FMSF NEWSLETTER ARCHIVE - September 1, 1995 - Vol. 4, No. 8, HTML version

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    The FMSF Newsletter is published 10 times a year by the  False
    Memory  Syndrome  Foundation.  A hard-copy subscription is in-
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    ISSN #1069-0484
        Legal Corner
              Make a Difference
                From Our Readers

Dear Friends,

  The headlines tell the story of FMS this summer. Legal decisions
dominated the issue and thus the questions we are asked. If there was
a summer lull somewhere, it forgot to come to the Philadelphia FMSF

      Philadelphia Daily News,  August 2, 1995

      Vancouver Sun, July 12, 1995

      Fresno Bee, August 10, 1995

      Bangor Daily News, August 10, 1995

      The Legal Intelligencer, July 26, 1995

      The Boston Globe, August 18, 1995

      San Francisco Chronicle, August 14, 1995

  What will be the long-term effect of a $2.5 million award in a
recovered memory malpractice case? Christopher Barden, a lawyer
representing the retractor, commented that the verdict is "a stunning
warning to therapists...and to insurance companies in that they had
better start obeying the informed-consent laws and stop using
experimental treatments like recovered-memory treatments on patients
without their permission."

  The overturning of the Donna Sue Hubbard mid-80s case is another in
a significant pattern of overturning day-care case convictions such as
Kelly Michaels (Wee Day Care) and the Kellys (Little Rascals). The new
decisions rest, in part, upon a clearer understanding of interviewing
techniques and the reliability of memory.
  The responsibility of therapists to third parties is an area in
which the courts are making decisions that may eventually affect many
families who have lost their children, grandchildren and reputations
to FMS.
  The denial of an appeal by Ray and Shirley Souza, on the other hand,
will disappoint many families. The Souzas, convicted of molesting
their grandchildren and under house arrest for more than two years,
plan other appeals.
  FMS Foundation data indicate that in the U.S., 90% of the recovered
repressed memory lawsuits are civil suits of which two-thirds are
dropped, dismissed or concluded in favor of the accused. Foundation
records for 1994 indicate that one in twelve criminal cases resulted
in a conviction.
  After three years of learning about memory and suggestibility, FMSF
families and friends can now see how memory research is being applied
in the legal arena.  

  The American Psychological Association issued a paper called,
"Questions and Answers about Memories of Childhood Abuse," on August
10. The paper uses some of the material prepared by the APA Working
Group on the Investigation of Memories of Childhood Abuse, but that
group did not write this paper. It reiterates the critical point that
"it is impossible, without other corroborative evidence, to
distinguish a true memory from a false one."
  The paper notes that "experienced clinical psychologists state that
the phenomenon of a recovered memory is rare." It states later that
"The reality is that most people who are victim of childhood sexual
abuse remember all or part of what happened to them." That coincides
with our understanding of the research.
  The paper also notes that, "For ethical and humanitarian reasons,
memory researchers do not subject people to a traumatic event in order
to test their memory of it. Because the issue has not been directly
studied, we can not know whether a memory of a traumatic event is
encoded and stored differently from a memory of a nontraumatic event."
We are perplexed by the assertion that "the issue has not been
directly studied." A solid body of research exists that examined
people who had witnessed naturally occurring horrible events such as
seeing parents murdered or who had experienced other disasters. These
people remembered. Another body of research has shown that any
psychiatric condition associated with stress can result in the
secretion of substances in the brain which may damage the hippocampus.
We know that highly emotional situations affect memory. While more
research is surely valuable, real traumatic experiences have been
  This APA report, which is in question-and-answer format, also includes
sections on how memory works, suggestions for research and criteria for
selecting a psychotherapist. The full report is available from the APA.

                     One man wrote the following:

  "I began to doubt that the memories I had retrieved in therapy were
  real after reading Dr. Pittman's article in the April 1995
  Psychology Today and the article in the Readers Digest on page 81 of
  the July 1994 issue entitled, "Donna and the Therapy Police," which
  I read this past April...[I began to question because] stories of
  voodoo arose and that my family was involved in it and there was
  child sacrifice. This started by using nightmares that I could
  remember having before I started to school."

  Along with legal decisions and statements from professional
organizations, the popular press is a powerful influence in

                              FMSF AUDIT

  The external audit of the Foundation has been completed for the
fiscal year 1994-1995, which extends from March 1 to February 28.
Approximately 75% of Foundation expenses were spent for program
services such as helping both families and professionals locate the
resources they need, providing educational material to selected groups
and to students, FMSF Newsletter, Speakers' Bureau, legal resources,
contacting state volunteers, publishing papers, maintaining the video
and article archives and, when needed, providing a sympathetic ear.
The 25% for support services includes such expenses as administrative
and office staff salaries, phone lines and rent. The chart below shows
the percentage of money spent in each category. Below the chart are
the actual dollar amounts. A complete audited statement is available
in the FMSF office in Philadelphia.

  [chart omitted in this e-mail edition]

  Membership              $  14,200.
  Fund Raising            $   8,800.
  General Administration  $ 164,400.
  Conference              $  76,500.
  Research & Education    $ 482,900.
           total budget   $ 746,800.

                   The Boston Globe, April 3, 1995
                             Alison Bass

  Individuals who apply for disability insurance will probably be
turned down if they have been in psychotherapy within the past five
years. This does not hold for those in group plans. At recent hearings
held by the National Association of Insurance Commissioners in Miami
... commissioners heard testimony from people who had been denied life
or health insurance solely because they had sought counseling or been
victims of childhood abuse.
  "If we had a method of separating those who become better as the
result of psychotherapy vs. those who won't be better from it, that
would be great," said a vice president of the Paul Revere Companies,
an insurance underwriter.
  Starting in 1988, claims on the basis of mental and nervous and drug
and alcohol-related conditions increased almost 300 percent.
                    Seattle Times, August 4, 1995

  In what appears to be the first case in which a state monitoring
agency has taken action in a third party complaint, the state has
suspended the license of a therapist for five years and fined her
$5,000 because she acted incompetently in concluding that a
mentally-ill patient had suffered sexual and ritual abuse as a
child. The therapist, Linda MacDonald, who was interviewed on the
Frontline documentary in April, "validated...memories of alleged
childhood ritual and sexual abuse without either seeking to confirm by
any other means or exploring alternative explanations or
interpretations for the memories," the state Health investigators had
written. The complaint was filed by Chuck Noah, whom many know because
he has picketed some therapists' offices in Seattle.
  All but three months of the suspension and $500 of the therapist's
fine have been suspended as long as she follows several conditions.
She must take more courses and she may not work alone. She must be
supervised and the supervisor must file reports to the state assessing
the therapists performance.
                         SOME ATTACK FMSF AT 

  The American Psychological Association held its annual conference in
New York City in August. This is a huge conference with thousands of
psychologists attending. At a conference of this size, participants
could find just about any kind of talk to suit their taste, including
both sides of the false memory issues. Elizabeth Loftus received an
award, and others who hold opposing views about FMS were also
acknowledged. Professional conferences should encourage different
perspectives, discussion and argument.
  We mention this conference because of one particular session -- the
opening keynote address delivered by Gloria Steinem. A keynote address
sets the tone, and it sets the direction for a conference. Ms.
Steinem, an engaging speaker, is firmly aligned with those who hold to
the strong belief in robust repression and multiple personality
disorder. That, however, is not what most people think of when they
think of Gloria Steinem. They think of a dynamic woman known for her
work in the women's movement.
  While a gratuitous attack was not the whole of her presentation,
attacking the Foundation leadership seemed a strategy to advance a
personal position and avoid the data that challenges that position.
Ms. Steinem received an ovation, so it appears that the audience did
not feel as we do that personal attack is a misuse of a professional
              Seattle Post Intelligencer, August 4, 1995

  After a year's investigation into professional and human subjects
standards, Harvard has decided not to censure John Mack, M.D., leading
proponent of space alien abduction therapy. Mack's lawyer said the
investigation was not about medical malpractice.

                            RESEARCH NOTE

  At the American Psychiatric Association meeting in Miami this
spring, two studies were presented that indicated that severe,
repeated sexual abuse in childhood underlies damage to brain structure
involved in memory. This may predispose people to develop symptoms of
dissociation or PTSD.
  Douglas Bremner of Yale School of Medicine observed deficits in the
hippocampal volume of 17 women who had suffered severe sexual abuse
during childhood. Each woman's magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data
were compared to those of nonabused women of the same age and race.
  Murray B. Stein of the University of California, San Diego took MRI
scans of 20 women with histories of prolonged sexual abuse before age
15 and compared them to MRI scans of 18 nonabused women. Abuse victims
displayed markedly smaller hippocampal volume.
  An article about these studies appeared in Science News by Bruce
Bower (Vol 147 p 340) entitled "Child Sex Abuse Leaves Mark on Brain"
Many people have contacted the FMS Foundation to ask what this means.
We, in turn, asked members of our Scientific Advisory Board for help.
Our experts pointed out to us that the title is misleading; it is not
appropriate to conclude from the data available that childhood sexual
abuse "leaves a mark on the brain." In fact, changes in the size of
the hippocampus are commonly seen in other psychiatric disorders, such
as schizophrenia and manic depressive illness. Indeed, any psychiatric
condition associated with stress can result in the secretion of
substances in the brain which may damage the hippocampus.
  Thus, to perform a methodologically correct test of whether
childhood sexual abuse has any effect on the hippocampus, one would
have to compare 1) a group of individuals who were victims of
documented childhood sexual abuse and 2) a matched group of
individuals who displayed the same history of psychopathology and
present degree of psychiatric symptoms as the first group, but who had
not been sexually abused. In addition, the two groups would have to be
matched for such variables as age, alcohol use, and other demographic
variables in addition to psychiatric symptomatology. Only then, with
all confounding variables carefully matched, could one draw a
conclusion about the purported effect of childhood sexual abuse on
brain anatomy. Needless to say, a study using all of the
methodological safeguards outlined above has never, to our knowledge,
been performed - and until such studies are available, it is
irresponsible to conclude that childhood sexual abuse "leaves a mark"
on the brain.  (Bremner's article appears in the American Journal of
Psychiatry, July)

  On April 11, 1995, the Illinois State Medical Society, House of
Delegates voted to approve a policy similar to the AMA policy on
memory enhancement techniques, specifically,"That ISMS considers the
technique of 'memory enhancement' in the area of childhood sexual
abuse to be fraught with problems of misapplication."

/                                                                    \
|                           Before Therapy                           |
|   Dear Mom,                                                        |
| This is just a little note to thank you for all the trouble and    |
| care you put into every event. It was so wonderful to have our     |
| family together at Thanksgiving. I guess I really appreciate it    |
| because I know what it's like when a family is broken. So much of  |
| what you do isn't mentioned and I just want you to know how        |
| special it is and how much I am grateful for it. Thanks for being  |
| you -                                                              |
|                                                    Much Love, "C"  |
|                           After Therapy                            |
|   Dear Mom,                                                        |
| You must have noticed that I have been distancing myself from you  |
| for the past months. This is not because of business or any other  |
| reason besides the fact that I have been struggling with some bad  |
| memories and they interfere with how I am able to relate to you    |
| now, and in fact always have, except I never had the courage to    |
| say anything about them...My childhood memories of you are of an   |
| angry person, one that didn't tike me very much. I always felt     |
| that somehow you were jealous of me and that you disapproved of    |
| the attention that Dad gave me. I felt totally emotionally         |
| disconnected from you...                                     "C"   |


  I wonder if the FMSF would consider expanding on the "before
therapy/after therapy" excerpts that appear at times in the
newsletters. These letters to other parents have had a profound impact
on me as I not only have the same "before and after" notes from my
daughter but it appears that the parents in FMSF seem to have had
especially close relationships with their children prior to therapy.
  I expect that thousands of these "before and after" excerpts would
have even more of an impact on the government, insurance companies,
lawyers and society in general.
                                        Mother from British Columbia

  I am a researcher in New Zealand. Could you please ask families to
send "before and after" therapy letters with permission for me to use
                                               M.D. from New Zealand

  If you have "before and after" letters that you are willing to share
with researchers or with the FMSF Newsletter, send them along with a
note giving permission for their use. Thank you.


FMSF really needs the clippings you send. Especially valuable for
tracking this phenomenon are ads and articles from small local papers,
or notices on church or supermarket bulletin boards. Please include
"the source" or page number when you send them.

                        NEW BOOKS AND ARTICLES

  Three articles appearing in the popular press this summer deserve
special notice. Each one offers valuable insight into professionals
and the practices involved in the FMS issues. Each, in a different
way, helps to fill in the pieces of the puzzle: How could this have
happened? Unfortunately, the articles are too long to reprint in the
Newsletter, so we encourage readers to borrow them from the library or
to order them from FMSF.
                          DEVILISH DIAGNOSIS
                          Bonnie Gangelhoff
                    Houston Press, July 6-12, 1995

  "Devilish Diagnosis" is a profile of psychologist Judith Peterson,
Ph.D. The article is of special interest because Dr. Peterson is being
sued by six former patients. The information in the article was
obtained from the depositions of: Alison Roome, Amy Smith, Lynn Carl,
Lucy Abney, Mary Shanley and Kathryn Schwiderski.
  The article reviewed the professional background of Dr. Peterson who
started her career working with the mentally retarded in Ohio. She
then had a practice in NY state before moving to Houston in the early
1980s. She established a successful private practice in Houston. In
1987 she joined a local dissociative disorders study group in which
participants discussed emotionally draining or difficult cases and
helped each other. There was not much literature on the effects of
trauma and abuse available at that time.
  The author explains that, "During the mid-80s, according to one
member of the study group, therapists across the nation had started
hearing stories of satanic ritual abuse from patients. Similar stories
were being told in Houston. Group members disagreed over whether the
stories were real, with some believing the patients' memories were
grounded in fact, and others contending that they were merely
metaphors the patients had constructed to deal with some terrible
trauma they had suffered."
  Gangelhoff tells us that Peterson "was beginning to acquire a
reputation as an expert on recovering memories of childhood abuse from
her 1988 MPD diagnosis of Kathryn Schwiderski...It was around the time
of her diagnosis of Schwiderski that Peterson -- who had been
certified in clinical hypnosis in 1988 -- began regular phone
consultations with Bennett Braun on MPD. In a deposition for the
Schwiderski family's lawsuit, Peterson says part of her education in
MPD came from Braun's recommended readings." According to the article,
Peterson played an important role in the abuses that took place at
Shadows Glen Hospital, which was closed after investigation by the
state. Colleagues said that Peterson saw herself as a pioneer on a new
frontier of psychology.
                        THE DEVIL & DR. BRAUN
                             Matt Keenan
                  New City, Chicago June 22-28, 1995

  Five complaints from three sets of cases in the state of Texas serve
as the source of information about Bennett Braun. In two of the cases,
former MPD patients are suing Braun for malpractice. In the other
three cases he is listed as a codefendant. There is another suit from
a woman in Illinois and her two sons who were also hospitalized for an
extensive length of time.
  The author notes that "Braun played a key role in defining the
modern approach to MPD. After seeing his first case of the disorder in
1974, he fostered a growing interest in the subject and went on to
become a leading clinician in the field. In a 1992 interview, noted
MPD authority Dr. Richard Kluft said, 'Every MPD patient in the
country owes a personal debt of gratitude to Buddy [Braun].  He's the
first ever to get a unit set up for these people, and all the other
units around the country follow the train he has blazed.' Braun's
efforts have also attracted the attention of some prominent feminists
-- in fact, Gloria Steinem thanks him in the credits to her book
Revolution From Within and she delivered the keynote speech at a
national conference on MPD held here [Chicago] last year."
  A haunting observation from Dr. Philip M. Coons, a prominent
Indianapolis-based authority on the condition of MPD, appeared in this
article, "My guess is that one out of twenty people with MPD will
commit suicide, and many, many more will attempt it at one time or
another." Coons believes that MPD is far less rare than skeptics deem.
                          WAR OF REMEMBRANCE
                Democrat and Chronicle (Rochester, NY)
                      Part 1 of 5, June 11, 1995 
                           Lee Krenis More

  The author uses a workshop given by Charles Whitfield, M.D. as a
focus for the first article in this series. Readers should not be
misled by the fact that she reports negative things about the
Foundation were included in his workshop. For example, she notes that
Whitfield seems to have an enemy list and "Topping this enemies list
is the False Memory Syndrome Foundation." Whitfield, she writes,
describes FMSF as "a hoax being perpetrated on the world." He believes
that nearly all of its members are guilty of sexual abuse, but they
"but put up a big front."
  She quotes him as saying about FMSF that they are "clinical Nazis,
memory Nazis. ..They're not as extreme as the Nazis because they're
not directly torturing and killing people... It's more indirect.
They're much more subtle than the Nazis, and that can make them much
more insidious to deal with."
  Documenting statements such as those of Whitfield above is vitally
important for the historical record. It is also important that the
Foundation understand how some therapists view it in 1995.
Krenis-More's articles are well-balanced.  She penetrates to the heart
of the issues and reports what people on both sides of the controversy
have said.

To order: (Price includes mailing. Members have 10% discount.)

   Devilish Diagnosis (permission requested)  order # 110   [$ 2.50]
   Devil & Dr. Braun  order # 115                           [$ 2.50]
   War of Remembrance  (5 part series)  order # 120         [$ 5.00]

                       "BRIDEY MURPHY" IS DEAD
               San Francisco Examiner, August 18, 1995
              from "Down to a Science" by Keay Davidson

  A woman who"launched one of the oddest fads of the second half of
the 20th century, a fad that anticipated, by four decades, the current
hysteria about alien abductions, died this summer. Her death was noted
in few newspapers.
  In the 1950s, Virginia Tighe "Mae" Morrow, under hypnosis, came to
believe that she was the reincarnation of Bridey Murphy, someone who
had lived in early 19th century Ireland. She described the loves and
adventures of her past live in a book called, "The Search for Bridey
Murphy" which later became a movie.  "Brideymania swept the country."
  A reporter uncovered the truth. As a child, Ms. Morrow had been
close to a neighbor whose maiden name was Bridey Murphy. This neighbor
had apparently told her many stories about her life."Under hypnosis,
Ms. Morrow had unwittingly recalled long-forgotten memories of Bridey
Murphy's tales about her native Ireland."
  Davidson notes that "The Bridey Murphy case was an early and
impressive example of 'false memory' syndrome: a situation in which a
person sincerely recalls something that never happened."

                      LIBRARY DISPLAYS AVAILABLE

  Displays for libraries or bookstores to help get the story out to
the public about repressed memories are available through Upton Books.
These are free to members of the Foundation and may be obtained by
calling 800-232-7477. Ask for Eleanor Goldstein.
  Our apology to those who may have worried about confidentiality when
they received information about the library displays directly from
Upton Books. The mailing was done under our supervision and our
mailing list is not available to anyone.

                            ANOTHER RUMOR

  "Many believe that the FMSF is a front organization of the
cryptocracy. Its purpose is to contain the flood of memories
describing pedophiles in high places as multitudes of females in their
late forties are suddenly remembering their abuse at the hand of the
CIA and other government agencies."  Newsletter of The Freedom of
Thought Foundation, July, 1995.

/                                                                    \
|                                                                    |
|   The FMS Foundation SPEAKERS BUREAU is growing rapidly. Those     |
| listed include psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers,       |
| nurses, attorneys, law enforcement officials and writers.          |
|   The Foundation is currently developing programs suitable for     |
| professional conferences or meetings, professional development/    |
| staff training seminars, mental health programs/panels, and        |
| Continuing Education conferences and workshops, as well as less    |
| formal programs.                                                   |
|   Programs can be arranged in many areas, including but not        |
| limited to memory, False Memory Syndrome, forensic, dissociative   |
| disorders (MPD), hypnosis, therapy issues, interviewing            |
| techniques, cults, satanic ritual abuse, retractors, mediation,    |
| reconciliation, civil & criminal law, professional malpractice,    |
| etc.                                                               |
|   For more information about Continuing Education or to arrange a  |
| program call 215-387-8663 directly, or 800-568-8882 to leave a     |
| message.                                                           |

                             DEEP DENIAL
              "Analysts put psychotherapy on the couch."
             The Sunday Telegraph, (London) July 9, 1995
                             Jerome Burne

  "The patient seems to be in a state of deep denial, refusing to
acknowledge clear evidence both of serious abusive behaviour by his
father and that some of his own behaviour has been inappropriate."
  "This is not a preliminary diagnosis of a human patient. It is
psychoanalysis, and its offspring, psychotherapy, that is under
scrutiny. In the past few years the volume and vehemence of attacks
has gathered pace -- the whole saga of recovered versus false memories
of abuse, a stream of books and articles demonstrating that Freud
fudged his results or was just plain wrong, claims that Jung was
equally economical with the truth... And yet the profession seems

                          COMING THIS FALL.

(1) "Memory for Evil" is the working title of an ABC Feature for
Television that tells of the tragedy that befell the Ingram family in
Washington state. The television script was written by T.S. Cook,
based on the book "Remembering Satan" by Lawrence Wright. Ken Kaufman
is the Executive Producer and Dick Lowry directed. Paul Ingram is
played by John Shea and the part of Richard Ofshe is played by William

(2) Jeopardy in the Courtroom: A Scientific Analysis of Children's
Testimony, Stephen J. Ceci and Maggie Bruck
American Psychological Association, 1995. $29.95  
Item # 431-8350. APA Order Department, P.O. Box 2710 Hyattsville, MD
20784-0710, [phone 800-374-2721 or 202-336-5510] or fax 202-336-5502.
  The primary focus is on children's testimony, interviewing
techniques and suggestibility. Includes section on "The evidence for
delayed recall of childhood sexual abuse" and "The role of suggestion
in delayed recall of child sexual abuse."

(3) The Memory Wars: Freud's Legacy in Dispute will be published in
November. It will contain the New York Review of Books articles by
Frederick Crews and as much of the ensuing correspondence as the
publishers were given permission to reprint. The articles were
entitled, "Revenge of the Repressed, Part I & II (Nov 17, 1994 and Dec
1, 1994).

                     NON-SCIENCE AND REAL SCIENCE
                        August Piper Jr., M.D.

  In a staff meeting four years ago, a fellow psychotherapist proposed
treating a patient by "realigning his life-energy forces."
  On hearing this, the fires of indignation roared up within me. I
thought: how dare this therapist speak of such plans here? Doesn't she
know we are meeting to discuss scientific treatments?
  Perhaps the smoke billowing from the fires of indignation slowed the
thought's movement from brain to tongue -- I don't know. In any case,
for whatever reason, just as I was about to make the above inquiries,
the Voice of Humility posed two questions that turned the fires of
indignation to embers. This voice whispered in my mind's ear: "Yo,
Piper. What distinguishes your brand of 'scientific' psychotherapy
from your colleague's 'unscientific' brand?" And just what, exactly,
does 'scientific' mean, anyway?"
  I thereupon closed my mouth (with as much dignity as the moment
allowed) then began a search for answers to Humility's questions, a
search preoccupying and troubling me ever since. Over the years, the
questions evolved into larger concerns: What are the hallmarks of good
science? How does one distinguish science from matters that are not
science -- say, matters of faith?
  Worries about these questions become acutely painful for me in
several settings. First, in writing books or papers: Is this writing
based on anything sound? Does this paper say anything that needs
saying? Second, in reading books like Peter Huber's Galileo's Revenge:
Junk Science in the Courtroom -- an unsettling but delightful book
that should be on lots of must-read lists. Third, and most troubling,
in testifying at trials where questions of psychiatric malpractice are
raised. The expert witness in such trials requires some map, however
torn, sun-bleached, or water-stained, of the border separating the
land of science from the land of non-science.
  These questions have also troubled no less a body than the United
States Supreme Court, which has attempted to provide such a map. In
drawing this map, the Court relied on four benchmarks that, among
others, are hallmarks of good science. The following discussion is
based largely on two thoughtful papers, cited below.
  * First, is the technique or theory falsifiable? This question
simply asks if a serious attempt, based on scientifically valid
reasoning, has been made, or can be made, to prove that a given idea
is false.
  * Second, what is the technique's known or potential error rate? In
other words, the Court wants the following questions answered: How
prone to errors are the measurements used in examining this technique?
  * Third, how widely has the theory or technique been exposed to
rigorous and critical scrutiny by publication and dissemination in the
scientific community?
  * Finally, is the technique or theory generally accepted by the
relevant body of scientists? Scientific theories or procedures become
accepted because they have been published, scrutinized, and
replicated, and thereby ultimately found trustworthy.
  In summary, the Court's map concerns itself less with what experts
conclude than it does with how those experts reach their conclusions.
  These criteria have come under some attack from critics. However,
the Court has drawn a reasonably good map, one that will help
delineate the border between science and not-science: say astrology,
fortunetelling, or religion. Listing these three examples does not
signify antipathy toward practitioners of, or believers in, astrology
or religion -- after all, I know that much psychotherapy sits
uncomfortably near the border mentioned above. The issue is not that
of an antipathy toward astrology or religion, but rather, of a concern
that many have raised over the years: that wrapping unscientific
beliefs in the cloaks of science, and then allowing courtroom
testimony from those wearing such garb, risks shredding the fabric of
the law:

  Good science is defined not by credentials but by consensus.
  Whatever her resume may say, an expert who reports on views held by
  no one but herself, or on symptoms experienced by no one but one of
  her patients, is not reporting anything that can properly be called
  science. And the judge who welcomes her to court is allowing the
  pursuit of speculation and superstition to replace the pursuit of
  truth (Galileo's Revenge, p. 226).

Concerns about these risks are well-founded: recall the witchcraft
horror that swept the world three centuries ago. However, in the last
decade of the twentieth century, nonscientist judges and juries are
demonstrating that they can distinguish between good science and junk
science. They have learned that some psychiatric treatments are
reasonable, and others are not.
  A trial that ended last month in Minnesota demonstrated, with
notable power, judges' and juries' abilities to distinguish between
good and bad treatment. The psychiatrist in the case was sued for
spending several years convincing the patient that the patient, years
ago, had participated in, and repressed all memory of, the all-too-
familiar litany of ghoulishness: dead babies, cannibalism, assorted
mutilations, hooded figures dancing around campfires, multiple
episodes of forced sex with her parents, etc., etc. No evidence at
trial showed that any of it had really happened.
  Two aspects of this trial are noteworthy. First, the judge concluded
that recovered-memory therapy flunks the test of science; therefore,
he reasoned, those wishing to testify about this kind of therapy fall
into the category of the expert in the Galileo's Revenge quote above.
The other aspect of this verdict deserving mention is that the damages
assessed against the psychiatrist were five times greater than in any
previous repressed-memory case.
  Here are the two references mentioned above. 1) C.T. Hutchinson and
D.S.  Ashby. Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc.: Redefining
the bases for admissibility of expert scientific testimony. 15 Cardoso
Law Review, 1875 (1994). 2) R.N. Jonakait. The meaning of Daubert and
what that means for forensic science. 15 Cardozo Law Review, 2103
                            *     *     *

  I will close by looking both back and ahead. In looking back, the
last column is found to contain an error. A reference was given there
for a paper by Campbell on "tolling" the statute of limitations in
sexual-abuse cases. Though the paper was cited as appearing in the
American Journal of Forensic Psychology, it actually appears in the
American Journal of Forensic Psychiatry (16:25-81, 1995).
  Looking ahead: A response to the lengthy but kind comments by Thomas
Griffin that just came the other day. Finally, once again, to those
readers who write pleasant things: These comments invigorate writers:
thank you, thank you!

  Dr. Piper is in private practice in Seattle, Washington and is
  currently writing a book on Multiple Personality Disorder. He is a
  member of the FMSF Scientific and Professional Advisory Board.

                    (members receive 10% discount)

FMSF order # 773                                            [$ 4.00]
Olfson, M. & Pincus, H.A. (1994). Outpatient psychotherapy in the
United States, I: Volume, costs, and user characteristics; II:
Patterns of utilization.  American Journal of Psychiatry,
151:1281-1288 and 1289-1294 (September, 1994).  Report the data from a
study of 40,000 people in 16,000 households in 1987. Of note, 3% of
the people who received psychotherapy accounted for 14% of the
nation's medical spending and younger and better educated people,
women, and whites were more likely to use long-term therapy.

FMSF  # 776                                                 [$ 4.50]
Poole, D., Psychotherapy & the Recovery of Memories of Childhood
Sexual Abuse: U.S. & Britih.." Journal of Consulting & Clinical
Psychology. 1995, January. This important study documents the scope of
risky therapy practices.

FMSF  # 803                                                  [$20.00]
FMSF Amicus Curiae Brief - Rhode Island Supreme Court Certified
Questions. The brief addresses questions certified to court concerning
accrual of claims under discovery statute and alleged inablity to
recall related to the disability statute. It includes review of
relevant scientific understanding and case law.

FMSF  #837                                                   [$ 4.50]
Lemmerman v. Fealk, Williford v. Bieske Decision of the Michigan
Supreme Court, Lansing Michigan, July 1995. Important decision for
repressed memory cases. See July Newsletter for description.

  The Foundation has expanded and updated its Bibliography, which
includes Collections of articles, Magazine/Newspaper Articles, Journal
articles, and Legal material. Articles are in a variety of areas
including Disociative Disorders (MPD), Eating Disorders, False Memory
Syndrome, Forensic, Hypnosis, Satanic Ritual Abuse, etc. If you would
like to receive a copy of the Bibliography, please send us information
in the form below and (if you live in the US) include a self addressed
stamped envelope. There is no charge for FMSF members; non-members
please include $1.00.

  ____ Member - no charge, SASE enclosed

  ____ Non-member -$1.00 & SASE enclosed

                             LEGAL CORNER
                              FMSF Staff

                Jury Awards Patient Over $2.6 Million
             In Case Alleging False Memory Implantation.

  On July 31, 1995, a Minnesota District Court jury awarded more than
$2.6 million to a woman who had alleged that her psychiatrist had
planted false memories of sexual abuse in her mind (Hamanne v.
Humenansky, Minn. Dist. Ct., Ramsey Co., Judge Bertrand Poritsky,
No. C4-94-203, 8/1/95).
  Vynnette Hamanne filed the civil suit against Dr. Diane Bay
Humenansky, a St.  Paul psychiatrist, early in 1994 under the theories
of medical malpractice, assault and battery, intentional infliction of
emotional distress, negligent infliction of emotional distress, fraud,
and interference with family relations.  Only the medical malpractice
claim went to trial.
  Hamanne alleged that Humenansky had, during the more than five years
of treatment, planted false memories of sexual abuse and satanic
rituals, falsely diagnosed multiple personalities and subjected her to
an increasingly coercive program of mind altering drugs, hypnosis and
threats of abandonment, incarceration, and the loss of her child. The
lawsuit also alleged that Humenansky did not advise Hamanne of the
controversial nature of the treatment or alternatives to it.
Humenansky also allegedly discussed cases among patents and crossed
norms of professional/client boundaries.
      According to Hamanne's complaint Humenansky told her that she
"must have been" repeatedly sexually abused by her father, mother,
uncle, grandfather, grandmother and possibly by other family members.
She also allegedly told Hamanne that she had no memory of the abuse
because she suffered from "repression and denial". Hamanne was also
reportedly told that she would not get better unless she remembered
and relived the abuse and confronted those who had abused her. Hamanne
testified that she had been given the book, Sybil, to read by
Humenansky and was told that "anything in it that startled me or
offended me was likely something that happened to me that was a
repressed memory." Hamanne alleged that the treatment had had terrible
effects on herself and her immediate family when, in response to the
false memories, they broke off relations with several other family
  Humenansky defended her treatment methods and results. She denied
purporting to be an expert or using hypnosis. Instead she testified
she would simply direct patients to close their eyes and visualize a
safe place. She also said she discontinued the truth serum treatment
in 1990 at the request of other doctors.  Defense attorneys had
acknowledged that Humenansky made some errors, but argued that most of
the problems suffered by the Hamannes were not caused by the doctor.
They had asked the jury to award damages of about $250,000.
  Experts testifying for Hamanne regarding the lack of empirical
evidence supporting the theory of repressed memory and the quality of
care given her, included Elizabeth Loftus, Ph.D., Richard Ofshe, 
Ph.D., August Piper, M.D., Dr.  Glenn Lewis, Jr., Dr. Keith A. Horton,
Dr. William M. Grove, Dr. Marian Hall and Jeff Ford, LP. According to
attorneys for Hamanne, once testimony regarding the reliability of
repressed memory theory became cumulative, the court made a ruling
that the theory of repressed memory lacked credibility and did not
allow further expert testimony on it.
  The jury found Humenansky negligent in her treatment of Hamanne and
that her negligence was a direct cause of Hamanne's injuries. It
awarded Hamanne more than $2 million in past damages for loss of
earnings, medical expenses and pain and suffering. Hamanne was also
awarded $461,000 for future loss of earnings, medical expenses and
pain and suffering. Hamanne's husband was awarded $210,000 for loss of
consortium. While the jury found Hamanne's teen-age daughter had also
been injured by the treatment, she was not awarded damages, as she had
not been a patient of Humenansky. Philip G. Villaume, Humenansky's
personal attorney, said that the decision would be appealed.
  Humenansky is a defendant in at least five other civil lawsuits also
alleging that she traumatized patients by making them recall false
memories of childhood sexual abuse. The next is scheduled to go to
trial October 9, 1995.
  Plaintiffs were represented by Edward M. Glennon, R. Christopher
Barden, and Christopher H. Yetka of Linquist & Vennum, Minneapolis.
Defendant, through her malpractice insurance company, was represented
by Debra Davy and David Waxman with the firm of Arnstein and Lehr of
Chicago, Illinois. Defendant's personal attorney is Philip G.
  One of Hamanne's attorneys, R. Christopher Barden is quoted as
saying that the effect of the verdict "is a stunning warning to
therapists...and to insurance companies in that they had better start
obeying the informed-consent laws and stop using experimental
treatments like recovered-memory treatments on patients without their
Federal Judge's Ruling Permits Parents to Sue Daughter's Therapists in
'False Memory' Lawsuit (Tuman v. Genesis Assocs., 1995 U.S. Dist.
LEXIS 10149, Judge R. Padova, (July 20, 1995)

  Kenneth E. Tuman and his wife, Joan E. Tuman, sued Genesis
Associates and its principals, Patricia A. Mansmann, a licensed
psychologist, and Patricia A.  Neuhausel, a licensed social worker and
certified addiction counselor, in Federal District Court in
Pennsylvania. The plaintiffs alleged that these mental health
therapists, while treating their daughter, Diane, for bulimia,
implanted false memories that they (1) were members of a satanic cult;
(2) murdered Diane's twin brother and other children during satanic
rituals; (3) raped and impregnated Diane and then subsequently
murdered her child during a satanic ritual; and (4) convinced their
daughter she was in danger from cult members who intended to harm her
for wanting to leave the cult. Additionally, they complained that
their daughter suffered a catatonic seizure during a "rage therapy"
session and was left unattended for more than 8 hours before
defendants sought appropriate medical care.
  The Tumans alleged further that the defendants used group therapy
sessions to state that Diane was the victim of incest and ritual
satanic abuse and urged her to identify her abusers. With this
encouragement, Diane falsely accused her parents of incest, murder and
satanic cult involvement.
  The suit filed on behalf of the Tumans contained counts for breach
of contract, negligence, interference with filial relations,
intentional infliction of emotional distress, defamation, intentional
misrepresentation and punitive damages. The defendants responded with
a motion to dismiss all counts. This litigation, like many cases that
we review, was before the court as a preliminary matter; there had
been no trial of the issues.
  On July 20, 1995, Judge John R. Padova issued an opinion and order
denying in part and granting in part the defendants' motion. The court
permitted the Tumans to proceed on all counts except the one for
interference with filial relations; that was denied with prejudice
(meaning it can not be amended or litigated further) since such a
cause of action is not allowable under Pennsylvania law.  Although the
court also dismissed the negligence count, it allowed the plaintiffs
to amend. All the remaining causes were permitted as pled.
  Judge Padova's decision contained some interesting and helpful
language that impacts the issues which continue to confront
many. First, in allowing the breach of contract action, he
distinguished it clearly from negligence. He held that because the
Tumans engaged the therapists to perform a specific task, in this
instance the treatment for bulimia, the defendants breached more than
the standard duty of care. Indeed, a complaint seeking to support a
breach of contract action under these circumstances must set out this
precise factual averment.
  In disposing of the negligence count, the court had no alternative
but to grant the defendants' motion since the plaintiffs alleged only
emotional injuries and not, as Pennsylvania and most other
jurisdictions mandate, physical injury which resulted from the
defendants negligent conduct. Nonetheless, he gave them the
opportunity to amend and cure the defect if the facts governing their
situation make it possible.
  The judges' discussion of the negligence count also encompassed the
question of what duty the defendants had to the plaintiffs even though
they were not patients. He predicted that the Pennsylvania Supreme
Court would conclude that a specific undertaking coupled with
reasonably foreseeable harm to an identifiable third party is
sufficient to maintain a claim for professional negligence. He
emphasized in his opinion that his narrow holding requiring both of
these elements does not present a problem of the unbounded tort
liability that the majority of the courts fear.
  The court's decision paves the way for the Tumans to proceed to
trial against the therapists. Its ruling now puts them in the position
of putting on evidence to prove their case and establish damages. We
will continue to monitor the status of the case as it progesses
through the courts and will, of course, report the outcome.
FMS Foundation files amicus curiae brief before the Rhode Island
Supreme Court

    The FMSF Legal Research Project has recently completed an amicus
curiae brief to be submitted to the Rhode Island Supreme Court.
  An Amicus Curiae [FOOTNOTE: In Canada amici are referred to as
"non-party intervenors." The European Convention on Human Rights is
expected to add a new article (No. 36) which will allow "third-party
intervention."], which literally means, "friend of the court", is a
group or person that interposes in a judicial proceeding, with
permission of the court, for the purpose of providing the court
information on matters of law or public interest. The amicus curiae is
not a party to litigation, but participates by making suggestions and
ensuring complete presentation of fact and issues. Unlike the parties,
amici cannot control the direction or management of the case, they
cannot offer evidence regarding specific allegations, examine
witnesses or cross-examine them, and they cannot be heard without
special leave of the court. They do, however, have a direct interest
in the outcome of the suit and a desire to protect unrepresented
persons or the public interest, or to point out error to the court. As
such, briefs prepared by an amicus curiae are submitted before higher
state courts or federal courts.
  The Rhode Island Supreme Court is considering four critical
questions culled from over twenty-one repressed memory cases involving
numerous complainants and defendants which had been filed in Superior
Court. The adult Plaintiffs allege that as children growing up in
Rhode Island, they had been sexually molested by priests. They are
seeking millions of dollars from the church. Since the questions were
referred to the Rhode Island Supreme Court, hundreds of pages of legal
briefs have been filed. Oral arguments are expected this fall.
  The FMSF, after requesting the court's permission to file this brief
as an interested party, addressed two of the four questions before the
court regarding interpretation of two Rhode Island statutes: RI
9-1-14(b) (the so-called discovery rule for childhood sexual abuse)
and RI 9-1-19 (a statute granting exception to the state statute of
limitations for disability).
  In its brief, the FMSF urged the court to consider equitable and
evidentiary elements essential to statutes of limitations in light of
current knowledge regarding repressed memory and the suggestibility of
memory. Problems inherent in repressed memory claims, it was argued,
challenged premises on which courts have historically rested when
applying the discovery rule. The brief provided the court with
empirical findings and legal authority regarding 1) the presumption
that independent verifiable evidence of the alleged wrongdoing exists,
2) the assumption that the injury may reasonably be linked to the
alleged wrongdoing, and 3) the assumption that the repressed memory
testimony itself is reliable. In addition, the FMSF submitted to the
court for consideration, the responses of recent decisions to the
problem of applying discovery where the basis of the claim is of
unknown reliability and uncertain verifiability.

                     Vancouver Sun, July 12, 1995 
                             Larry Still

  A lawyer who had been found guilty of sexually assaulting a now
35-year old woman when she was between 8 and 11 years old, has been
granted a new trial. The woman had recovered her memories under
hypnosis. "There is a hard-edged debate in the scientific world about
recovered memory of early sexual abuse," said the three Appeal Court
judges in a decision handed down on July 10, 1995. "The trial judge
accepted only some the the allegations while rejecting others...The
memories recovered at the early state could be accepted but not those
at the later stages, where memories may have been contaminated by the
suggestions of well-meaning but over-zealous therapists and
counsellors," the appeal judges said. In overturning the trial court
decision the judges noted that, "The plaintiff did not move from sound
to questionable therapies; they were unsound from the beginning of the
retrieval process."
               FEDERAL JURY AWARDS $850,000 IN DAMAGES 
                            by John Ripley
        Bangor Daily News, 7/10/95, 7/11/95, 7/12/95, 7/22/95

  A federal jury awarded Peter Murray and his family $850,000 in
damages for injuries suffered when therapist Judith Osting said the
father had sexually abused his young daughters. The father was awarded
$400,000 for compensatory damages, his wife $50,000 for loss of
consortium and each of the two daughters awarded $200,000.
  Murray's ex-wife, Barbara, took their young daughters to Osting to
treat problem behaviors which began at the time of a bitter
divorce. Ostling said that those behaviors were signs of sexual abuse.
Two years later, independent evaluations concluded that there was no
evidence of abuse. At that time Murray sued Osting in U.S. District
Court for malpractice and slander. Barbara Murray has initiated a
similar, but separate legal claim which is still pending.
                     Fresno Bee, August 10, 1995
                           Robert Rodriguez

  Donna Sue Hubbard was convicted of child molestation in 1985 and
given a 100-year sentence. The 5th District Court of Appeal overturned
the conviction which was one of the famous Kern County cases during
the mid 1980s. "The climate at the time was one of mass hysteria,"
said Glenn Cole, former Kern County grand jury foreman.
  "There is substantial likelihood that the children's resulting
testimony was false and thus unreliable," appellate Justice Thomas
Harris wrote. The court also faulted the trial judge for faulty
instructions to the jury. The decision will result in a new trial if
prosecutors choose to retry the case.
  According to the article the "allegations began 10 years ago when
police investigated the possible molestation of a 6-year-old boy by
one of Hubbard's neighbors. As investigations continued, the
allegations became increasingly detailed and horrific. The neighbor
was accused of "tying him up -- placing him on a wall hanger with
either a rope, harness or chain -- and molesting him."  Investigators
found only a small cup hood with a shank three-eights of an inch long
in the apartment.
  Hubbard became involved after a neighbor said that Hubbard's son was
also at the neighbor's house. She became a suspect after a paid
informant "accused her of receiving money for allowing others to
molest her son."

  The convictions of Raymond and Shirley Souza for sexually molesting
two of their grandchildren were upheld by a Massachusetts Appeals
Court (Commonwealth v. Souza, Middlesex, MA, No. 93-P-1494, August 17,
1995. The Souzas had been sentenced to nine to fifteen years in 1991
and are currently under house arrest.
  In their appeal, the Souzas' primary argument was that the
grandchildrens' accusations were the product of family hysteria, and
parental suggestion. The Souza appeal was based on the fact that the
trial judge had excluded cross-examinations of the grandchildren's
mothers who reportedly had recovered previously unknown repressed
memories of sexual abuse. Defense counsel at trial had also wanted to
question the daughter's therapists about their patients evolving
convictions that they had been sexually abused when they were
children.  The trial court had allowed some questioning of the mothers
about their conversations about sexual touchings with the complaining
grandchildren. It is also claimed that trial court's denial of motions
to separately try the claims of each grandchild produced an unfairly
compounding effect and deprived the Souzas of the right to relevant
cross-examination and the right to confront the witnesses against
them. Several other claims of error were also made.
  On each point the Appeals Court affirmed the judgments of the
conviction, holding that trial judge's rulings on these points were
within discretion as to determining relevancy of the areas where cross
examination was to be allowed.  The Appeals Court wrote that the
number of accusers, the characteristics of the accusations and the
results of medical examinations of the grandchildren was not
misrepresented. The Appeals Court found that despite the
"inconsistencies in the government's evidence, the fanciful character
of some of the children's claims, the evidence of an open and loving
home, parental pressure...the finder of fact [could] rationally
conclude that the offense charged had been proved beyond a reasonable
doubt" and so found no reversible error. Thus the convictions were
allowed to stand even though the trial court had acknowledged that
some of the allegations of the children could not be believed. Other
appeals are pending.
                      The Olympian, July 6, 1995 
                             Brad Shannon

  The 9th Circuit Court of Appeals in San Francisco rejected Paul
Ingram's bid to withdraw his guilty plea on June 26, 1995. This
decision is the fifth time since 1989 that a court has rejected a
similar plea from Mr. Ingram.
  Paul Ingram, a former top civil deputy in the Thurston County
Sheriff's Office, Washington, is now serving a 20-year prison term. He
claims he was coerced by his psychologist and pastor to admitting to
rapes of his children which had satanic and ritualistic overtones.
California sociologist Richard Ofshe reported on what he believed to
be Ingram's willingness to develop his recollections to match
investigators' questions. In their case memorandum, however, the
Appeals Court judges wrote, "mere advice or strong urging by third
parties to plead guilty...does not constitute undue coercion."
                          CRIMES OF THE MIND
                       The Herald, Everett, WA
                            June 25, 1995

  A 23-year-old Post Falls woman charged with fraudulently obtaining
prescription drugs contends that one of her 3,817 personalities is
actually the responsible party. Nicole Chastain said she was diagnosed
with multiple personalities at 16, after being abused by her mother
and father.
                 Dallas Morning News, August 20, 1995
                            Margaret Zack

  In a Minneapolis area trial, four-year-old Elizabeth and 10-year-old
Ann have both testified that they were sexually abused by a
psychiatrist William Routt, M.D.
  The unusual aspect of this case is that Elizabeth and Ann are some
of the personalities of one person, Ms. Slavik, who was a patient of
Dr. Routt for 18 months. Ms. Slavik, now 38 years old, has been
diagnosed with multiple personality disorder with at least 24
personalities, some of whom she hasn't heard from in 10 years.  Ms.
Slavik's lawsuit has been combined with another abuse lawsuit against
Dr. Routt, both or which came after his death in June, 1991.  An
expert testifying for Ms. Slavik said MPD is a way for a child who has
no coping mechanisms to deal with difficult circumstances. A
personality is created to deal with the bad things. Dr. Alan Scheflin,
a hypnosis expert from California, said in an affidavit that a
suggestion that MPD patients have difficulty telling fact from
illusion contradicts his review of scientific literature. "This
viewpoint is, quite frankly, not an opinion of science; it is an
expression of a bias against a class of the mentally ill," he said.

  (Editors's note: We have been asked if anyone has ever litigated
  whether it is necessary to give Miranda warnings to each of the
  personalities. We can't help but wonder. Perhaps a reader has an


                             BOOK REVIEW
             Putting the "Auto" in Biographical Memories
                         Allen Feld, Reviewer
         White Gloves: How We Create Ourselves Through Memory
                  Free Press, 1995, 268 pages, $22.

  John Kotre has written a book that synthesizes psychological and
neurological research, personal case histories and aspects of his own
life into a statement about autobiographical memories. Put quite
simply, the book is intended to explain how we are continually
rewriting our memories. While this thesis is not new, the force of
this extremely well-written book may be in Kotre's acceptance of
diverse beliefs which are vigorously debated in the false memory/
recovered memory therapy controversy. This may be a reason that White
Gloves: How We Create Ourselves Through Memory may appeal to a
disparate range of readers.  However, this book seems stronger in
dealing with the science of memory than with the art of therapy.
  Kotre, a professor of psychology at the University of Michigan,
Dearbon, is able to describe in every-day language some very complex
biological aspects of the brain's function in creating and storing
memories. He uses a developmental model from birth through maturation
to describe the evolution of a person's memory. After discussing
infantile amnesia, he describes the maturation of the brain in its
capacity to create autobiographical memories. Significantly, his
developmental model doesn't stop there. He relates how the brain and
memory develop through adulthood into the aging stages, and he
discusses what he labels as family memories -- the collective stories
(or myths) that often shape an individual's psychological growth.
Kotre's description of memory functioning as the keeper of the
archives and maker of myths is an essential element of this book.
Through describing these dual functions, He reinforces a key thesis:
we are continually changing our autobiographical memories through
redefining the meaning of events and through the normative
reconstruction of memories as they are recalled. His explanations are
bolstered by integrating findings from cognitive and experimental
psychology with the physical sciences, which results in an appealing
scientific foundation for much of his work. Readers who dislike
scientific readings may find that this book uses those kinds of
readings sparingly, and they are described and interpreted by Kotre in
non-technical language.
  Another strength and uniqueness of White Gloves is Dr. Kotre's
extensive use of cases. He first offers some personal insights into
his own evolving autobiographical memory. The title relates to a
discovery he made in his mid-forties about his grandfather, who died
before he was born, and the grandfather's love of music. Readers will
readily recognize the importance of that vignette as the author uses
the gloves and taped interviews with his father to create memories of
the grandfather he never knew.
  However, Kotre does not just rely on his own life to continually
emphasize the point that one has substantial control over both the
memory and its meaning.  During his professional life-long study of
autobiographical memories, he has interviewed many people and he has
also extensively studied the works of others who engage in similar
collections of personal stories. He uses these anecdotal accounts to
further explain how memory may operate, delving into ideas such as:
memories deteriorate over time; the conditions that may effect which
memories are moved from short-term to long-term memory; why it is so
common to believe you had an experience when you were only told about
it; and photographic memory.  In a non-offensive manner, he dismisses
past-life memories and such unusual notions as memories recovered from
the fallopian tube or womb.
  What is disconcerting about White Gloves are Kotre's definitive
statements on some highly controversial subjects. He makes some
important assertions in a matter-of-fact manner and without
documenting them or citing his sources for these conclusions. In fact,
he eschews standard scientific referencing and it is often difficult
to ascertain what he is referencing. Included among these questionable
and unsubstantiated statements: MPD (DID) is caused by sexual abuse;
situations are known in which repressed memories of abuse have been
corroborated by the abuser; repression and phantom memories both
occur; in therapy, one can learn enough about a situation to make a
clinical judgment about the accuracy of incest memories recovered in
therapy. Interestingly, he also writes that clinical conclusions such
as these should not be used in court.
   At times, some significant oversimplifications are also made. In a
brief discussion of narrative and historical truth, Kotre takes a
common therapeutic position that ". . narrative truth is sufficient
for clients to get better." (p.  57). This position is consistent with
his book and his beliefs, but is too complex an issue to be included
in this perfunctory manner. He does something similar with MPD. He
posits the theory that perhaps children lack the brain development to
have MPD, but in adolescence the brain has matured to a degree where
that is feasible. He then offers the possibility that MPD may be a
cultural artifact, perhaps resulting even from reading a book such as
Sybil. His statement: 'It's more likely that traumatized children have
not yet been exposed to MPD Models in the media and have not yet
learned this way of channeling dissociation." (p.153) seems to
approach that important and highly contentious claim in the fashion
similar to that used with narrative and historical truth, and states
that it matters little if it is an artifact.
  Kotre's failure to address the controversy surrounding MPD is
disquieting.  While one hopes that no clinician's practice would be
unduly persuaded by one text, no matter how well-written and
authoritative it may appear, it is difficult to ignore the possibility
that some therapists may use his writings to continue or initiate a
pattern of work which may create iatrogenic outcomes. It would have
been prudent to mention that these clients might display a propensity
for suggestibility or might have what has been identified as a source
deficit.  Source deficit may account for a confabulation of a memory
where one recalls an event, but includes pieces of information from
another memory, such as reading Sybil, and including some of that book
in one's own autobiographical memories.
  While there is a great deal to commend in White Gloves, there is
also much about which a reader should be cautious. Matters of the past
have differing impacts on people. The key message in this book, that
we are continually creating and recreating ourselves through our
memories, should not be ignored.  However, decoupling that message
from the essential importance of the accuracy of certain
autobiographical memories can be a recipe for unnecessary pain.  

  Allen Feld is a licensed social worker and Associate Professor at
  the School of Social Work, Marywood College, Scranton, PA. He is
  also active with the FMSF in continuing education.

                             BOOK REVIEW
                     Reviewer, John Hochman, M.D.
 Rewriting the Soul: Multiple Personality and the Sciences of Memory, 
     by Ian Hacking; Princeton U. Press, 1995; $24.95, 336 pages

  Hacking has written a scholarly tome with the goal of bolstering a
particular philosophical theory of his although readers might have
anticipated something more critical based on his past aticles. Hacking
believes that the participants in the current "debate" about the
nature of memory are (without knowing it) struggling to redefine the
soul in the language of science. This may come as a surprise to the
likes of Elizabeth Loftus and Lenore Terr, but after all, they are not
philosophers and are bound to miss the big picture.

  By the way, what is the soul anyway? Professor Hacking explains:

  Philosophers of my stripe speak of the soul not to suggest something
  chemical, but to invoke character, reflective choice, self-
  understanding, values that include honesty to others and oneself,
  and several types of freedom and responsibility. Love, passion,
  envy, tedium, regret and quiet contentment are the stuff of the

Seem a little fuzzy? It gets more so.

  I do not think of the soul as unitary, as an essence, as one single
  thing, or even as a thing at all. It does not denote an unchanging
  core of personal identity. One person, one soul, may have many
  facets and speak with many tongues.

  Hacking takes his definition and runs with it, producing a
concoction of facts and fuzz. He believes that multiple personality
disorder exits, at least I think he does. He seems to be more
interested in the creation and interplay of ideas as opposed to
whether ideas are grounded in reality (or whether they have
destructive consequences). I find his approach to be that or like that
of the Greek scientists who were so busy thinking about science that
they never bothered to do experiments, or of Karl Marx's writing Das
Kapital by sitting in the library of the British Museum. Hacking makes
only fleeting reference to an interview he had with a person who
believed she had MPD and the subject was confined to talking about her
role as a facilitator of networking among other people who believed
they had MPD.
  The book is a treasure trove of historical anecdotes and
observations about certain 19th century psychiatrists whose ideas
impacted on contemporary MPD concepts, and also the contemporary MPD
movement and its icons. This is the book's only redeeming quality, but
it is a substantial one. And yes, it does have an aesthetically
superior cover, centered around a haunting painting that someone found
in a Munich museum.
  The author fancies himself an unbiased observer, assuming that all
current proponents of all views on MPD and memory will somehow take
some offense from his observations. He does indeed do a lot of
intellectual nose-tweaking, however his bias shines though. Just about
all proponents of the false memory syndrome concept are eventually
targets for his darts, while Judith Herman, Ralph Allison, and some
others are put in a pantheon of courageous pioneers.
  He occasionally seems to emerge from his fuzzball protective coat
and takes a stand. He sees child abuse as being an unmitigated evil.
However such moments of seeming clarity offer little comfort, since he
doesn't share his definition of evil with us.

  John Hochman, M.D. is a psychiatrist in private practice in Los
  Angeles. He is a member of the Scientific Advisory Board of the FMS

/                                                                    \
| Dear Dr. Frank,                                                    |
|   I don't want to do harm. How can I know if a repressed and       |
| recovered memory is valid?                                         |
|                                      -- Conscientious Therapist    |
| Dear Connie,                                                       |
|   You can't.                                                       |
|                                              Frank Pittman, M.D.   |
|                                                                    |
| Psychology Today, Vol. 28, No. 4, July/August, 1995                |

                        An Article of Interest

FMSF order # 773 [$ 4.00] Olfson, M. & Pincus, H.A. (1994). Outpatient
psychotherapy in the United States, I: Volume, costs, and user
characteristics; II: Patterns of utilization.  American Journal of
Psychiatry, 151:1281-1288 and 1289-1294 (September, 1994). A summary
of these important articles appeared in the June 1995 issue of the
Harvard Mental Health Letter. The articles report the data from a
study of 40,000 people in 16,000 households in 1987. Three percent of
the population (80 million visits) had seen a professional for
psychotherapy at least once that year. 32% went to psychologists, 24%
to psychiatrists, and 25% to others.  Psychotherapy accounted for 8%
of all outpatient medical expenditures. The 3% of the people who
received psychotherapy accounted for 14% of the nation's medical
spending. Psychotherapy may reduce other medical expenses, however.
Younger and better educated people, women, and whites were more likely
to use long-term therapy.

                          MAKE A DIFFERENCE

  This is a column that will let you know what people are doing to
counteract the harm done by FMS. Remember that three years ago, FMSF
didn't exist. A group of 50 or so people found each other and today we
are over 17,000. Together we have made a difference. How did this

California - Our local South San Francisco Bay now has 10 families
with children who are in the process of returning and resuming normal
relationships. These are not retractors. One of the returning
daughters asked her mom if she could come to our meeting in April.
When she arrived I told her she was our "extra-special guest."  After
hearing the first parent speak, our extra special guest asked if she
could speak. Both her mom and dad were present. First she stated that
she didn't know what to expect when she arrived at our meeting. She
was surprised to find that not only was she greeted as a welcome guest
but more than that she was an extra special guest. She then described
how she had been diagnosed as having MPD and had agreed to short-term
institutional care in Philadelphia which became four months. She said
that she was highly drugged and that she wanted to leave but was not
allowed to.
  When she returned home to her husband and children, they expected
her to immediately resume normal activities. She was unable to do this
and her husband filed for divorce. The husband has the children and
she is not allowed to see them. Her advice to the parents was to take
their daughters back unconditionally and forget about discussing "The
Big Issue (TBI) for now. "Memories are part of the damage.. and can be
dealt with later," she said.
  Parents asked her a lot of questions which she answered directly.
She was asked what brought her back to her parents: Her answer was
that she had nowhere else to go. She was shocked when she heard "yes"
because her therapist had told her she could never go back home. Two
sisters had stayed in touch with this person.
  Later on in the meeting during another person's talk, our extra
special guest broke into tears. The speaker stopped and our extra
special guest explained that she had come expecting to see parents
full of guilt. All she was hearing were expressions of love, trust in
God, kindness, etc... She asked, "Why can't you film what is happening
here today so others can see what is happening and what you are all
like: We (other survivors) all that since you were members of FMSF
that you would be totally different from this. Why can't others just
see what's happening here?"
  My challenge to readers - how can we show the world what we are
like? How can we make the difference that will help our children?

Florida - LIBRARY DISPLAYS are now available through SIRS Publishers.
Call 1-800-568-8882.  This is an attractive and positive way to inform
people about the many new books that are now available about false
memories and the devastating effects this is having on families.

Illinois - Correction - Last month you wrote about my efforts to have
a Orlando Village sponsored hypnosis class canceled because of the
danger that can come from poorly trained hypnotherapists. The Chicago
Tribune article of July 4 from which you took a quote from me was in
error. The correct quote should be "only eighteen (18) hours of
training is required from the Hypnodyne Foundation in Clearwater, FL
to be licensed as a Certified Clinical Hypnotherapist."  As an update,
the battle continues. Although the course in question will be run,
there seems to be growing support against future programs.

Indiana - I have been writing to psychology departments at colleges,
universities and religious institutions in my area. I send them
general information about the problem of FMS and tell them that I
would be willing to come and speak to a class and tell my story.
Already, I have been invited to speak to two classes this fall. My
daughter is a retractor. She recently went to a local hospital, asked
to meet with the director and told him her her story.  She is waiting
to see if he will invite her to speak to other staff members.  Even
though our family is back together, we want to make a difference for

Missouri - Persistence and letters can have an effect. You never know
what you can accomplish if you don't try. I wrote to my local
television station to complain about a broadcast by John Bradshaw that
was negative about parents. I sent copies of articles about FMS and
compared Bradshaw's negative program with the Frontline program. On
July 10, I received a letter from the station saying "we have come to
the conclusion that we will not rebroadcast this program, or broadcast
any other program by John Bradshaw." You never know what you can
accomplish if you don't try!

Pennsylvania - Several months ago I wrote to tell you about the fact
that my son had been required to memorize Sue Blume's check list of
signs of sexual abuse in his health class. My family has not been
affected by FMS, but I am concerned about science. Your readers might
be interested to know that after I went to the school to express my
dissatisfaction with this approach, the Director of the Health program
called FMSF and asked for information. They have informed me that they
are working on changing the curriculum. I will write again after
school starts and let you know what happened.

Wisconsin - I gave a speech to teachers getting their continuing
education credits. Two people came up to me after and said, yes, it
has happened to their family.  I used the library display material and
all the new books that have been published about FMS as a focus of my
presentation and I told my own story.

  You can make a difference. Please send me any ideas that you have
  had that were or might be successful so that we can tell
  others. Write to Katie Spanuello c/o FMSF.

/                                                                    \
| The only thing necessary for the triumph of evil is for good men   |
| to do nothing.                                                     |
|                                                    Edmund Burke    |

                           FROM OUR READERS 
              It's Time to Stop FSM: A Retractor's Story

Dear FMSF,
  A while ago I got information from you for an essay I was doing on
false memories in relation to my experience. I promised then that I
would send you a copy of my essay when I was done. I got a 100% on it
from a professor who ralely gives above an 85%. Here it is. I have no
problem with my paper being used in the newsletter as I would love to
help others.  Clare (Editors note: Because of space limitations, we
condensed Clare's essay to include only her personal account.)
  I was first told about False Memory Syndrome (FMS) a little over a
year ago by a friend who was concerned about what was happening to
me. I firmly told her that no therapist had ever hypnotized me or
placed any memories in my head, and that the FMS Foundation was just a
group of perpetrators who were trying to stop victims from breaking
the silence. My opinions have changed drastically since then. Since
November I have tried desperately to find answers to my false
memories. Some of what I have learned about my own past, and false
memories in general has surprised and greatly disturbed me.
  For me it started when I returned to therapy after breaking up with
a boyfriend. I had been terrified of him, or of being anywhere alone
with him, but couldn't explain why. I was too far into therapy when I
found myself leaning towards sexual abuse. The feelings were so vivid,
and real. I couldn't deny what I was remembering. My therapist was
excellent, and never pushed anything on me.  Most of the time she
helped me question it all, saying that there ARE other answers, but no
matter how hard we looked, it kept coming back to incest. My memories
of incest were just too believable.
  I have analyzed these months of therapy over and over again since
last fall.  First of all, when I entered therapy I showed all the
signs of being an incest victim, and I knew it. (I had read books
about it.) I have since learned that sexual abuse is not strongly
correlated with the symptoms that are associated with it. Also I, like
many other people, held the theory that memory operated much like a
videotape recorder, and that everything retrieved was accurate.  These
theories are now being challenged, and people are beginning to
realize, as I am, that memories are not always correct. I have also
learned that new information can be confused with old memories. I now
know that what I thought was incest was based on another incident
  I left therapy when I moved to a new town. I thought I was doing
well and felt that I had dealt with most of the issues of abuse. I
decided to seek a therapist in this new town just to make sure I would
not have problems while in school. I denied that anything had ever
happened to me but my psychiatrist suggested hypnosis to find out the
  I think this is where I made my mistake. Almost everything I read
about FMS discusses how hypnosis or relaxation is used with gentle but
direct questions which may lead to false memories. As Roseanne Arnold
said on the Oprah Winfrey show, "When someone asks you, 'Were you
sexually abused as a child?' there are really only two answers: One of
them is 'Yes,' and one of them is 'I don't know.' You can't say 'No.'"
This is how I remember feeling during my hypnosis. I remember being
asked a number of times, "Is there anything else you remember?"  and
later, "What is your name?" These two questions led to beliefs that
would destroy the next year and a half of my life. After being asked
the first question enough times, I began describing a dark room with
people dressed in black robes holding candles. The second question led
to answers of names other than 'Clare'. On my last session I asked
that these issues not be discussed again, and was assured they would
not be brought up under hypnosis. They were, and I was so confused
that I stopped therapy completely. Unfortunately, the seed had been
  Although I tried to forget the incident, I could not. Four months
later, while at a friend's cottage, I drew a picture of a young child
in a circle of people dressed in black robes. The child looked
terrified. A friend saw the drawing and told me she knew someone else
who had been ritually abused. She told me her friend had Multiple
Personality Disorder (MPD) and before I knew what was happening I was
telling her about my alters (the names that I had not forgotten from
  Over the summer of 1993 I spent most of my time with this friend.
She argued in my defense when people told her I was making it all up,
and she told me I was in denial when I tried to tell her it wasn't
true. In mid-July, I left home, leaving only a note telling my parents
I could not see them any more. I gave no explanation, and no
forwarding address. I had fallen into the last stage of my
transformation. I was a full fledged survivor now, and I believed it
  I found a new therapist who dealt with MPD and ritual abuse. In
October I spent two weeks in a Psychiatric Hospital because of
memories to do with Halloween. I dropped to part-time at school and
continued finding more and more horrific memories from my childhood.
Just before exams I attempted suicide for the first time. The letter I
left said that I was tired of being a burden on my roommates and that
I couldn't go on with it anymore.  Looking back, I remember having a
strange feeling that it was all a lie, but I was in too deep to tell
  When I look back on it now, I think it was easier for me to be a
survivor than someone who just went to school or work and lived a
boring life. It was easier to dump all my upsets, confusions and
mistakes on someone else. I got caught up in the memories and beliefs
and didn't know how to get out and in many ways didn't want to get
  In the spring of 1994, I began to become aware of what was happening
to me. It was too late to save the year. I lost almost all my credits
in school. I decided to switch programs. I tried to straighten out my
life and I made contact with my family again. I went to summer school
and got nineties in my courses. I never told anyone my memories had
been false.
  In September it became very difficult to keep the lie going. Through
tears I finally admitted to one friend that I. While in the hospital I
wrote letters to friends telling them the truth and how sorry I was.
Most friends stopped talking to me, either too hurt by what I had
done, or just wanting me to hurt as much as they did. I was forced to
move, find a place on my own and once again drop courses I was
  I am not the only one that has had these problems. The FMS
newsletter published many letters of 'retractors' and 'returners' who
are equally upset by what has happened to them.
  It's been five months since I admitted to friends that my memories
were false.  For the first time I read stories of people who believed
their memories enough to hurt everyone around them, and now they are
trying to recover from their mistakes. How many of us have to go
through this hell before someone finds the answers?
  When I first entered the field of psychology I wanted to study
MPD. I wanted people to understand how real it is. Now I want to study
FMS. I want to help find the balance between believing everyone and
believing no one. People do not deserve to go through what I have gone
through. It's time to stop the False Memory Syndrome.
                             A Thank You

  This past weekend I was enjoying the company of my daughter and my
two beautiful grandchildren, a pleasure that was denied to me for over
a year. I told my daughter that it would be hard for me to bear malice
against her therapist because I was so happy since her retraction.  I
wondered if I would make a convincing courtroom witness in light of my
forgiving attitude.  Then the FMS Foundation Newsletter came in the
mail and I sat down to browse.  By the time I read the first page I
was in a state of agitation and frustration that made me understand
that nothing will ever erase the gut-wrenching pain and anxiety I
experienced when I stood accused of a crime worse (to me) than murder.
I recalled the abuse hurled at me by my daughter's therapist before I
knew what the problem was. I remembered the police coming to my home
to arrest me for violating a restraining order that was never served.
I recall gathering bits of information from friends and family
concerning the welfare of my child and grandchild.  A patient of mine,
who works in our delivery room, told me I had a new grandson, offered
to sneak me into the nursery for a look at him.  I didn't go for fear
of imprisonment.
  My daughter has been back for over a year, my grandchildren are an
everyday part of my life now; still I sit here and write this with
tears in my eyes recalling all the negative emotions and uncertainties
of that experience.
  I thank you for all you are doing and have done and I am grateful to
the Newsletter for not letting me forget.
                                                            A Dad 

/                                                                    \
|   My daughter and I finally had our long walk together on the      |
| beach yesterday.  It took eight years to fulfill our promse to     |
| have that walk and talk. We held hands and shared good memories    |
| and wept and hugged as the sun set witnessed our reunion.          |
|   How will I ever be able to thank my wife, the families and the   |
| Foundation for helping me to build that bridge?                    |
|   You can add my daughter's name to your retractor files. My       |
| daughter wrote the enclosed piece, "In My Father's House."         |
|                                                             A Dad  |
|                        In My Father's House                        |
|                                                                    |
| In my Father's house. Noise of unsaid words haunt walls of pain.   |
|                                                                    |
| In my Father's house, I see my childhood in his sharp blue eyes.   |
| The ocean sounds alive as it slaps time in my face. Wrinkles tell  |
| the truth.                                                         |
|                                                                    |
| In my Father's house there is a space for peace and no-where to    |
| put judgment.  An old violin hangs to remind life of how out of    |
| tune we have become. Here in my Father's house, generations meet   |
| in between truth and fantasy to find a bridge.                     | 
|                                                                    |
| In my Father's house, mute voices in the wind, blow and snap the   |
| weathered front gate.                                              |
|                                                                    |
| It is late. Time taken in between the waves of resentment, grown   |
| out of fear, is replaced with the Ocean. Blue eyes in the salt of  |
| the sea, watch and wait.                                           |
|                                                                    |
| It is late. There is no time for anger now, only for today's       |
| forgiveness. We show and tell life.                                |
|                                                                    |
| In my Father's house, God creates a new family. My father's house  |
| is inside a God of forgiveness.                                    |
|                                                                    |
| I have lost years of my life thinking and lost in my head.  My     |
| whole truth is now shattered. What really happened to me? Was      I
| told my truth on drugs, or did I create my own reality?            |
|                                                                    |
| When I was a little girl, I was a little girl. Chunks of life are  |
| gone. I feel foggy and full of wonder.                             |
|                                                                    |
| What do I do now? What I thought, now is a dream. Is this just     |
| another switch to another person inside me or am I really here?    |
|                                                                    |
| Father, forgive me for stealing so much time. It was not mine to   |
| take. Who am I to judge your creation?                             |
|                                                      A Daughter    |

(In the June newsletter, we printed a letter from a patient in which
she described her great discomfort when she read negative things about
her own therapist. The book Victims of Memory by Mark Pendergrast was
specifically mentioned by her. Following is Pendergrast's reply.)

Dear Confused Patient:

  Your letter in the May 1995 FMSF Newsletter complained that my book,
VICTIMS OF MEMORY, had a terrible effect on you because I questioned
the treatment approach of "Dr. Q," a specialist in multiple
personality disorder. I do not know who Dr. Q may be, but he is
probably Richard Kluft, Eugene Bliss, Frank Putnam, or Ralph Allison,
all of whom I mentioned in the book. I am indeed extremely concerned
about MPD specialists who appear to be creating a disease and then
treating it.  Of course, this is only my opinion, but it is backed up
by considerable research. If you have read Chapter 6 in my book, you
must know that.  I was not attacking Dr. Q personally, nor do I know
how he treated you as an individual patient. I am pleased that you
were impressed with his "kindness, empathy and ethical behavior."  I
hope that he has not helped to convince you that you harbor multiple
internal "alters" and that you were sexually abused all of your
childhood but "dissociated" all of the abuse memories. You refer to
having been molested as a child.  If you have always remembered this
abuse, I am sure that it occurred.  Otherwise, I hope you will
reexamine your beliefs in this matter.
  I am somewhat mystified by your reaction to my book, however, which
appears to have had a profound and inexplicable effect on you. You
wrote: "After reading his name attacked in the book in question, I was
so distressed that I was in the bathroom weeping.  For the next month
I had recurring crying spells and a few related nightmares. It was
worse than the molestation I experienced as a child.  I was not able
to cope with the feelings and confusion triggered by seeing Dr. Q
verbally attacked.  I feel terribly unsafe in therapy with anyone."
  I gather that you hold my scholarly book responsible for your having
terminated therapy with Dr. Q, and for causing you to weep copiously
and have nightmares.  My message to you may sound harsh, but it is
necessary: Stop being a victim. I wrote a well-researched book, which
you are free to read and disregard if you wish. It did not cause you
to quit therapy. You chose to do that on your own.  Yours,
                                                  Mark Pendergrast
                         A Different Reaction

  I really believe that if VICTIMS OF MEMORY had been out there when I
was still seeing my MPD therapist, that it would have made a
difference in my life.  It just addresses so many concerns that I had,
I wouldn't have been able to live with the on-going questions my
therapist refused to address.

  I thought it was crazy that parents would welcome a child back
without talking -- until it happened to me. It's a fragile thing. We
don't want to challenge her now.
                                                            A Dad
                       A ROCK AND A HARD PLACE

  At times it seems that spouses are between a rock and a hard place
...I am not meaning to imply that we who are spouses have it worse
than the parents who have been accused but we are affected for the
rest of our lives. It is well-neigh impossible to remain on good terms
with the in-laws if you want to be in good terms with your spouse. In
my case, my wife is at least in communication with her parents though
it is my impression that the whole issue has been conveniently 'swept
under the rug' rather than having been dealt with in a mutually
satisfying way. The strange thing is that the one who tried to support
her the most from the beginning, is the one whom she pulled away from
the most -- me. That has me baffled and the many letters I have
written to her just do not get answered.  
                                                           A Spouse
                             MOTHER'S DAY

  Mother's Day had to be the most wonderful day of my life as "T"
started to show human emotions of love, caring, sadness and pain. All
we had seen for 20 months before had been rage and terror. Since then,
through the social worker at the new hospital, we have been able to
bring up real, valid problems in our relationship which we were
unaware of but are now able to talk about. At times, my husband and I
feel as though we are responsible for raising the most dysfunctional
family in the state, but then the pendulum swings back to middle
ground and we have to accept being "good enough" parents. We had
always prided ourselves on parenting a super family and that will
never change. However, this experience is a wake up call. We are
thankful for the opportunity to have a second chance at improvement
and change.
  Out of our "coping' attempts, we feel that the factors which made
this reconnection happen were the grace of God (and we are not overly
religious people), your sense of urgency and the lawyer's advice that
we send a sibling to simply do a "welfare check."
                                                            A Mom
                           LETTING ANGER GO

  Nearly a year ago, our daughter visited our city with her husband
and our grandson. Before they arrived, she contacted us, asking if we
could all meet at her brother's home. I asked her if she had come to
the conclusion that she had erred in her belief that her father had
molested her. She was most emphatic that she had not changed her
beliefs one iota. The result of this was that her father refused to
see her. I did go and we met at the Zoo.
  We have since visited with our daughter and her family in their
town, and in their home. Our daughter appeared to have no problem
seeing us, interacting with us and giving us all the time we wished to
spend with our grandson. At the end of our visit, she actually asked
her father if he would give her a hug. This should sound like the
beginning of a resolution to the four years lost.
  Our daughter began this nightmare after viewing Bradshaw tapes. In
fact she gave the entire set to her brother when she told him of her
"dreams." She told us all that we were a very dysfunctional family.
  We think that our daughter has decided to get on with her life. We
learned, however, that she is still seeing her therapist two times a
week. My husband and I also want to get on with our lives. We have let
our feelings of anger and pain dissipate; the alternative is
                                                      A Mom
                            AN OBSERVATION

  As you know, I have a lot of friends out there who do therapy. The
word I am getting is that the Frontline series has finally made a real
impact upon the therapeutic community. Whether this is a concern about
what they are doing and how, or merely a concern with image isn't
                                                A Professional

        "It must be confusing to a client when we accept the
metaphorical value of alter states, and then as therapists we
introduce the complicating factor of accepting as reality that which
the alter states 'remember.' Persons who have developed the complex
formulation of alter states as a way to protect the ego are probably
well prepared to accept the metaphorical value of the memories of
those very same alter states. As therapists, though, would we change
the rules?  They have given us a story, which has profound meaning. We
need to help them figure out the meaning of that story. It must come
as a shock to them when as therapists we suddenly stop working with
the powerful mythology of their creative healing, and convey to them
we are now committed to a divided kind of truth. When we accept the
stories of Satanic ritual abuse as reality, we let them know that part
of their story is real in one sense, and part of it is real in another
                                  Glen Peterson, Ph.D.,Grand Rapids, MI

  I would like to comment on the "Dear Friends" article published in
the July/August, 1995 FMS Foundation Newsletter. This article stated
that the BPS conducted a survey of its 4005 clinical members to
determine their views about the accuracy of recovered memories. With
1083 members responding, the BPS concluded that among qualified
psychologists there is widespread belief in the accuracy of recovered
memories of child sexual abuse. If the results were indeed based upon
1083 returned questionnaires,which is a response rate of 27%, we
should question the generalizability of these findings to all BPS
members, not to mention all qualified psychologists. It is very
possible that the 73% who did not respond to the survey do not believe
that recovered memories of CSA events from total amnesia can be taken
as essentially accurate.
                                Leslie A. Miller, Rollins College

  With the overturn of so many day-care cases in the past few months,
readers might be interested in an update of a few other people who are
still under arrest and whose cases have been in the news. The
Newsletter has only mentioned the Amiraults and the Souzas in recent

George Franklin - Even though his conviction was overturned last
spring, George Franklin remains in prison. His bail was set at $1
million while the prosecution decides if and when it will retry the

Paul Ingram - remains in prison in Delaware. He has been studying data
processing and programming and has also worked in the library. His
case will be the subject of a movie this fall.. A committee has formed
to help Paul Ingram.

Frank Fuster - was convicted of molesting children in the Country Walk
day care case which was prosecuted by Janet Reno. One of the
witnesses, Iliana Flores-Fuster, has retracted her statement saying
that it was made under extreme pressure. Reporter Debbie Nathan has
investigated this case. A committee has formed to help Frank Fuster.

Jenny Wilcox - remains in prison in Ohio even though some of the
children who originally brought accusations against her have

Bruce Perkins - was convicted of molesting his grandchildren and is in
prison in Texas. With home and all other assets gone, his wife is now
living with a friend. A committee has been formed to help Bruce

Debbie Nathan, the reporter, has complied a list of 100 people whose
convictions of child molestation are such that new trials seem
                                         A Concerned Reader

                     SEPTEMBER 1995 FMSF MEETINGS

key:  (MO) = monthly; (bi-MO) = bi-monthly

ILLINOIS - Illinois Fms Society
Saturday, October 7 - 9:00 am-4:30 pm
Speakers: Richard Ofshe, Ph.D., Mark Pendergrast, Eleanor Goldstein,
  and more!!
Eileen (708) 980-7693 or Liz (708) 827-1056

INDIANA - Indianapolis area
Sunday, October 29, 1995, 1pm
Nickie 317- 471-0922(phone),334-9839(fax) 
  or Pat 219-482-2847

Saturday, October 21, 9:30 am-4:00 pm
Sharaton Valley Forge (PA)
Jim & JoAnn 610-783-0396 
  or Lee & Sally 609-967-7812

WISCONSIN - Madison area
Wisconsin FMS Society Meeting
Saturday, September 30 -  9:00 am-5:00 pm
Seminar Speakers: Brooks Brenneis, Ph.D., 
Ethel Dunn, Eleanor Goldstein, Mark Pendergrast, 
William Smoler, atty, and Darold A. Treffert, MD
$30/person; $50/couple-lunch included
 Louise (414) 535-1804 

ARIZONA -  (bi-MO)
  Phoenix Area
    Barbara (602) 924-0975

ARKANSAS - Little Rock
Al & Lela (501) 363-4368
Northern California
 San Francisco & Bay Area  (bi-MO)
    East Bay Area    
    Judy (510) 254-2605
   San Francisco & North Bay 
    Gideon (415) 389-0254
    Charles (415) 984-6626 (day); 435-9618 (eve)
    South Bay Area  
    Jack & Pat (408) 425-1430
    Last Saturday,  (bi-MO)
Central Coast 
    Carole (805) 967-8058
Southern California  
   Burbank (formerly  Valencia)  
    Jane & Mark (805) 947-4376  
    4th Saturday (MO)10:00 am 
  Central Orange  County
    Chris & Alan (714) 733-2925
    1st Friday (MO) - 7:00 pm
   Orange County  (formerly Laguna  Beach)  
    Jerry & Eileen (714) 494-9704
    3rd Sunday (MO) - 6:00 pm
   Covina  Group (formerly Rancho Cucamonga )  
    Floyd & Libby  (818) 330-2321  
      1st Monday, (MO) 7:30 pm

COLORADO - Denver  
  Ruth (303) 757-3622
  4th Saturday, (MO)1:00 pm

CONNECTICUT - New Haven/Area code 203  
  Earl   329-8365 or Paul  458-9173

Dade-Broward Area    
  Madeline (305) 966-4FMS  
Delray Beach PRT
  Esther (407) 364-8290
  2nd & 4th Thursday(MO) 1:00 pm
Tampa Bay  Area    
  Bob & Janet (813) 856-7091
Orlando Area
  Emerson (407) 672-3906

Chicago metro area (South of the Eisenhower)
  Roger (708) 366-3717 
  2nd Sunday [MO] 2:00 pm

INDIANA - Indiana Friends of FMS
  Nickie (317) 471-0922 (phone) 334-9839 (fax)
  or Pat (219) 482-2847

IOWA - Des Moines
  Betty & Gayle (515) 270-6976
  2nd Saturday (MO) 11:30 am Lunch
KANSAS  - Kansas City
  Leslie (913) 235-0602
  Pat (913) 738-4840 or Jan (816) 931-1340

Lexington - Dixie (606) 356-9309
Louisville - Bob (502) 957-2378     
  Last Sunday (MO) 2:00 pm

MAINE - Area code 207 
Bangor  - Irvine & Arlene 942-8473
Freeport  - Wally 865-4044          
  3rd Sunday (MO)
Yarmouth - Betsy 846-4268          
MARYLAND - Ellicot City area  
  Margie (410) 750-8694  
  Ron (508) 250-9756
MICHIGAN - Grand Rapids Area - Jenison
  Catharine (616) 363-1354
  1st Monday (MO) -please note meeting day 

MINNESOTA - Minneapolis Area
  Terry & Collette (507) 642-3630
  Dan & Joan (612) 631-2247

Kansas City
  Pat (913) 738-4840 or Jan (816) 931-1340
  2nd Sunday (MO)
St. Louis area
  Karen (314) 432-8789 or Mae (314) 837-1976
  3rd Sunday (MO)
  Retractors support group also meets
Springfield - Area Codes 417 and 501 
  Dorothy & Pete (417) 882-1821
  Howard (417) 865-6097
  4th Sunday [MO] 5:30 pm
NEW JERSEY (So.) See Wayne, PA

Downstate NY - Westchester, Rockland & others Barbara (914) 761-3627 -
  call for bi-MO mtg info
Upstate / Albany area
  Elaine (518) 399-5749 (bi-MO)
Western/Rochester Area
  George & Eileen (716) 586-79429 (bi-MO) 

OKLAHOMA - Oklahoma City/Area code 405
  Len 364-4063   Dee 942-0531
  HJ  755-3816    Rosemary  439-2459

Harrisburg area  
  Paul & Betty (717) 691-7660
  Rick & Renee (412) 563-5616
Wayne (includes So. Jersey)  
  Jim & JoAnn (610) 783-0396
TENNESSEE - Middle Tennessee
  Kate (615) 665-1160
  1st  Wednesday (MO) 1:00 pm

Central Texas  
  Nancy & Jim  (512) 478-8395
  Jo or Beverly (713) 464-8970

  Katie & Leo (414) 476-0285


Vancouver & Mainland
  Ruth (604) 925-1539
  Last Saturday (MO) 1:00-4:00 pm
Victoria & Vancouver Island
  John (604) 721-3219
  3rd Tuesday (MO) 7:30 pm

  Muriel (204) 261-0212

    Adrian (519) 471-6338
    2nd Sunday:  (bi-MO)
    Eileen (613) 836-3294
  Toronto - North York 
    Pat (416) 444-9078

  Alain (514) 335-0863


 Mrs. Irene Curtis, PO Box 630, Sunbury, Victoria 3419
Telephone (03) 9740 6930

Task Force False Memory Syndrome of "Ouders voor Kinderen"
Mrs. Anna de Jong, +31-20-693 5692

Mrs. Colleen Waugh,  (09) 416-7443

The British False Memory Society
Roger Scotford, +49-1225 868-682


Deadline for OCTOBER 1995  Issue:
Wednesday, September 20th
Mark Fax or envelope "Attn: Meeting Notice" 
  & send 2 months before scheduled meeting.


/                                                                    \
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|                                         |
| if  you wish to receive electronic versions of this newsletter and |
| notices of radio and television  broadcasts  about  FMS.  All  the |
| message need say is "add to the FMS-News". You'll also learn about |
| joining  the  FMS-Research list  (it distributes reseach materials |
| such as news stories, court decisions and research  articles).  It |
| would be useful, but not necessary, if you add your full name (all |
| addresses and names will remain strictly confidential).            |

  The False Memory Syndrome Foundation is a qualified 501(c)3 corpora-
tion  with  its  principal offices in Philadelphia and governed by its 
Board of Directors.  While it encourages participation by its  members
in  its  activities,  it must be understood that the Foundation has no 
affiliates and that no other organization or person is  authorized  to
speak for the Foundation without the prior written approval of the Ex-
ecutive Director. All membership dues and contributions to the Founda-
tion must be forwarded to the Foundation for its disposition.
                               WHAT IF?

  WHAT IF, parents who are facing lawsuits and want legal information
about FMS cases, had to be told, "I'm sorry, there isn't any such
thing available?"
  WHAT IF, your son or daughter began to doubt his or her memories and
called FMSF only to get a recording, "This number is no longer in
  WHAT IF, a journalist asks you where to get information about the
FMS phenomenon, and you had to answer, "Sorry, I don't know?"
  WHAT IF, you want to ask a question that only an expert, familiar
with FMS can answer, and find out that FMSF can no longer provide that
information? Where would you turn?
  WHAT IF the False Memory Syndrome Foundation did not exist? A
frightening thought, isn't it?
  Please support our Foundation. We cannot survive without your
                   Reprinted from the August 1994 PFA (MI) Newsletter


    Professional - Includes  Newsletter        $125______
    Family  - Includes  Newsletter             $100______
                   Additional Contribution: _____________

__Visa: Card # & expiration date:____________________
__Mastercard:: Card # & expiration date:______________
__Check or Money Order: Payable to FMS Foundation in U.S. dollars
Please include: Name, address, state, country, phone, fax

3401 Market Street suite 130,  Philadelphia, PA 19104,  (215-387-1865)

This address and the phone numbers have changed as of July 15, 2000

Pamela Freyd, Ph.D.,  Executive Director

FMSF Scientific and Professional Advisory Board,    September 1, 1995:
AARON T. BECK, M.D., D.M.S., University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia,
PA;  TERENCE W.   CAMPBELL,  Ph.D., Clinical  and Forensic Psychology,
Sterling Heights, MI; ROSALIND CARTWRIGHT, Rush Presbyterian St. Lukes
Medical   Center, Chicago, IL;   JEAN  CHAPMAN,  Ph.D.,  University of
Wisconsin, Madison, WI; LOREN CHAPMAN, Ph.D., University of Wisconsin,
Madison, WI;  FREDERICK C.  CREWS,   Ph.D., University of  California,
Berkeley, CA;  ROBYN  M.  DAWES,  Ph.D.,  Carnegie  Mellon University,
Pittsburgh, PA; DAVID F.   DINGES, Ph.D., University of  Pennsylvania,
The  Institute of Pennsylvania   Hospital, Philadelphia, PA;  HENRY C.
ELLIS, Ph.D., University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM; FRED FRANKEL,
M.B.Ch.B.,  D.P.M.,  Beth Israel  Hospital,  Harvard  Medical  School,
Boston,  MA; GEORGE K.  GANAWAY,   M.D., Emory University of Medicine,
Atlanta, GA;   MARTIN  GARDNER,  Author,  Hendersonville, NC;   ROCHEL
GELMAN,  Ph.D., University   of   California, Los  Angeles,  CA; HENRY
GLEITMAN, Ph.D.,  University of  Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA;  LILA
GLEITMAN, Ph.D., University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA; RICHARD
GREEN, M.D., J.D., Charing Cross Hospital, London; DAVID A.  HALPERIN,
M.D., Mount Sinai School of  Medicine, New  York, NY; ERNEST  HILGARD,
Ph.D., Stanford  University, Palo Alto, CA;  JOHN HOCHMAN,  M.D., UCLA
Medical School,  Los Angeles, CA; DAVID  S.  HOLMES, Ph.D., University
of  Kansas,  Lawrence,   KS;  PHILIP  S.    HOLZMAN, Ph.D.,    Harvard
University, Cambridge, MA; JOHN KIHLSTROM, Ph.D., Yale University, New
Haven,  CT;   HAROLD  LIEF,   M.D.,    University of     Pennsylvania,
Philadelphia, PA; ELIZABETH  LOFTUS, Ph.D.,  University of Washington,
Seattle, WA; PAUL  McHUGH, M.D., Johns Hopkins University,  Baltimore,
MD; HAROLD  MERSKEY,  D.M., University  of  Western  Ontario,  London,
Canada; ULRIC NEISSER, Ph.D.,  Emory University, Atlanta,  GA; RICHARD
OFSHE,  Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley,   CA; EMILY K ORNE,
B.A., University   of  Pennsyllvania, The   Institute  of Pennsylvania
Hospital, Philadelphia, PA;  MARTIN  ORNE, M.D., Ph.D., University  of
Pennsylvania,  The Institute  of  Pennsylvania Hospital, Philadelphia,
PA; LOREN    PANKRATZ,   Ph.D., Oregon  Health   Sciences  University,
Portland, OR;  CAMPBELL PERRY, Ph.D.,  Concordia University, Montreal,
Canada; MICHAEL A.   PERSINGER, Ph.D., Laurentian University, Ontario,
Canada; AUGUST T.  PIPER, Jr., M.D., Seattle,  WA; HARRISON POPE, Jr.,
M.D.,  Harvard Medical School, Cambridge, MA;  JAMES RANDI, Author and
Magician,   Plantation, FL;    HENRY L.  ROEDIGER,   III,  Ph.D. ,Rice
University, Houston,  TX;  CAROLYN SAARI,  Ph.D., Loyola   University,
Chicago, IL; THEODORE  SARBIN, Ph.D., University  of California, Santa
Cruz, CA; THOMAS  A.  SEBEOK, Ph.D., Indiana  Univeristy, Bloomington,
IN; LOUISE SHOEMAKER, Ph.D., University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia,
PA;  MARGARET SINGER,  Ph.D., University of  California, Berkeley, CA;
RALPH SLOVENKO,  J.D.,   Ph.D.,  Wayne State  University   Law School,
Detroit, MI; DONALD SPENCE, Ph.D., Robert Wood Johnson Medical Center,
Piscataway, NJ;  JEFFREY  VICTOR, Ph.D.,  Jamestown Community College,
Jamestown, NY; HOLLIDA  WAKEFIELD,  M.A., Institute  of  Psychological
Therapies,  Northfield,  MN; LOUIS  JOLYON WEST, M.D.,  UCLA School of
Medicine, Los Angeles, CA.