  * The 5th Circuit Ct. of Appeals overturns the conviction of Donna
Hubbard.  Hubbard was one of 37 child molest cases brought in Kern
Co., CA during the mid 1980s. She had been sentenced to 100 years in
prison. (8/7/95)
  * American Psychological Association publishes "Questions and
Answers" noting that "it is impossible, without other corroborative
evidence, to distinguish a true memory from a false one." (8/11/95)
  * The Michigan Supreme Ct. (People v Peterson) applies the Davis-
Frye test to expert testimony regarding behaviors of child sexual
abuse victims and limits its use. (8/22/95)
  * Massachusetts Superior Ct. overturns the 1987 sex abuse
convictions of Violet Amirault, age 71, and her daughter and ordered
their immediate release. (8/29/95)
  * FMSF files third amicus curiae brief (Heroux v. Carpentier Rhode
Island Supreme Court). Brief argues that repressed memories are not
sufficiently reliable to extend the statute of limitations under
either the discovery rule or the disability exception. (8/30/95)
                            September 1995
  * An Orange Co. Superior Ct. judge holds that repressed memory
theory fails the Kelly-Frye test and labels it "junk science." Motion
for non-suit granted. (9/6/95)
  * Malpractice suit brought by Laurie Stone against her former
psychologist is settled in a confidential agreement. Stone accused her
therapist of negligently implanting false memories of childhood sexual
abuse and creating false multiple personality disorder. (8/15/95)
                             October 1995
  * Frontline airs documentary "Search for Satan", a devastating
indictment of the therapy of two women. (10/24/95)
  * The Lancet publishes article by Janet Boakes, M.D. about the
problems caused by FMS and the Foundation's efforts to solve
them. (10/21/95)
  * Second Circuit Ct. of Appeals (Borawick v. Shay) offers a set of
criteria to weigh when considering admissibility of repressed memories
allegedly recovered following therapeutic hypnosis. (10/17/95)
  * American Psychological Association publishesJeopardy in the
Courtroom by Ceci and Bruck, a comprehensive review of the legal and
psychological issues involving child testimony.
                        November/December 1995
  * "Memory Wars" by Frederick Crews is published. This book includes
Crews' original articles published in The New York Review and the
correspondence which followed.
  * A Denver jury finds therapist Beverly Nussbaumer professionally
negligent and awarded her former patient, Jane Brennan, over
$120,000. She was accused of using techniques such as hypnosis to
implant false memories of incest by her father. (11/2/95)
  * Iowa Supreme Court (Woodroffe v Hansendever) refuses to extend the
statute of limitations for each new recollection of sexual abuse. The
court notes that such a "rolling statute" would render the statute of
limitations meaningless. (11/22/95)
  * Wenatchee, WA jury acquittes Robert and Connie Roberson of all 14
counts of child sexual abuse. (12/11/95)
  * Kimberly Mark agrees to an out of court settlement of $157,000
from her former therapists. She claimed the therapists had negligently
implanted false memories of sexual abuse by her father, had failed to
warn her of the unreliability of recovered memories and had
negligently diagnosed and treated her for MPD. (12/5/95)
  * Basic Books publishes "Satan's Silence: Ritual Abuse and the
Making of a Modern American Witch Hunt" by Debbie Nathan and Michael
Snedeker, a comprehensive history of child protection movement and
ritual abuse beliefs.

                     Q. Brandt Caudill, Jr., Esq
           "The repressed memory war is a war of attrition"
              The California Psychologist, October 1995. 

  "Comprehensive notes must be taken which reflect not only the
memories recovered, but the process by which the memories were
recovered. The psychologist must be conscious that in any subsequent
action a key question will be who first raised the issue of abuse, and
how it was raised. Where the psychologist questions the accuracy of
the patient's memories, the notes should reflect that the question was
raised and what the patient's response was.  Generally the more
outrageous, bizarre or unusual the allegations of abuse and repressed
memories are, the more detailed the notes should be. In addition, the
more bizarre the allegations, the more thoroughly the psychologist
must consider alternative explanations, such as that the memories
being reported are metaphors and not literally true."
                      Charles L. Whitfield, M.D.
                    "The Crux of Traumatic Memory"
                Presentation September 28 & 29, 1995, 
              Pennsylvania J&K Seminars - Tape 4 Side #2

  "Let me just present a little bit of caution here. I don't ask
people not to talk about it, but I bring them back to the abuse
experience and not describing this kind of stuff [satanic ritual
abuse] because if this ever gets to a court situation. I don't write
it in my clinical notes because I know that it's going to be
destructive if it ever gets into a legal situation because satanic
ritual abuse is almost the kiss of death in any court situation. Why?
I don't know why, but I know that it is heavily discounted. So I would
suggest not writing that in the clinical notes."

                       TALK THERAPY DISCOURAGED
         Wall Street Journal, December 1, 1995, Ellen Pollock
  "Managed-care companies, with their mandate to cut costs, make no
bones about their preference for treating mental-health problems with
drugs. Not only do they limit coverage for psychotherapy,they often
pay psychiatrists more per hour to supervise drug treatment than to
provide counseling."
  This article presents the views of doctors who are concerned that
they may not be able to do what they think is best for a patient and
also the views of managed-care firms that note that traditional
psychotherapists have both financial and emotional incentives to favor
months or even years of talk therapy.

/                                                                    \
|                          Double Standards                          |
|                  Mail on Sunday, November 5,1995                   |
|                                                                    |
| "It is an alarming case of double standards within our medical     |
| profession where little is seemingly said or done to warn          |
| potential patients and their families of the frightening risks     |
| associated with some kinds of psychiatric treatment...Two thirds   |
| of British psychologists who took part in a recent survey believe  |
| that such 'recalled memories' can sometimes be false; implants     |
| triggered by drugs or suggestive questioning...Compare this        |
| admission with the rigorous tests that have to be carried out      |
| before a GP can prescribe a new drug. Strict trials have to be     |
| undergone. Committees on Medical Safety pore over the results. On  |
| average it takes seven years before a new drug can be widely       |
| available. Even small risks are enough to cause alarm,...It seems  |
| that there are more safeguards on cold remedies sold over the      |
| counter of Britains's High Street shops than there are on some     |
| controversial mind-tinkering therapies."                           |

              Orange County Register, September 23, 1995

  Insurance companies paid settlements of $150,000 and $250,000 to two
women who were sexually abused by interns at Interface Psychological
Services. Both interns were in their mid to late 20s and had treated
the women for years for depression resulting from sexual abuse as
children. The supervisor, Richard Dickinson had known the therapists
personally and earned a percentage of the billable hours for the
patients. One of the interns was a one-third partner in Interface. The
case is unusual because the California Board of Behavioral Sciences
has gone after the license of Dickinson who did not directly
participate in the abuse. Dickinson said he was not aware of the

    The Clinical: a newsletter for APOGEE clinicians, Winter 1994

  This article just recently came to our attention. It indicates that
there is an untapped market for recovered memory therapy. "Little
attention has been given to the affects of child sexual abuse among
older women... Many of these women have sought mental health services
when a stressor has made them psychologically fragile. The stressor
can take many forms, such as rapidly declining health or recent
widowhood...Not only do they need to resolve their own conflicts
resulting from past abuse, but they also feel compelled to break the
pattern of generational sexual abuse."

/                                                                    \
| "For example, we're finding a lot of undiagnosed, unrecovered      |
| multiples in nursing homes. Well, don't ever let me hear about any |
| of you doing abreactive work with an eighty-six year old person.   |
| It's just not the thing to do. I learned the hard way. One of my   |
| multiples had a stroke during an abreaction.  Fortunately, she     |
| recovered from it but it sure makes a point to me about            |
| considering constitutional issues."                                |
|        David Calof, February 5-7, 1993, Anaheim, CA  Tape F113-3   |
|   Presentation at Advances in Treating Survivors of Sexual Abuse.  |

                      CHILD ABUSE ESTIMATES LOW
                     USA Today. December 7. 1995

  A study by the Gallup Organization has revealed that there are far
more cases of physical and sexual abuse than federal reports indicate.
For the survey, 1,000 anonymous parents were interviewed nationwide.
Critics of the survey say that the results are unreliable because they
depend too heavily on how abuse is defined. Among Gallup's findings:
  * Physical abuse is three times greater among families with incomes
of less than $20,000 than for families earning $50,000 a year.

          Harvard Mental Health Letter, Vol 12 (5) Dec. 1995

  A study by Richard J. McNally and Lisa M. Shin published in June
1995 in the American Journal of Psychiatry, suggests that "high
intelligence supplies some protection against the development of
posttraumatic symptoms." One hundred five veterans were given
questionnaires about combat exposure and posttraumatic symptoms and a
cognitive test that correlates well with IQ. The IQ scores predicted
more of the variance in PTSD symptoms than did level of combat. The
significance held even after correcting for years of education.

                         CRIME AND PUNISHMENT 

  "Mildred, 82 years old, died in November, another victim of
unresolved FMS.  Mildred was never one of the accused. Her crime?
Mildred said that she didn't know what had happened, and she tried to
keep contact with both the accused and the accuser. Her punishment for
contact with the accused? The accuser, who once showed love, care and
attention to Mildred, would no longer visit her nor would the accuser
allow Mildred to see the greatgrandchildren, not even to see their
  "Not even pictures?" you might well ask. "Why?"  The accuser, who
proclaims that she has healed, was afraid that Mildred might show the
pictures of the greatgrandchildren to the accused. What interpretation
of the concept of "healing" would promote such cruelty?"
                                                Mildred's Friend

                     Answer? A grandparentectomy
                              FMSF Staff

Editor's Comment: We received the preceding letter as we read John
Briere's 1989 book "Therapy for Adults Molested as Children: Beyond
Survival" published by Springer. We suggest that the practices
recommended in the Briere book are typical of those that have
contributed to the "grandparentectomy" that broke the heart of Mildred
These are the practices that so many professionals are vigorously

    "A final issue with regard to family members is what may be called
  'parentectomy.' This refers to intentional, permanent separation
  from one or both parents because of their continuing abusiveness and
  the extremely low likelihood of eventual rapprochement. This
  procedure is advocated for most instances involving the molester, it
  may also be necessary with regard to the remaining parent. In the
  latter case, this radical action may be warranted when the
  'nonoffending' parent directly or consciously defends the molester
  and negates the survivor and/or where said parent, herself, has
  engaged in physical or emotional abuse without remorse or intent to
    Although a 'parentectomy' is likely to improve the survivor's
  general mental health, it nevertheless extracts an unavoidable
  price. Such psychological surgery results in permanent unfinished
  business." page 142

                           FOCUS ON SCIENCE

   From time to time, various scientific articles appear which discuss
the issues of childhood sexual abuse, memory, and responses to trauma.
Since such studies are often widely cited in the scientific and
popular press, it is critical to recognize their methodologic limits.
It is particularly important to understand what conclusions can and
cannot legitimately be drawn from these studies on the basis of the
data presented. As a result, we periodically present analyses of
recent well-known studies, prepared with help from members of our
Scientific Advisory Committee.

                                * * *

  In the most recent issue of the Journal of Traumatic Stress
(October, 1995), three new studies are presented which may be cited in
the future as evidence that it is possible to develop psychogenic
amnesia for traumatic events such as childhood sexual abuse [1-3].
(Note that it does not matter, for the purposes of the discussion
below, whether this amnesia is hypothesized to be attributable to
"repression," "dissociation," or some other process. In the interest
of economy, we shall use the term "repression" here as a generic term
for this phenomenon.)  As most readers are undoubtedly aware, the
question of whether it is possible to "repress" the memory of a
traumatic event has assumed great theoretical significance in
psychiatry. Therefore, these studies represent important
contributions to a critical debate, and it is imperative that we
examine their methodology with great care.
  All three studies used essentially the same design: they examined a
group of individuals who currently remembered that they were victims
of some traumatic event (childhood sexual abuse or otherwise). Then,
the investigators asked these individuals whether there had been any
period of time in the past when they had forgotten about the trauma.
In each of the three studies, a certain number of the subjects
reported that they had "forgotten" the traumatic event for some period
of time in the past. Can we conclude that these individuals had truly
experienced a period of amnesia for the trauma?
  Such a conclusion would be premature for several reasons. Most
important, none of the three studies provides validation for the
questions asked about "forgetting." In other words, the investigators
did not test whether a "yes" answer on the question actually meant
that the respondent had amnesia for the traumatic event. Instead,
perhaps individuals answering "yes" simply meant that there had been a
period of time when they preferred not to think about the traumatic
event, or a period when they were preoccupied with other activities
and simply did not bestow any thought on the event. If so, then a
"yes" answer would not indicate true repression at all.
  The importance of validating a question can be illustrated by
example. Suppose that one did a survey of 100 people and asked them,
"Have you ever experienced a hallucination?" If 20 of the 100 people
answered "yes," would we be justified in concluding that 20% of the
population has a history of "schizophrenic symptoms?"  Obviously not.
We would have to show that a "yes" answer on our screening question
corresponded to a genuine experience of hallucinations as they are
defined in published diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia.
  Another example of the importance of validation can be found in the
study by Linda Williams, "Recovered memories of abuse in women with
documented child sexual victimization histories." In this study,
Williams presents actual case histories of five individuals who are
said to have forgotten an episode of childhood sexual abuse and to
have then recovered the memory. However, when we read these case
reports, we find that one of the women (case 3) stated, "well I guess
I may not have completely forgotten about it after my mother talked to
me, but blocked it out most of the time, just stopped thinking about
it." With regard to another woman (case 4), Williams states, "She
reported that periodically when she is happy, she forgets." These two
examples clearly do not sound like genuine amnesia.
  A second methodological problem with these studies is the question
of whether the traumatic events actually occurred. In one of the
studies, by Elliott and Briere,[2] no corroboration is provided; in
fact, the subjects were never actually seen or interviewed by the
investigators, and data were obtained from mailed-in questionnaires.
In the second study, by van der Kolk and Fisler [3], it is stated that
some of the individuals had corroboration, but specific details are
not provided. Only in the Williams study is it claimed that all cases
were corroborated. But what is meant here by corroboration? Consider
again an actual case example presented by Williams (case 3) in which a
four-year-old girl reportedly was subjected to sexual intercourse at
the hands of her uncle.  Studies have shown that vaginal penetration
of a four-year-old girl by an adult almost invariably leaves medical
findings. For example, in one study, [4] 96% of girls between the ages
of four and ten who experienced vaginal penetration exhibited medical
findings on unaided examination.  But in this girl, according to be
article, no medical findings were seen, and the uncle stated that the
abuse did not occur. Certainly, then, one would have some hesitation
about accepting this case as "corroborated." Yet it is classified as
such in the article. How many other cases in this and other studies
might also be based on uncertain "corroboration?"
  Third, there is the problem of early childhood amnesia. A child
might experience a trauma at the age of three or four, and then forget
it via the normal process of childhood amnesia. Then, later, the child
is told about the event, and gradually comes to believe that he or she
has remembered the event independently. Most of us have had this
experience: our parents or other adults have told us about an event
(traumatic or otherwise) which occurred in our childhood, and we
gradually come to regard the memory as our own, even though we
actually reconstructed it from the accounts of others. If we
subsequently report that we "forgot" and later "recovered" this
memory, it would be invalid to conclude from our report that
repression occurred.
  In short, studies using this design -- asking subjects whether they
"remember if they forgot" an event -- are subject to several important
methodological limitations which compromise interpretation of their
results. Even if we were to see a dozen more studies using this same
retrospective design, we would still not be in any better position to
conclude that individuals are truly capable of repressing the memory
of traumatic events.  Only a prospective study, in which subjects with
an unequivocally documented trauma are subsequently interviewed and
asked directly if they remember the event, can properly test the
hypothesis that repression can occur.


1.  Williams LM: Recovered memories of abuse in women with documented
child sexual victimization histories.  J Traumatic Stress 8:649-673,

2.  Elliot DM, Briere J: Posttraumatic stress associated with the
delayed recall of sexual abuse: a general population study.  J
Traumatic Stress 8:629-647, 1995

3.  van der Kolk BA, Fisler R: Dissociation and the fragmentary nature
of traumatic memories: overview and exploratory study.  J Traumatic
Stress 8:505-525, 1995

4.  Muram D: Child sexual abuse - genital tract findings in
prepubertal girls.  The unaided medical examination.  Am J Obstet
Gynecol 160:328-333, 1989
                     WHAT DOES THE RESEARCH SAY?
                              FMSF Staff

  In 1983, Roland Summit developed a model called the Child Sexual
Abuse Accommodation syndrome. This model stated that the stages of
disclosure of child sexual abuse followed the following patterns:
secrecy, helplessness, entrapment, disclosure, and retraction.
According to Debbie Nathan and Michael Snedeker in Satan's Silence,
Summit had no children as patients at the time he developed this
model, and he had done no research. The model, which was purely
hypothetical, became tremendously influential in the thinking of child
protectors. Steven Ceci and Maggie Bruck in Jeopardy in the Courtroom
asked how Summit's claims stack up against the empirical literature.
  According to the research, Ceci and Bruck note that, "there are a
number of children who immediately disclose their abuse (either
accidentally or deliberately), but there are also a number of children
who delay their disclosures for long periods of time. No profile
accounts for a sizable portion of these children's behavior." (p 35)
  One can find many references in the stories of accusers to the fact
that they were "threatened" that they would be harmed if they
disclosed. What does the research say on this issue? Ceci notes that
"The available evidence does not support this assertion. In Sauzier's
(1989) study, for example, the likelihood of disclosure was unrelated
to threats of the offender. When the offender used aggressive methods
to gain the child's compliance to keep the secret, children were
equally likely to tell about the abuse immediately following the event
or to never disclose the abuse. Gray (1993) reported that although 33%
of the children in her study were threatened by the perpetrator not to
tell, two thirds of these children nevertheless still disclosed."
(page 35)

                             BOOK REVIEW
            Satanic Ritual Abuse: Principles of Treatment
        by Colin Ross, M.D. University of Toronto Press, 1995

                  Reviewer: Jeffrey S. Victor, Ph.D.

  I was looking forward with hopeful anticipation toward reading Colin
Ross's new book, Satanic Ritual Abuse: Principles of Treatment. I had
heard him speak at length on this topic on Canadian radio, where he
emphasized the need for psychotherapists to avoid jumping to
conclusions about the existence of secret, criminal satanic cults.
Ross has directly treated or supervised the treatment of about 300
alleged survivors of satanic ritual abuse, according to his count (p
119). So I hoped to gain better insight into how satanic cult stories
become incorporated into the memories of clients in
psychotherapy. Unfortunately, I was disappointed.
  In his book, Ross states: "The major point that I am making in
Satanic Ritual Abuse is that the therapist must take a position of
ideological neutrality in order to work effectively with individuals
claiming past involvement in Satanic cults: it is important not to
accept or reject too much of the sociological reality of the ritual
abuse memories (p.58)." Unfortunately, I found that the meaning of
"ideological neutrality" in the context of Ross's book to be entirely
unclear. It seemed to be only a pretension of open-mindedness. I'll
return to this issue later.
  Is Ross's book useful to readers of this newsletter? His book could
be useful to some people as an introduction to the point-of-view of a
psychiatrist who specializes in the treatment of MPD and who is also a
critic of the concept of false memories. It might also be useful as a
statement of Ross's theoretical position for psychotherapists and
behavioral scientists. The primary audience for whom Ross is writing
is that of his fellow psychotherapists. The core of Ross's book is a
defense of his interpretation of dissociative disorders (more
specifically, MPD patients who claim to be survivors of satanic ritual
abuse) and his methods of treatment. Unfortunately, this book is not
particularly useful in understanding false accusations of satanic cult
ritual abuse, or the nature of false memories of SRA. I expect that
the book's greatest usefulness will be as a document for future social
historians, in their attempts to understand the current moral panic
over accusations of satanic cult crime.
  Readers of this newsletter are likely to disagree with Ross on many
of the issues in his book. Some of these issues include: the issue of
whether or not repression is a scientifically proven psychological
process; the issue of whether or not MPD is essentially a social
construction (an iatrogenic creation) or a unitary and universal
mental disorder; the issue of whether or not trauma from child abuse
is the exclusive cause of MPD and dissociative disorders; the issue of
whether or not therapist suggestion effects play a major role in the
social construction of a patient's SRA stories; and even whether or
not the disease analogy (medical model) is adequate for understanding
psychological problems which are caused by stress and social learning
  Ross's book is divided into the following sections: 1) The
Historical and Social Background; 2) Satanic Cults Today; 3) Therapy
of Satanic Ritual Abuse Survivors; and 4) Society's Response to
Satanism. It might appear that most of this book addresses historical
and sociological issues related to claims about satanic cult ritual
abuse. However, there is little genuine history or sociology to be
found. Instead, the book is a highly speculative work of creative
fiction, in the tradition of Doctor Freud. It is a curious
circumstance that many psychotherapists feel free to write accounts of
history and sociological analysis, without having had adequate
training in history and sociology. They do so, by assuming the mantle
of medical authority, based upon expert knowledge of the cause of
  The basic flaws of faulty logic in this book transcend any possible
disagreement over specific research issues. For example, Ross employs
many slippery slope arguments. (Many horrible things have been
revealed in the past, therefore, it is possible that many secret
atrocities by satanic cult criminals will be revealed in the future.)
He employs circular logic which plays into conspiratorial thinking,
whereby the lack of evidence for a conspiracy is possible evidence for
the effectiveness of satanic cult conspirators. He makes many
inappropriate analogies. For example, Ross uses information about past
secret groups which committed murders and about the extent of child
sexual abuse to argue that we should be alert to the possible
existence of unknown horrors committed by secret criminal satanic
cults. Sample: "All of these facts about known, successfully
prosecuted destructive cults make it conceivable that Satanic
human-sacrifice cults could be operating in secrecy through a
combination of bribery, financial power, political connections, and
intelligence expertise" (p.53): Sample: "The Jeffrey Dahmer case tells
us that we cannot reach any firm conclusions about the reality of
multigenerational orthodox Satanic ritual abuse based on the present
lack of objective evidence" (p.49).
  Ross asserts that there is no sociological evidence for the
existence or nonexistence of organized secret satanic cults. He
thereby tries to affirm his neutrality on the question. However,
science can only examine alternative explanations about people's
claims concerning reality. Today, prominent psychotherapists are
giving credibility to some rather bizarre claims being made by
patients in psychotherapy. Scientific research cannot prove the
non-existence of aliens from UFOs who kidnap people; or past-life
experiences; or secret satanic cults. Ross carefully avoids dealing
with the important issues of how the validation of SRA allegations by
some psychotherapists has contributed to a loss of public credibility
for the profession of psychotherapy.
  Ross dismisses in a few sentences sociocultural explanations of the
origins of satanic ritual abuse allegations, based upon the
internalization of contemporary legend stories into the confabulated
memories of psychotherapy patients and reinforcement by therapist
suggestion effects. Yet, he gives lengthy consideration to many
dubious sources in his attempt to explore the possible real existence
of organized, criminal satanic cults; such as books by Mike Warke
(which has been proven a total fraud), by Linda Blood and by Carl
Raschke (both of which are ideological tracts from anti-cult
"experts"). However, Ross ignores the major government and scientific
studies which report finding no evidence to support claims about the
existence of criminal organizations which engage in sexual child abuse
and torture, justified by a satanic religious ideology (Goodman,
et. al. 1994; La Fontaine/U.K. Department of Health, 1994; Lanning,
1992; Netherlands Ministry of Justice, 1994). This is the context of
Ross's pretension that he holds the moderate, reasonable middle
ground, between the extremes of "believers" and "skeptics." (The
logical fallacy here, of course, is that the middle is closer to the
  Is there anything in Ross's book which is helpful in understanding
how satanic ritual abuse stories become expressed as personal memories
from childhood? Yes.  Ross makes a very useful distinction between the
structural themes and specific content in the SRA stories told by
patients having dissociative disorders.  Unfortunately, Ross himself
becomes wrapped up in the content of SRA accounts in his book,
indicating that it is all too tempting for therapists to pay too much
attention to dramatic story content. Ross also cautions therapists
that the commandment to "always believe the client's story" is a
dangerous principle for psychotherapy. He implicitly recognizes that
many therapists are following this pop culture fad and thereby
reinforcing the false memories of their clients.  Perhaps, most
importantly, Ross provides some research data on the possible extent
that 'wounded healer" therapists may be involved in the treatment of
alleged "survivors" of childhood victimization and cautions therapists
about this danger. In a sample of 1,000 mental health professionals
registered for MPD conferences, Ross found that 55% had a history of
childhood sexual abuse (p. 87 & p. 122). I believe that this is a key
to understanding why some therapists so easily validate false memories
of child sexual abuse. It may also explain the selective attraction of
some therapists to recovered memory therapy.
  I hope that this review can serve the purpose of providing some
insight into the range of deep differences which must be bridged, if
professionals with divergent views on the issues related to SRA can
ever come together seeking productive dialogue. Ross said in these
pages (Feb. 1995), that it is time for professionals to seek common
ground. Perhaps, Ross can take the initiative in organizing a
conference for professionals holding these divergent views.


Goodman, G.; with Q. Jianjian; B. Bottoms, and P. Shaver.
"Characteristics and Sources of Allegations of Ritualistic Child
Abuse," Final Report to the National Center on Child Abuse and
Neglect, 1994. (Available from Dr. Gail Goodman, Department of
Psychology, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA., 95616)

La Fontaine, J.S. The Extent and Nature of Organized and Ritual Abuse:
Research findings. United Kingdom Department of Health Report. London
(U.K); HMSO Publications, 1994.

Lanning, K. Investigator's Guide to Allegations of "Ritual" Child
Abuse. National Center for the Analysis of Violent Crime, FBI
Academy, (Quantico, VA), Jan. 1992.

  Jeffrey Victor, Ph.D. is a professor of sociology at Jamestown
  Community College and is a member of the FMSF Scientific Advisory
  Board. He is the author of "Satanic Panic: The Creation of a
  Contemporary Legend."

                             LEGAL CORNER
                              FMSF Staff
    Therapists Settle Out of Court in California Malpractice Case

  The hypnotherapist and MFCC (Marriage and Family Certified
Counselor) who had treated Kimberly Mark agreed to an out of court
settlement of $157,000 on December 5, 1995. Kimberly Mark and her
husband had sued the therapists for negligently implanting memories of
sexual abuse by her father, failing to warn of the unreliability of
recovered memories, and negligently diagnosing and treating for MPD.
  According to attorney Patrick E. Clancy, Kim originally went to a
hypnotherapist for help with excessive chest pains. It was later
discovered that, not only was the hypnotherapist unlicensed, but he
had only a high school diploma and had achieved his certificate in
hypnotherapy by watching 200 hours of video tapes at home. (In
California, unlicensed hypnotherapists are allowed to help people give
up habits, such as smoking, but are not allowed to do psychotherapy.)
  Kim had over of 50 sessions of hypnosis and came to believe that she
had recovered "repressed memories" of molestation and of ritual
abuse. The hypnotherapist diagnosed her as MPD. The hypnotherapist
then involved an MFCC to help Kim. The MFCC accepted the
hypnotherapist's diagnosis of MPD and mapped out over 250
personalities in Kim. Sometime later, the therapist was introduced to
a group called Entity Extractors at a Los Angeles seminar. Kim was
sent to the Entity Extractors, where she was reportedly told the MPD
diagnosis was wrong and that the alters were not "children" but
"entities." The "entities" were horrible monsters which could be
extracted through hypnotic sessions.
  Attorney Clancy described the arguments used by the defense. The
first was that the hypnotherapist had no insurance or assets and thus
could not pay. The MFCC argued that she had not implanted any memories
and that Kim was exhibiting the symptoms of MPD before seeing the
MFCC. The MFCC's insurance company settled over her objection. It was
also argued that Kim's occasional use of drugs was the true cause of
her problems. The Entity Extractors argued that they had only worked
with Kim for three or four days. Additionally, they argued the
proposition that "entities" existed was supported by religion.
  In California, under the MICRA act an upper limit of $250,000 is
placed on damages for pain and suffering which can be awarded in
medical malpractice cases. Further the jury is instructed to assign a
percentage of responsibilty for the injury to the defendants and to
the plaintiff (called contributory negligence). There is no limit on
the losses for special damages such as lost wages.
  Attorney Clancy states that he currently has four more retractor
cases. He expects that three of the cases will come to trial in 1996.
               Denver Therapist Loses False Memory Case 
              Rocky Mountain News, November 2 & 3, 1995 
     (Report of the trial in FMSF Newsletter Nov./Dec. '95 p 10)

  Denver therapist Beverly Nussbaumer was found professionally
negligent and was ordered to pay $120,857 to Jane Brennan for
implanting false memories of incest.  Supervising psychiatrist, Henry
Bible was cleared of liability.
  Brennan's attorney, Joyce Seelen, accused Nussbaumer of using
hypnosis and unproven techniques to plant false memories in Brennan's
mind that her father had sexually abused her. As a result, Brennan cut
off relations with her parents and her siblings, devastating her
family. Her father subsequently suffered a stroke.
  Brennan sought treatment in 1990 for postpartum depression. After a
year in therapy, Brennan was gripped by a depression so deep she
couldn't care for herself or her three children. Eventually dim
memories, then detailed recollections of weekly sexual assaults
emerged. Brennan says Nussbaumer would get angry when she questioned
the memories saying, "Why don't you just accept this? You want to get
better, don't you?"
  Nussbaumer's attorney, Gilbert Dickinson, said he wasn't sure
whether he would appeal the verdict and said Nussbaumer had followed
accepted practices. He admitted that therapists view recovered
memories of incest much differently now than they did five years ago
but he said Nussbaumer never purposely set out to give Brennan false
  The jury awarded $79,250 for lost earnings, $30,507 for medical
costs at the time of treatment, and $11,100 for punitive damages.
Jurors said they did not believe the father's abuse had happened, but
the verdict was a compromise after one young juror became adamant that
Brennan should have left therapy when she saw it wasn't working.
Another juror said she was "disappointed" and "embarrassed" by the
small award, especially the jury's decision not to award damages for
family pain.

/                                                                    \
| "Which is my point that I made this morning. That when you tell    |
| these stories, the fact that they sound incredible virtually is    |
| the proof of them."                                                |
|                                                      David Calof   |
|   Presentation at Advances in Treating Survivors of Sexual Abuse   |
|                     February 5-7, 1993, Anaheim, CA  Tape,F113-3   |

Appeals Court Refuses to Restore Murder Conviction of George Franklin
              San Francisco Chronicle, November 21, 1995

  On November 20, 1995, a federal appeals court refused to restore
George Franklin's 1990 murder conviction. The state has decided not to
appeal further.  Prosecutors have ninety days to decide whether to
retry the case or to let Franklin go. The U.S. Court of Appeals upheld
a lower court ruling last April that overturned Franklin's conviction.
Both courts said the trial had been tainted by improper allegations
that Franklin had confessed and by the exclusion of crucial evidence.
  Franklin's conviction involved the nation's first case involving
repressed memory testimony. Franklin's daughter, Eileen Franklin-
Lipsker, testified that she had witnessed her father murder a
childhood friend in 1969, but had repressed the memory for 20 years.
Neither court specifically criticized recovered-memory testimony as
the basis of its ruling.
  Assistant District Attorney Martin Murray said that the state had
not decided what action to take. He made it clear that a central
factor in the decision will probably be medical experts' increasing
skepticism about repressed-memory testimony, which played an important
role in the trial. "There have been some additional studies on that
subject since the trial," Murray said, "and we would have to evaluate
those and see what the psychiatric landscape looks like" before
deciding whether to retry the case.
              Controversies Surrounding Genesis, Assoc.,
                   a Counseling Center in Exton, PA
               Philadelphia Inquirer, November 4, 1995

  Certification of two therapists who operate Genesis, Inc. was
revoked on November 1, 1995. The Pennsylvania Chemical Abuse
Certification Board found psychologist Patricia Mansmann and social
worker Patricia Neuhausel had "failed in their duty to maintain a
client-therapist relationship by creating a dependency on the
therapist for all aspects of their lives." The therapists were accused
of providing harmful treatment, including "detachment" from family and
"snuggle dates" with other clients.
  The Chemical Abuse Certification Board is a private, nonprofit
organization that establishes a code of ethics for professionals and
issue certification in the field of chemical abuse treatment.
Certification is not required to operate the counseling center.
  A press release from the Pennsylvania House of Representatives on
October 31, 1995, indicates that Commonwealth Secretary Yvette Kane
has instructed her department's Office of Prosecution actively to
investigate the complaints against Genesis, Inc. At the end of the
investigation period, expected by mid-January, a decision will be made
on whether to bring charges against Genesis before the Psychology
Board. Members of the County delegation to the state House are
considering holding hearings on the matter due to the numerous
complaints they have received from individuals who claim to have been
victimized by Genesis.
            Fender Bender Triggers Repressed Memory Claim:
                Recalled Trauma Leads to a $107K Award
            Massachusetts Lawyers Weekly, October 30, 1995
                             David L. Yas

  A 50-year old woman recently was awarded $107,000 from another
driver after recovering repressed memories following an automobile
accident. After the woman's car was rear-ended at 35 mph, she suffered
a mild head injury. The woman claimed that the injuries triggered
traumatic childhood memories. The woman sued the other driver for
adverse effects including migraine headaches, cognitive dysfunction,
sleep disturbances, and flashbacks to a childhood trauma of which she
was previously unaware.
  The issue wound up in arbitration after the insurer for the
defendant agreed that while the issue of liability for the accident
was clear, the issue of damages was not. The arbitrator's task was to
determine whether a mild head injury could trigger the plaintiff's
flashbacks of childhood trauma. Expert opinion was offered from a
neuropsychologist to establish a causal connection between the
relative mild head injury and the childhood trauma which occurred
decades earlier.
  Attorneys for the plaintiff were Robert W. Casby and Marianne
C. LeBlanc of Boston.
  Alan S. Fanger of Boston, a lawyer who was interviewed for this
article, suggested that this is a doubly disturbing case. It is
disturbing first because there is no scientific support for the
concept of recovered repressed memories and second because the
plaintiff recovered from a third party -- someone with no connection
whatsoever to any traumatic childhood experiences.
                Suit: Wreck Revived Memories of Abuse
                  The Register-Guard (Eugene Oregon)
                          September 22, 1995

  A 47-year-old East Wenatchee woman is suing her father and a
teen-age boy after an automobile accident she says triggered memories
of childhood sexual abuse by her father. One of the defendants is a
teenage boy who rear-ended a pick-up which, in turn, struck her
vehicle from behind. As a result of the accident, the woman began to
remember repeated sexual abuse by her father nearly 40 years ago.
"It's like the wreck broke open barrels of toxic waste, and now I have
to live in it." the woman is reported to have said in an interview.
  The suit seeks compensation for medical expenses and lost wages for
the woman and also compensation for her son and husband who have lost
her love, support and care as a direct result of the accident and the
memories it revived.
        Woman Fired for Mental Condition (MPD) Settles Lawsuit
                 Naples Daily News, November 9, 1995

  Diane Krug, who worked with animals at a wild life refuge, became
unable to work in August 1992 because of psychological symptoms
stemming from trauma she suffered as a child. Court documents said a
therapist found that Krug had at least nine different personalities.
  Krug filed her lawsuit under the federal Americans with Disabilities
Act and claimed she was discriminated against because her employer did
not make reasonable accommodations for her when she was ready to
resume working. Her employer claimed that her condition prevented her
from remaining alert when working with potentially dangerous animals.
Krug's lawyer said that Krug no longer had any symptoms of the illness
and was "perfectly capable of resuming the same duties."  Krug's
lawyer, Archibald Thomas III, stated that there was some dispute that
she suffered from multiple personalities and acknowledged that there
is also dispute in the psychological community as to whether the
disorder even exists. The defense asserted that Krug could not show at
the end of a leave of absence that she was a "qualified individual
with a disability" who could do her job with reasonable

               Robersons Found Not Guilty in Wenatchee
           New York Times, December 12, 1995, Timothy Egan
           Seattle Times, December 12, 1995, Thomas Haines

  On December 11, the jury acquitted Robert and Connie Roberson of all
14 counts of sexual abuse of children in a trial in which no physical
evidence was offered to support the charges. The Robersons were
accused of being at the center of a sex ring in which children were
ritualistically raped and abused. The case was based on the
accusations of a 13-year-old foster daughter of the police officer,
Detective Perez, who investigated the Robersons. The girl has named 23
adults who she said were sexually abusing her or other children. More
than 40 adults have been arrested in Wenatchee and more than 20 remain
in jail. The U.S.  Department of Justice has completed a look at the
Wenatchee to see if civil rights have been violated. They will soon
announce whether there will be a formal investigation.
  The Robersons are now seeking to regain custody of their child. They
have said that they plan to sue the agencies involved in the
prosecution. Defense attorney Robert Van Siclen said, "There was no
reason for this case to go on."
                       The Price of Child Abuse
                   Seattle Times, November 27, 1995

  This article describes what has been happening to the children
involved in the Wenatchee cases. To date forty-two children have been
removed from the homes of parents who were charged with abuse.
Thirty-two of those children remain in the care of the state. Although
there had been reports that some children were in mental institutions,
that was apparently not accurate. Most of the children are in foster
care and most will someday be placed for adoption. According to the
writer, foster parents may not be able to afford to adopt any of the
children.  Foster parents are paid from $366 to $1,700 per month per
child depending on the difficulty of the child's behavior. The state
also pays for special services, including weekend caretakers to allow
foster parents to get away sometimes.
  While there is debate whether all of the children needed to be
removed from their homes, some doctors have reported strong evidence
of sexual abuse on at least eight of the children. At the same time,
questions about conflicts of interest and coercive interviewing have
raised so much doubt about the cases that Governor Mike Lowry asked
for an investigation by the U.S. Department of Justice.
  Of the children in foster care, some never said that their parents
abused them, some say that they were raped or abused and others have
recanted their accusations. They are all being treated as though they
had been abused by a sex ring. The children have all had to cope with
new routines, new authority figures, new schools and regular therapy
schedules. They have also had to deal with the feelings of loss of
their parents. In many of the cases there is more money for the
children and better care. Teachers said that some children have
received long needed glasses and cleaner clothes. Many are receiving
special instruction at school and some are enrolled in speech therapy.
The children's reading scores and school performance are reported to
have improved.
  Almost none of the natural parents are expected to regain parental
rights but one therapist says that it is good that some of the
children are staying in touch with their parents who are in prison. He
noted that even children who had testified against parents miss
them. "Not a single one of these kids wanted their parents to go to
jail. I encourage the child to write to the parent. I think that has
been very helpful for some of these kids. It's not as traumatic if
they maintain contact with people who were their parents."
                 Gilmore Texas Case Ends in a Whimper
                         Dallas Morning News 
             (complied from articles 1/25/94 to 11/7/95)

  The Texas attorney general's office has asked for indictments to be
dismissed after a 3-year-long child-abuse investigation that involved
charges of kidnapping, murder, cannibalism and ritual child abuse by a
Satanic cult. The Attorney General's Office filed a motion on November
3, 1995, in Upshur County court to drop 48 child sexual abuse
indictments against 10 people because the special prosecutor who once
handled the case "irreparably tainted" the children.  A gag order was
also issued by the court.
  The child abuse case is related to a murder investigation conducted
in 1992 by special prosecutor, Scott Lyford, in the disappearance of
17-year-old Kelly Wilson from the small town of Gilmer, 110 miles east
of Dallas. As a result of Lyford's investigation, eight people,
including Gilmer police Sgt. James Brown, another officer and his wife
and 5 members of the Kerr family were indicted on charges of
kidnapping, sexually assaulting and murdering Wilson. Sgt. Brown had
been in charge of the investigation into Wilson's disappearance. He
was indicted five weeks after he had an argument with Lyford over the
direction and credibility of Lyford's investigation. The indictments
specified molestation, rape, stabbing and satanic abuse even though
Wilson's body was never found. They were based on the investigation of
Lyford, without the involvement of the Police Department, the
sheriff's office or the district attorney. Lyford maintained all files
on the case. According to critics, Lyford used the indictments as
though they were a fact-finding tool.
  Stephen Braggs, an expert in ritual abuse, and Elizabeth Goar, a
local caseworker were engaged to assist the investigation and stated
in an affidavit that the Kerr children had told them in 1990 that the
defendants had forced them to have sex and attend Satanic ceremonies.
The Kerr children were removed from their family soon after that
investigation began and were repeatedly interviewed from 1990 through
1992. Subsequent searches of the Kerr property failed to find evidence
to support the allegations of satanism or ritual abuse. In June 1993 a
7-year-old boy said that the Kerrs had killed Kelly Wilson and that a
man in a blue uniform had been there, too. It was later discovered
that the boy's statements were made after the child had been
interrogated for hours by as many as 7 adults about possible abuse. At
one point he begged, "Stop, stop... I'll do what you want me to do."
  In March 1994, state district judge, James B. Zimmerman dismissed
all indictments against the eight defendants charged with abducting
and murdering Kelly Wilson. All members of the Kerr family remained in
jail, charges of child abuse still pending. Then in May 1994, the
child welfare workers and foster parents involved with the Kerr
children came under investigation by the Texas Department of
Protective and Regulatory Services. The agency removed two social
workers from the case and investigated whether the group had
circumvented regulations, resisted oversight, trespassed into the
preserve of law enforcement, built their own prosecutorial team and
made decisions that ultimately harmed the children they were trying to
protect. Operations manager, David Reilly, said he approaches all
allegations of so-called ritual abuse with "benign skepticism." He was
also critical of the interviews of the children.  "Subjecting any
child to that kind of process is way out of line," and violates
Protective and Regulatory Services policy, Mr. Reilly said.
  Although physical examinations show that some of the children may
have been molested (visitation with those parents has been severed),
physical evidence to support the more sensational allegations of
satanic ritualism and murder was never found. Records show that the
cult stories came forth after the children, all of them 7 or younger
when they were removed from their families, were placed in two
"therapeutic" foster homes.
  Finally in November 1995, the 45 indictments against nine members or
acquaintances of the Kerr family were dismissed at the request of the
Texas attorney general's office. The attorney general contended that
the case had been irreparably compromised by overzealous investigators
bent on exposing a satanic cult. Videotaped interviews of three of the
children were played in court. The children said that they had
fabricated the tales of abuse after they were subjected to a technique
called "therapeutic holding." One of the children told child
psychiatrist Bruce Perry that one foster mother would hold them and
rub their ribs with her knuckles hard enough to produce bruises if
they did not confess to having been ritually abused. The boy who had
implicated the Kerr family and Sgt. Brown in the disappearance of
Kelly Wilson, said he would tell the foster mother whatever she wanted
to hear in order to avoid the painful holding sessions.  

/                                                                    \
|                   Therapeutic Holding - Gilmore                    |
|                                                                    |
|   "On Nov 7, 1993, according to some of Danny's siblings, one or   |
| both of his foster parents beat his head against a wooden floor    |
| until the back of his skull was mushy. Danny now can't walk, talk, |
| or sit unaided or feed himself.                                    |
|   "The children -- social workers had assigned 10 to the home --   |
| said he was brutalized during a session of "holding," a technique  |
| that included forcing them to run up and down stairs until         |
| exhausted and squeezing them under the arms until they screamed."  |
|                                                    Victoria Loe    |
|                               Dallas Morning News, Nov 16, 1995    |
                         Arrasmith Convicted

  Is murder justified if a person believes that someone has sexually
abused a teenager? The details of the Arrasmith case have never been
in dispute. On May 17, 1995, 44-year-old Ron Arrasmith of Sunnyside,
Washington got in his car and drove to the home of Ron Bingham in
Lewiston, Idaho. When Arrasmith arrived, he found Bingham lying under
his truck working on it. Arrasmith took out his gun and shot Bingham
23 times. Arrasmith then went and found Ron Bingham's wife, Luello
Bingham. Arrasmith said that the Binghams deserved to die."It's Ron
and Luella's own fault I shot them because they were raping and
torturing children," he told the jury.
  This case received national attention and people sent donations of
money to both the prosecution and to the defense. Former Ms. America,
Marilyn van Derber, for example,was mentioned in several articles as a
contributor to Arrasmith's defense fund.
                   Gerald Amirault Denied New Trial
            United Press International, November 29, 1995

  Judge Elizabeth Dolan denied a new trial for Gerald Amirault who is
serving up to 40 years in prison for his conviction of crimes at the
Fells Acre Day School in Malden, Mass. Gerald Amirault was convicted
in 1986 of assault of children at the family's day care center by a
jury in Judge Dolan's court. In a separate trial his mother, Violet,
and sister, Cheryl, were also convicted. In August, 1995, Middlesex
Superior Court Judge Robert Barton overturned the convictions of
Violet and Cheryl, ruling that they had been denied their right to
"face to face" confrontation with their accusers at trial. The child
witnesses sat at a small table facing the jury, their backs to the
defendants. Judge Dolan, however, ruled there was no evidence to
support his claim that he was unable to see the children testifying
against him. Gerald Amirault's lawyer said that he plans to appeal the
Dolan decision to the state Supreme Court.
               Psychiatric Programs Spark Huge Lawsuit:
            AETNA Alleges that Fraud Ran into the Millions
            Defendants Say Firm is Trying to Recoup Funds
         Los Angeles Times, December 10, 1995, Julie Marquis

  Aetna Life Insurance Co. alleges that a group of psychiatric
providers in Los Angeles and Orange counties systematically lured
unsuspecting patients from throughout the country with false promises
and improper perks. Aetna has accused Paracelsus Healthcare Corp that
has hospitals in California, Nevada and Florida of luring patients,
lying to insurers and giving kickbacks. Hollywood Community Hospital
of Van Nuys, Bellwood Health Center in Bellflower and Orange County
Community Hospital have been named as part of what has been called a
"heads in beds" program. Much of the focus of the lawsuit is on
programs labeled Christian Therapy. Lawyers for the hospital chain
have rebutted each of the charges. Both former patients and former
workers at the hospitals have confirmed Aetna's claims.

/                                                                    \
| When bad men combine, the good must associate; else they will fall |
| one by one, an unpitied sacrifice in a contemptible struggle.      |
|                                                       Edmund Burke |
|    Thoughts on the Cause of the Present Discontent Vol. i. p. 526. |

                          MAKE A DIFFERENCE
  This is a column that will let you know what people are doing to
counteract the harm done by FMS. Remember that three and a half years
ago, FMSF didn't exist. A group of 50 or so people found each other
and today more than 17,000 have reported similar experiences. Together
we have made a difference. How did this happen?

CALIFORNIA - We have subscribed to LIFELINE/AMERIVISION for our long
distance phone service. This means that FMSF will receive a check
every three months from Amerivision in an amount equal to 10% of our
long distance billing for that period. If you are interested, call
LifeLine at 800-492-2002.

From the issue of March 1

We have subscribed to LifeLine/Amerivision for our long distance phone
service. This means that FMSF will receive a check every three months
from Amerivision in an amount equal to 10% of our long distance billing
for that period. If you are interested call Life Line at

FLORIDA - We encourage all families to purchase half a dozen of the 16
minute FMSF video tapes produced by Allen Feld (cost $10.00 each).
Mail a tape with a cover letter to major magazines and also to your
local newspaper. The letter could encourage the editor to launch an
investigation or to publish a story.  It's something people can easily
do, if they are looking for a way to help educate the media about FMS.

NEW MEXICO - An alert attorney read a child abuse prevention pamphlet
that said ritual abuse (which is another term for Satanic abuse) is a
significant problem in all communities. The State government had been
distributing this through the Department of Children, Youth and
Families. The attorney, M. Churchill, said "Child abuse does occur,
obviously, but if you get people in a panic, they'll start accusing
people who are innocent." She tried unsuccessfully in August to get
the pamphlet changed. State officials decided to rewrite it only after
inquiries were made by the Albuquerque Journal newspaper.

VERMONT - Here in Vermont, we try to invite a guest speaker to most
meetings for two reasons: to educate us and to be educatted about FMSF
issues in return. We have had lawyers, therapists, insurance
executives, and journalists thus far.  The caliber of these meetings
is noticeably more upbeat and energized than those in which we simply
commiserate with one another. In traveling around the country, I have
found that some meetings never invite outsiders. I think that's a
shame. I feel strongly that we should reach out.
  Since going public (with great trepidation) with my own story in
Victims of Memory, I have not received hate calls or hate letters. On
the contrary, many people have called and written to thank me
profusely. It has been a liberating experience -- very similar, in
some respects, to someone who has always remembered being sexually
abused and finally decides to speak out about it.  Going public is a
personal decision for each person, of course, but this has been my
experience, and I encourage others at least to tell relations,
friends, and acquaintances about your personal plight. You will
probably be surprised at the positive and sympathetic response.
  We must continue to educate more and more people. Getting the new
books on recovered memory into bookstores is one of the most effective
ways to balance the unscientific books such as "Courage to Heal." If
you would like free booklets that specifically critique these ideas
that may be given to bookstore owners to alert them to its negative
impact, call my publisher at 800-356-9315.  (Mark Pendergrast)

  You can make a difference. Please send me any ideas that you have
  had that were or might be successful so that we can tell others.
  Write to Katie Spanuello c/o FMSF.


  More and more families are telling us about their accusing children
retracting their allegations, or expressing a desire to "return" to
the family. These situations sometimes spur other families to ask what
they can do to initiate a reconciliation process.  The answer some are
considering is a form of mediation.  Mediation has been used in the
past primarily in labor disputes and legal circumstances, and only
recently has it been applied in situations involving "repressed
  In mediation, families can try to resolve their differences in a
neutral environment. This can help to promote positive communication
as family members attempt to clarify their expectations. Some
professionals who serve as facilitators for such a process include
neutral family therapists, family doctors, clergy and retired
judges. As long as the mediator is indeed neutral, this can be a
direction in which to proceed.
  The Foundation would like to hear from any families who have had
experience with mediation, both positive and negative. We would also
like to hear from any members of the Foundation who are considering
mediation. In this way we can benefit from each other's experiences,
and share information on the neutrality and effectiveness of
mediators. We are aware of several instances in which a mediator
professed neutrality, but in reality this was not the case.
  Mediation can be an avenue for some families to consider as we work
together towards our ultimate goal -- reconciliation for families.

/                                                                    \
| FREE LIBRARY DISPLAYS are now available through SIRS Publishers.   |
| Call 1-800-232-7477. This is an attractive and positive way to     |
| inform people about the many new books that are now available      |
| about false memories and the devastating effects this is having on |
| families.                                                          |

                           FROM OUR READERS 
                  Thank You All and Thank You Chuck

  Thank you all for the wonderful support you have given to us by your
letters and phone calls. You helped us survive the weeks of dread
while we waited to have our hearing before Judge Dolan. You should
know that our bags were packed in readiness to be sent to separate
prisons for a very long time. We were so happy when Judge Dolan told
us that we could remain under house arrest until our next appeal
before the state Supreme Court in January. Can you imagine being happy
about being under house arrest? It ranks up there in absurdity with
those who are happy because they have been accused of satanic abuse
(because there is no evidence for it) or those who are happy that they
were both accused (because that reduces questions).
  We say a special thank you to ____ who came all the way from Texas
to be with us during this time. Her husband is still in prison
there. We say thank you to Helen for calling the governor. We say
thank you to Jean for more than we can ever list.
  We say thank you to to Chuck. Chuck Noah was one of the people who
called us.  He said that he would come East to be with us on one of
the most unsettling days of our lives. Chuck is a precious commodity,
a truly dedicated man, a man with a mission. He and his wife have been
a part of our lives for over two years and the bond is strong -- as it
is with all those who have been so hurt by false and cruel allegations
by our adult children.
  Chuck found his way to deal with the pain and his way was to take to
the street with a public showing of the craziness of recovered memory
therapy. Chuck didn't sit and brood. He didn't hide and try to work
behind the scenes. Chuck was up front and "in your face" with picket
  Chuck arrived on Sunday November 5. He and two other young men set
out for the lumber yard. They set to work and constructed a sign which
was ten feet high and as wide as the rear of his rented auto. The sign
read "Free The Souzas."  Early next morning Chuck set out for Boston
where he drove around the state house and up and down the highway. He
was very visible and said that he had quite a good positive response.
He said that he got good signs from motorists, some curious enough to
ask, "Is that sign for the grandparents?"  Once Chuck was pulled over
on I 93. He was not given a citation for driving too slowly because
the State Police Offices said that he knew Shirley and Ray and the
officer repeated three times over... "They are innocent."
  On the morning of the hearing Chuck parked in front of the
courthouse. He walked up and down in front of the entrance with his
sandwich sign which read "Therapy is a dung heap."  The court officers
supplied him with warm coffee during the day. When the good news was
brought out to him he shed a tear or two with other supporters."I
believe in picketing," Chuck said more than once. "It really gets
attention." He was not wrong. During his three days there we received
quite a few calls telling us about this man with the big sign who was
driving around Boston.
  If there is a victory party -- and I am certain that there will be
-- a friend has called to say that she is planning to give her free
air time to Chuck and June. Chuck is a living example of what true
friendship is. He is an example of unconditional love. It has been an
honor to meet him personally, not just us but for all who were a part
of a most dreaded day turned festive. Chuck does not expect anything.
But Chuck should know that he has become a hero and a symbol to many
families. To a man of strong principles we say "Thank You" most
                                                Ray and Shirley Souza
/                                                                    \
|                        Before therapy  1988                        |
|                                                                    |
| I love you, and want to thank you for all the help both you and    |
| dad have given me in my life, especially in the last few years. I  |
| would have had a much harder time not having you behind me.        |
|                                       Love from your daughter "C"  |
|                                                                    |
|                        After therapy  1989                         |
|                                                                    |
| Over the past three months I have experienced some memories which  |
| have been painful and upsetting for me. I now believe I was        |
| sexually abused as a child, and I believe this is the reason for   |
| my problems that I have had both past and present. If there is     |
| anything you know and have not told me, or anything you remember   |
| about my behavior as a child that may point to me having been      |
| abused, I would appreciate hearing about it. You can write me a    |
| letter detailing what you know or suspect. If you wish to talk to  |
| me in person, I would prefer to do so with my therapist present... |
| At this time I don't feel I can see you or dad, or have you visit  |
| us at home. ...I am making my healing a priority in my life right  |
| now and am totally committed to this process, no matter how        |
| painful it may be.                                                 |
|                                                   Sincerely  "C"   |
                       A Terrible Misdiagnosis

  I am writing to you to hopefully help people who believe they were
abused and to provide some hope for their parents.
  I believed I was abused and therefore cut off all contact with my
parents and family for almost three and a half years. I sued my
parents and I was completely convinced that they (my parents) had
abused me. During this time period I missed one of my sister's
weddings, the birth of a nephew, and meeting and getting to know my
other sister's boyfriend who is now her husband. I also missed my
grandpa's funeral and the construction of a new home for my family and
the selling of our old home where I grew up. Now when I look at
pictures of myself and my family when I was younger, I cannot believe
I got so far from center.
  I have been reunited with my family for almost two years now.
Fortunately for me, my parents took me back. I am very lucky and I am
very grateful. It has been a long road back and there have been times
I thought I would never feel comfortable again, but I didn't give
up. It is still hard, but I'm praying that time will continue to help.
  Nothing spectacular caused me to call my parents finally. Just one
night, I guess I was lonely and I called them. If you had known me
then, it would seem a miracle because I wasn't rational at the time.
My brother, who was still in grade school, answered the phone when I
called. I didn't talk. The next day I called again and talked to my
dad. I think my brother had told my dad that he thought it was me who
had called, but my dad didn't believe it after all I had put them
through. I drove out to my parents' home with my three dogs and my mom
and my dad and I went out to dinner and talked. It was a beginning. My
dad said he had been praying for me. I think his prayers were answered
and God told me to call.
  Since that day I have been working on my relationships with my
parents and my family. It has been easier with my parents. It has been
slower with my siblings. I have met my nephews and witnessed the birth
of another nephew and a niece. I have attended my sister's wedding. I
found good homes for my dogs and moved closer to my family and I got a
full-time job.
  As I write this, I am in my parents' living room. My brother is
upstairs and at noon I will go with my mom to the doctor. To me, it is
a miracle that I am sitting here in their home. I can't say enough how
grateful I am. I have been here for about 10 days after having been
hospitalized for two weeks. My parents were at the hospital every
day. They did not have to do that. It was not a short drive for them
and I know my mom and dad did a lot of sacrificing to be there. To be
able to stay at their home is, to me, the greatest thing of all. It
makes me feel like some trust is restored. It has made me very happy.
  While I was apart from my family, I saw many doctors and
therapists. In the process I did learn some things, maybe, but mostly
I screwed myself up. Now I see a new psychiatrist and I understand my
problem. I have Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and that is what
turned my life into a living hell. Perhaps OCD can account for others
out there who think they were abused. It makes sense when you learn
the problems OCD causes. If you don't know the symptoms of OCD you
could destroy your life and the lives of others by trying to
understand your obsessions the Freudian way which leads to a search
for "repressed memories."  With the combination of medicine and the
help of my new psychiatrist, however, I have improved.
  In my case there was a link between OCD and repressed memories. I
don't want anyone else to go through what I have been through when
help exists. If this message can get out, something construction would
be accomplished. I believe so.
  I hope you will print this letter, and if there is anything we can
do together, I'm all for it. I'd like to help in some capacity if you
need it. I'm glad my parents found you to give them a partial answer
while I was gone.  Hopefully we can change this wave of repressed
memories. God is a big part of it for me, so I close by wishing you
all well and praying that you and yours are in God's prayers.
                                             Sincerely, "Retractor"
/                                                                    \
| "If hypnosis worked for retrieving memories, I'd go to a hypnotist |
| before I went to Mexico. That way I could get back all that        |
| Spanish I learned in high school."                                 |
|                                  Eleanor Goldstein, Nov 4, 1995    |
                Advice from Daughter Caught in Middle

  My non-accusing daughter told me that when explicit accusations are
not made, it is because the FMS victim really isn't sure about what
happened. That is, real doubts are there along with the feeling that
something must have happened.  In her view, it was not helpful to ask
for details (as I did) because it just pushed the attempt to recover
memory. She said it was awful being caught in the middle and that she
could not communicate with me for some time because she had to have
the space to think thrings through for herself and not be committed.
                                                            A Dad 
                       Return after Eight Years

  For eight long years we were without our two daughters. They were
lost in a sea of false memories. We had tried many approaches -
including a year of therapy - to bridge the gap without success.
  In 1986 our oldest (A) went to a psychic for a reading. It turns out
that the psychic doubles as a FMCC therapist. Within a year A is
relating to us all sorts of childhood abuses. She managed to
proselytize her sister (B) who in 1988 had a breakdown and wound up in
a care center for a couple of years. In the Fall of 1991, B moved in
with her sister. That December B wrote us that she wanted to
reestablish a relationship with us which delighted us to no end. But
the euphoria didn't last. The next February B wrote that she had a
flashback while seeing the movie "Prince of Tides" of being sexually
attacked by her grandfather some 35 years ago. For many reasons, we
didn't think that this could have happened. Then followed a couple of
years of virtual silence.
  Last November, A wrote that she had been so lonely and depressed,
had attended a church service with friends and joined. She is now
actively involved in the church along with her sister. She signed her
letter with "love." We sent back a short but loving response and got
an immediate reply asking about our activities. Meanwhile, B
responding to her 40th birthday card sent a note signed with "love."
We then sent each a long letter/Christmas greeting covering three
years of our travels and activities. This time it did not end
there. We're calling it the Beginning.
  During the winter and spring of this year several newsy letters
passed back and forth. Then in July we motorhomed down to visit and
had a joyous three day visit with them. We're writing, talking and
exchanging gifts. Just like a family again - like nothing had ever
  I doubt that we will ever broach "the problem" with them; and then
only if they bring it up. Does it matter? It was our positive attitude
that got us through this, therefore, we will look forward and enjoy
the life we have left.
  Enclosed is a Christmas donation for the Foundation. Thank you for
having the courage to make a difference.
                                                      A Mom and Dad
                     Abused and Always Remembered

  When I attended an FMS meeting a few months ago, I was pretty
intimidated by the situation and could not bring myself to speak.
There were a lot of people there and I felt like an intruder or
something. But I do think I have a helpful perspective to bring to the
issue of "recovered memory." I wholeheartedly support your cause after
viewing "The Fifth Estate" and subsequently, "Frontline." I was
disturbed by the first, and enraged by the second. While I have never
been one to join groups, in this case I felt compelled to see what
could be done to stop these incredibly destructive practices. I
believe I might inject some reality into this discussion on your
  As regards real 'villains,' the boy who did that to me was not some
Devil-worshipping, three-eyed monster, but a deeply troubled and
beat-up young man, only seven years older than me. My family was
always disturbed and it showed. I was ridiculed by many neighbors kids
and shunned by parents. If they had known incest had been a part of
the picture, they would have gone wild. I was afraid in my family, of
my family, and for my family.
  When it comes to forgetting or repressing, I suppose it is possible
to repress certain details or specific incidents, but the notion that
a girl (I wish!)  could stash this reality would be some trick,
indeed! The sad fact is that one day (I think I was 7), I was this
child, and the next day, I knew my life was changed forever. I was
another child - I was completely different from my peers.  If this was
as common as Measles, why would kids not have found each other? I
stress this because those who profit from pain, would have their
patients and the public believe it is a simple black or white
matter. Incest is anything but that. It is, like it or not, a central
fact of one's life.
  I know from experience that an antidote (if you will) to this
condition is not to regress and become a child again, which, I believe
is terribly destructive, but to GROW UP!
  If one manages to reach 30 or so, without doing something rash, even
horrific experiences begin to sort themselves out in your head. As far
as being labeled a "survivor," I reject that tag. So you survive. So
  I have had a career with dope. I have had my head read, but nothing
has accomplished what good, old-fashioned aging has -- perspective and
some peace.  In retrospect, I am grateful that in my case, I did not
confront anyone. It would have served no constructive purpose. The boy
died in an accident in 1981, and both my parents died without having
to struggle with such knowledge. My remaining family is the opposite
to the Waltons, but they are MINE and I cherish all of them. I have
long since forgiven the man who hurt me and know that compared with
his life, mine was a breeze.
  I suppose I wrote this letter as a sort of reality-check against
which FMSF families could compare the fantastic stories coming from
their grown children. I did not know what to say to those poor folks
gathered at the FMSF meeting. I did speak to a few but basically I
stayed out of their way. I do want to help, but I have not yet figured
out how.
                                                                " J"
                        FMSF will be Our Cause

  Thanksgiving really meant a lot to us this year. Our "lost" daughter
was here with her husband plus other friends. We do not know if these
friends were aware of the accusations or not. We do think our daughter
called some of our lifelong friends. We know she told our close
relatives. If they did know, these friends were kind enough to keep it
to themselves. We have not noticed any unusual behavior from them
which speaks well of their trust in us.
  Our daughter now comes over often and we go there too. She says she
loves us, hugs us, etc. and in every way seems just as she used to
be. With one exception. She has never once mentioned the terrible
accusation nor has she, as yet, said that she is sorry for all the
pain it inflicted. We do not want to bring it up, for perhaps she is
trying to put it all behind her. But my husband is hoping to hear the
words and hopes to see a complete resolution of the terrible
accusation period.
  Time will tell. When I mentioned her therapist my daughter said, "Oh
I'll have nothing to do with her!" and she told me that she has
thought of suing her.
  Even though things have eased for us, FMS is our cause too. It's
been quite an experience.
                                                       A Happy Mom

/                                                                    \
| "A psychologist gave evidence and said that if the [school] marks  |
| dropped when a victim went to live with her abuser, it is one of   |
| the indicators of sexual abuse. Similarly, if a victim's school    |
| marks improve when she goes to live with her abuser, it is also an |
| indicator of sexual abuse because the victim may be trying to      |
| please her abuser in an effort to get him to stop."                |
|                                    from Canadian court documents   |
                       We Need a Middle Ground

  My daughter and I are speaking, if I call her. This has been going
on for about a year. Recanters and people like my daughter, who can't
quite recant, really do need a middle ground. The parents do too.
                                                              A Mom
                             Happy Ending

  "Our daughter never really remembered any of what she accused her
father and brother of and admitted as much to us. She was married last
April and her father and I walked her down the aisle. Our daughter's
current doctor has been very supportive. I believe it was a
psychiatric social worker who got us into all of this. I feel that
this had gotten completely out of control before this Doctor realized
what had happened. The social worker has long since gone and this
doctor seems to bend over backwards to help her get completely well.
We feel that he knows his responsibility and is trying to make it up
to all of us. My husband and I feel his attitude is a result of our
actions at that first meeting with this current doctor.  We could not
have had the faith and confidence to handle that meeting without the
material from the Foundation and the support of the rest of our
family. Thank you."
                                                A Happy Mom and Dad

                      JANUARY 1996 FMSF MEETINGS

key: (MO)=monthly; (bi-MO)=bi-monthly; 
(*)=see State Meetings list


Saturday, January 13  @ 1pm
speaker:Pam Freyd, Ph.D.
Barbara 602-924-0975

Saturday, January 20  @ 10am-6pm
speaker:Dr. Paul Simpson
Radisson Barcello Hotel-Orlando
Madeline 305-966-4FMS

Sunday, January 28  @ 1pm
Indianapolis, Logansport, Ft. Wayne
Nickie 317-471-0922, 334-9839(fax)
or Pat 219-482-2847

ARIZONA - (bi-MO) (*)
Barbara (602) 924-0975; 854-0404(fax)

Al & Lela (501) 363-4368

      Gideon (415) 389-0254
      Charles (415) 984-6626(day);
    EAST BAY AREA  (bi-MO)
      Judy (510) 254-2605
    SOUTH BAY AREA  Last Sat. (bi-MO)
      Jack & Pat (408) 425-1430
  CENTRAL COAST  Carole (805) 967-8058
    BURBANK -4th Sat. (MO) @ 10am
      Jane & Mark (805) 947-4376
      Chris & Alan (714) 733-2925
      1st Fri. (MO) @ 7pm
    ORANGE COUNTY -3rd Sun. (MO) @6pm
      Jerry & Eileen (714) 494-9704
    COVINA AREA -1st Mon. (MO) @7:30pm
      Floyd & Libby (818)  330-2321

  DENVER-4th Sat. (MO) @1pm
    Ruth (303) 757-3622

  Earl (203) 329-8365
  Paul (203) 458-9173

    Madeline (305) 966-4FMS
  BOCA/DELRAY 2nd&4th Thurs(MO) @1pm
    Esther (407) 364-8290
    Bob & Janet (813) 856-7091

  (South of the Eisenhower) 2nd Sun. (MO) @ 2pm
  Roger (708) 366-3717

  Nickie (317)471-0922(ph);334-9839(fax)
  Pat (219) 482-2847 (*)

  Betty & Gayle (515) 270-6976
  2nd Sat. (MO) @11:30am Lunch

  Leslie (913) 235-0602 or Pat 738-4840
  Jan (816) 931-1340

  LEXINGTON- Dixie (606) 356-9309
  LOUISVILLE- Last Sun. (MO) @ 2pm
    Bob (502) 957-2378

LOUISIANA Francine (318) 457-2022

MAINE -Area Code 207
  BANGOR -Irvine & Arlene 942-8473
  FREEPORT -3rd Sun. (MO)
    Wally 865-4044

  Margie (410) 750-8694

  CHELMSFORD- Ron (508) 250-9756

  JENISON -1st Mon. (MO)
  Catherine (616) 363-1354

  Terry & Collette (507) 642-3630
  Dan & Joan (612) 631-2247

  KANSAS CITY 2nd Sun. (MO)
    Leslie (913) 235-0602 or Pat 738-4840
    Jan (816) 931-1340
  ST. LOUIS AREA-3rd Sun. (MO)
    Karen (314) 432-8789
    Jan (816) 931-1340
  SPRINGFIELD - 4th Sun. (MO) @5:30pm
     Dorothy & Pete (417) 882-1821
     Howard (417) 865-6097

  Dani (702) 243-9450


  Maggie (505) 662-7521

    Barbara (914) 761-3627 (bi-MO)
    Elaine (518) 399-5749
    George & Eileen (716) 586-7942

  AREA CODE  405
  Len 364-4063  Dee 942-0531
  HJ 755-3816  Rosemary 439-2459

  HARRISBURG -Paul & Betty (717) 691-7660
  PITTSBURG -Rick & Renee (412) 563-5616
  WAYNE (INCLUDES S. NJ) Mar. 9 @1-4pm
    Jim & JoAnn (610) 783-0396

  Kate (615) 665-1160
  1st Wed. (MO) @1pm

    Nancy & Jim (512) 478-8395
    Jo or Beverly (713) 464-8970

 Judith (802) 229-5154

  Katie & Leo (414) 476-0285

    Ruth (604) 925-1539
    Last Sat. (MO) @1-4pm
    John (604) 721-3219
    3rd Tues. (MO) @7:30pm

  Muriel (204) 261-0212

  LONDON -2nd Sun (bi-MO)
    Adrian (519) 471-6338
  OTTAWA -Eileen (613) 836-3294
    Pat (416) 444-9078
    Alain (514) 335-0863

AUSTRALIA - Mrs Irene Curtis
  P.O. Box 630, Sunbury, VCT 3419
  phone (03) 9740 6930

ISRAEL FMS-contact FMS Foundation

  Mrs. Anna deJong (31) 20-693-5692

  Mrs. Colleen Waugh (09) 416-7443

  Roger Scotford (44) 1225 868-682

Deadline for Feb. 96 Issue: Jan. 19
  Mark Fax or envelope:"Attn: Meeting Notice" 
  & send 2 months before scheduled meeting.


/                                                                    \
|          Do you have access to e-mail?  Send a message to          |
|                                         |
| if  you wish to receive electronic versions of this newsletter and |
| notices of radio and television  broadcasts  about  FMS.  All  the |
| message need say is "add to the FMS-News". You'll also learn about |
| joining  the  FMS-Research list  (it distributes reseach materials |
| such as news stories, court decisions and research  articles).  It |
| would be useful, but not necessary, if you add your full name (all |
| addresses and names will remain strictly confidential).            |

  The False Memory Syndrome Foundation is a qualified 501(c)3 corpora-
tion  with  its  principal offices in Philadelphia and governed by its 
Board of Directors.  While it encourages participation by its  members
in  its  activities,  it must be understood that the Foundation has no 
affiliates and that no other organization or person is  authorized  to
speak for the Foundation without the prior written approval of the Ex-
ecutive Director. All membership dues and contributions to the Founda-
tion must be forwarded to the Foundation for its disposition.

3401 Market Street suite 130,  Philadelphia, PA 19104,  (215-387-1865)

This address and the phone numbers have changed as of July 15, 2000

Pamela Freyd, Ph.D.,  Executive Director

FMSF Scientific and Professional Advisory Board,      January 1, 1996:
AARON T. BECK, M.D., D.M.S., University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia,
PA;  TERENCE W.  CAMPBELL,  Ph.D., Clinical  and Forensic  Psychology,
Sterling Heights,  MI;  ROSALIND CARTWRIGHT, Ph.D.,  Rush Presbyterian
St. Lukes Medical Center, Chicago, IL; JEAN CHAPMAN, Ph.D., University
of   Wisconsin, Madison,  WI;   LOREN  CHAPMAN,  Ph.D., University  of
Wisconsin,   Madison,  WI; FREDERICK C.   CREWS,  Ph.D., University of
California,  Berkeley,  CA; ROBYN   M. DAWES, Ph.D.,   Carnegie Mellon
University, Pittsburgh, PA;   DAVID  F. DINGES, Ph.D., University   of
Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA; HENRY  C. ELLIS, Ph.D.,  University of
New  Mexico,  Albuquerque, NM;  FRED FRANKEL,  M.B.Ch.B., D.P.M., Beth
Israel Hospital,    Harvard   Medical  School,  Boston,    MA;  GEORGE
K. GANAWAY, M.D., Emory  University  of Medicine, Atlanta, GA;  MARTIN
GARDNER, Author,  Hendersonville, NC; ROCHEL GELMAN, Ph.D., University
of California, Los  Angeles, CA; HENRY  GLEITMAN, Ph.D., University of
Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA;  LILA  GLEITMAN, Ph.D., University  of
Pennsylvania, Philadelphia,  PA;  RICHARD GREEN,   M.D., J.D., Charing
Cross Hospital, London; DAVID A. HALPERIN, M.D., Mount Sinai School of
Medicine, New  York, NY;  ERNEST HILGARD, Ph.D.,  Stanford University,
Palo Alto,  CA; JOHN HOCHMAN, M.D.,  UCLA Medical School, Los Angeles,
CA; DAVID S. HOLMES, Ph.D., University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS; PHILIP
S.  HOLZMAN,   Ph.D.,  Harvard  University,    Cambridge, MA;   ROBERT
A. KARLIN,     Ph.D. , Rutgers  University, New    Brunswick, NJ; JOHN
KIHLSTROM,  Ph.D., Yale University,  New Haven, CT; HAROLD LIEF, M.D.,
University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA; ELIZABETH LOFTUS, Ph.D.,
University of   Washington,  Seattle, WA;  PAUL  McHUGH,  M.D.,  Johns
Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD; HAROLD MERSKEY, D.M., University of
Western  Ontario,    London,  Canada;  ULRIC NEISSER,    Ph.D.,  Emory
University,    Atlanta, GA;   RICHARD   OFSHE, Ph.D.,   University  of
California,  Berkeley,  CA; EMILY  CAROTA  ORNE,  B.A., University  of
Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA;  MARTIN ORNE, M.D.,  Ph.D., University
of   Pennsylvania, Philadelphia,  PA;   LOREN  PANKRATZ, Ph.D., Oregon
Health Sciences  University,  Portland,   OR; CAMPBELL PERRY,   Ph.D.,
Concordia University, Montreal,  Canada; MICHAEL A. PERSINGER,  Ph.D.,
Laurentian University,  Ontario,  Canada; AUGUST T. PIPER,  Jr., M.D.,
Seattle,   WA; HARRISON   POPE, Jr.,  M.D.,   Harvard Medical  School,
Cambridge, MA; JAMES RANDI, Author and Magician, Plantation, FL; HENRY
L. ROEDIGER, III, Ph.D. ,Rice  University, Houston, TX; CAROLYN SAARI,
Ph.D., Loyola    University, Chicago,  IL;    THEODORE SARBIN,  Ph.D.,
University  of California, Santa  Cruz, CA;  THOMAS  A. SEBEOK, Ph.D.,
Indiana University,  Bloomington,  IN; MICHAEL  A.  SIMPSON, M.R.C.S.,
L.R.C.P.,  M.R.C, D.O.M., Center for  Psychosocial & Traumatic Stress,
Pretoria, South  Africa;    MARGARET SINGER,   Ph.D.,   University  of
California,  Berkeley, CA;  RALPH  SLOVENKO, J.D., Ph.D., Wayne  State
University Law School, Detroit, MI;  DONALD SPENCE, Ph.D., Robert Wood
Johnson  Medical   Center,  Piscataway,  NJ;  JEFFREY  VICTOR,  Ph.D.,
Jamestown Community College,  Jamestown, NY; HOLLIDA WAKEFIELD,  M.A.,
Institute of Psychological Therapies, Northfield, MN.

                           MEMBERSHIP  FORM

    Annual Dues for individual and/or family ($100.00)   $________

    Annual Dues for professionals ($125.00)              $________

    I enclose a tax-deductible contribution of           $________

                                               Total     $________

___Credit Card:

___VISA:  Card: #________-________-________-________ exp. date ___/___

___MASTER CARD: #________-________-________-________ exp. date ___/___

___Check or Money Order: Payable to FMS FOUNDATION in U.S. dollars.
  Foreign & Canadian payments may only be made with a Credit Card, a 
  U.S. dollar money order, or a check drawn on a U.S. dollar account.


Street Address or P.O.Box

City                                 State         Zip+4

Home Telephone                      Work Telephone


*  MAIL the completed form with payment to: 
FMS Foundation, 3401 Market ST, Suite 130, Philadelphia, PA 19104-3315

This address and the phone numbers have changed as of July 15, 2000

*  FAX your order to (215) 287-1917. Fax orders cannot be processed 
without credit card information.