FMSF NEWSLETTER ARCHIVE - January 1, 1995 - Vol. 4, No. 1, HTML version

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                               1994 Videos

Dear Friends,  

  "What an amazing amount of progress has been made since the Valley
Forge conference in 1993." "Don't the families look better, so much
happier!" "The conference gives us all the tools we need to move this
craze toward its inevitable end." These comments overheard at the
Memory and Reality: Reconciliation conference give focus for examining
where we find ourselves with the FMS problem at the beginning of a new

  In April of 1993, evidence that FMS was a crisis was just emerging.
At that time, the first retractors spoke up and provided confirmation
for the problem families had been describing. Since then hundreds of
retractors have come forth and FMS issues have broadened toward
reestablishing family bonds. While in April 1993 most professionals
were still denying that a problem existed, now the issues for many
professionals include the scope of the problem, the establishment of
guidelines, the development of clinical strategies to address the
problem and a fear of lawsuits. In April of 1993, researchers
presented basic scientific information about memory and influence in
which the FMS problem could be grounded. In the past year, source
amnesia has been proposed as a possible factor in false memories and
traumatic memory is better understood.
  In 1993, the evidence that memory of events is reconstructive and
not like a videotape recorder was emphasized. In 1994, the evidence
that the declarative and non-declarative memory systems are distinct
helps to dispel confusion about whether trauma leaves some residual in
the form of body memories or other implicit memory. There is no
evidence that years later a person can see the body memory or other
symptom and figure out what the trauma was. There is no evidence for
any direct mapping from the non-declarative memory systems to the
declarative memory system. Larry Squire, Ph.D., Professor of
Psychiatry and Neurosciences at UCSD noted in his conference abstract,
"In general, what is understood about the biology of memory fits
traditional psychological accounts of memory that emphasize its
proneness to error and reconstruction, and change over time."

   MEMORIES OF ABUSE  (adapted from McHugh)

                  True                False
             |     HIT              FALSE ALARM
   Remember  | (abused and         (no abuse but                   
             |  remembers)          has memory)
             |   FORGOTTEN            NORMAL 
    Forget   |  (Abused but         (no abuse,      
             |   no memory)          no memory)

  The FMS problem requires more than an understanding of the facts of
memory science. It is also a social problem with multiple issues that
have become entangled. Dr. McHugh opened the conference by describing
the boundaries of the issue of false memory syndrome and the scope of
the conference. He introduced a 242 table, a visual representation, a
powerful tool in teasing apart some of the public confusion. Memories
can be true or false and they can be remembered or forgotten. All four
of the cells of this table have people in them. The focus of the
conference was on the cell "False Alarm," the situation in which a
person might remember something that did not happen. This encompasses
all of the current forms of false memories: space alien abduction,
satanic rituals, past lives and some other abuses. Scientific evidence
and psychoanalytic interpretation for false memories were presented to
explain the entries in this cell.
  Linda Williams, Ph.D. presented evidence to explain the entries in
the "Forgotten" cell. When criticisms of this work have been made, it
is not about the existence of people in this category. The criticisms
have focused on the conclusions drawn about memory mechanisms. The
fact that there are people in this cell does not say anything about
the existence or nature of repression. The questions about repression
are separate from the fact that people may not remember being abused.
That is a question of why they don't remember. A claim has been made
by recovered memory therapists that it is common for people to forget
abuse. No evidence has ever been presented to show that it is common
to forget abuse. There is ample evidence, however, that false alarms
pervade memory, especially under vulnerable conditions such as undue
suggestion or undue authoritative pressure.
  There were approximately 870 people at the conference including 25
retractors, 50 speakers and 30 press. Did the families attending
really look different than they had in 1993? Could it be that some
subtle attitude changes have translated into the observation that
people looked better. Families now take the media for granted and are
not afraid to be seen. They are taking better care of themselves. Many
parents have come to understand that they can want their children back
while at the same time be unwilling to tolerate the rude, cruel and
bullying behavior that is characteristic of a person caught in the FMS
craze. Many more families have accepted the fact that they cannot
bring their children back. The accusers have the problem. They are the
ones who must work their way out of it.
  The parents, however, have the ability and the responsibility to
educate others. The people we love were caught in the FMS wave in part
because they were not told the truth. They were not informed of the
limitations and dangers of recovered-memory therapy. Families must do
everything within their power to encourage the professional
communities to act in a responsible manner. The people caught in the
FMS craze deserve a fair chance to return to reality. They did not
have a fair chance when they entered therapy. Dithering is not
acceptable and not necessary. The lack of responsible guidelines from
the American Psychological Association, for example, is a disgrace.
Until professionals are willing to say some simple things about what
it is right to do to people and what it is wrong to do to people in
therapy, the FMS crisis will grow worse. If those who understand this
point don't start to clean house from within, all will be tainted.
When a house is on fire, reasonable people don't ignore it by saying,
"Well, it's not my fault." Yet that is exactly what the majority of
mental health professionals are doing.
  The issue is straightforward -- clinical experience based on
generalizations, beliefs and personal judgment or clinical experience
informed by science.  Witch-doctors have lots of clinical experience.
Lobotomists had lots of clinical experience. Astrologers have lots of
clinical experience. We do not give "medical insurance payments" to
witchdoctors, lobotomists or astrologers. We do make medical insurance
payments to licensed mental health workers. If professionals accept
money from a medical plan they are held accountable to medical
standards, i.e. their practice should be informed by medical science.
Clinical practice in any field is an art refined over time. It is a
blend of experience from the past and judgment informed by science.
  An unusual event at the conference was an unplanned informal debate
in the hallway between Colin Ross, M.D. and Richard Ofshe, Ph.D.
Several others joined for part of this two and one-half hour
discussion. Did this informal exchange and the conference move us
closer to the end of the FMS Craze? Colin Ross has been one of the
leaders of those who have worked with Multiple Personality Disorder
and memory therapy. After the conference we received a note that he
"enjoyed the meeting, was amazed at the cordial reception...and would
like to work actively on building bridges." We have been working to
build bridges. The issues and the problems of FMS need to be
reconciled. There must be many bridges for that to happen. For
families who have been so hurt it won't be easy to overcome the anger.
For professionals who entered their field to help, the realization of
their personal responsibility for what has gone wrong will be painful.
A mistake was made. Let's learn from it and move on.


  In November, we met with representatives of the American Society of
Clinical Hypnosis at their initiative. There were two major concerns.
One pertained to rumors of legislative efforts by the Foundation. We
explained that the Foundation has no legislative initiatives. The
second concern was that our statements about hypnosis seemed so broad
that people might become frightened of all uses of hypnosis. We
replied that we would make efforts to clarify that. The concerns we
have expressed about hypnosis pertain to its use for memory recovery.
There are sound and valuable uses of hypnosis. The meeting was held in
Boston at Beth Israel Hospital. Present were William Wester, II, Ed.D.
President of ASCH, Charles B. Mutter, M.D., Laurie Halasz, Fred
Frankel, M.D., John Kihlstrom, Ph.D., Peter Freyd, Ph.D and the FMSF
executive director.
  In early December we met with Melvin Sabshin, M.D., Medical Director
of the American Psychiatric Association at the APA office in
Washington, DC. This meeting was organized at the initiative of an
FMSF parent. Much of the discussion centered around the goals and
expectations of the FMS Foundation. The meeting concluded with plans
for another meeting to discuss possible research projects or other
initiatives that might might be taken by the APA that would hasten the
end of the FMS problem.


  We received a letter from Jerome Weiner, M.D. President of the
American Psychiatric Association. He informed us of a rumor that the
APA had a sponsorship or endorsement role in the Memory and Reality
conference in Baltimore and asked if we would help to dispel such a
rumor. For the record, the American Psychiatric Association had no
involvement at any time or in any way with the Memory and Reality
Conference as far as we know. We asked Dr. Weiner if he could help us
track down this rumor.
  There have been many rumors about FMSF: it is a front for organized
satanists; it is being funded by the Mafia; it is hiding convicted
perpetrators; it has an executive director who programs people who
come into the office; it is funding lawsuits. The tendency of certain
therapists to accept these rumors as fact is the very tendency that
brought the FMS Foundation into being.
  We have tracked down one rumor: "FMSF is now producing a computer
disk with information on how to sue your adult child's therapist." We
received a copy of a letter written to an officer of the American
Psychological Association by Laura Brown, Ph.D., one of the members of
the APA task force studying recovered memories. Laura Brown refers to
Lenore Walker, Ph.D. (the psychologist identified with the Battered
Woman Syndrome) as a source of information about the computer disk.
Perhaps we can track this rumor even further. Can we dispel this
rumor? There is no such disk nor has such a project, on disk or paper,
ever been considered by the Foundation. FMSF has been tracking the
legal situation of people who contact us and most of that effort has
been devoted to 800 cases brought by children against parents based
solely on the claim of repressed memories. In the past six months we
have started to track lawsuits brought by former patients and parents.
The legal material accessible through the Foundation is available for
anyone to read and check.
  In the same letter, Dr. Brown makes reference to some proposed
legislation that is described in material from the American Coalition
for Abuse Awareness (ACAA), the group with which Marilyn van Derbur is
now affiliated. Dr. Brown states, "Totally apart from my critical
feelings about FMSF, which is a lobbying group that attempts to take
on the mantle of science and which has enabled many practice-bashers
to have a forum for their attacks on therapists, these proposed laws
are chilling to say the least." She wonders if the APA can "find a
common cause with the ACAA in combating this potential risk to all
practicing psychologists." She further claims that state affiliates
"work for laws that would severely restrict the practice of
psychologists and create new possibilities for litigation against us
by third parties, in this case, disgruntled parents of our adult
patients." This rumor is reported as fact also in David Calof's
publication Treating Abuse Today, Nov/Dec 1994.
  The FMSF is a 501 (c) (3) organization and does not lobby. We are
following changes in state laws, changes in statutes of limitation and
other initiatives.  Perhaps Laura Brown is referring to the
organization formed by lawyer/psychologist Christopher Barden from
Minneapolis, MN. This project is not endorsed by FMSF nor is the
Foundation involved with it. There may be families connected with the
Foundation who are also connected with this effort but there are
families who are also involved with Republican or Democratic issues
and families active with Catholic or Jewish or other groups. The FMS
Foundation has no legislative agenda and, in fact, is only now
beginning an evaluation of existing laws such as those involved with
the Protection and Advocacy for Individuals with Mental Illness Act of
1986 to see which might be of help to the people who contact us.
  It is fascinating to track down the origin of a rumor. We hope that
members of the APA task force on recovered memories will use primary
sources rather than rumor for the information about memory upon which
the APA guidelines will be based.

                       PROFESSIONAL GUIDELINES

  The American Psychological Association issued an Interim Report from
the Working Group on the Investigation of Memories of Childhood Abuse.
The report has been described as an "On the one hand this -- on the
other hand that" kind of report. The interim report adds little but
confusion to the serious problem that exists. It took 18 months for
the committee to come to the conclusions that "it is possible that
people can forget abuse, although the mechanisms are unclear" and that
"it is possible to construct convincing pseudomemories, though these
mechanisms are also unclear."
  At the Memory and Reality conference, Terence Campbell, Ph.D.
described the formation of this task force. In determining who would
serve on this task force, the Council of Representatives of the APA
voted 55 to 52 against obtaining input from its own Board of
Scientific Affairs regarding who would be appointed. Why?
  According to an article in the December 1994 APA Monitor "Interim
report issued on memories of abuse," by Laurie Denton, p. 9, the final
report will consist of a review of the trauma literature prepared by
the three practitioners: Judith Alpert, Laura Brown, Christine
Courtois on the committee, with a response by the three scientists:
Steven Ceci, Elizabeth Loftus, Peter Ornstein and a rejoinder by the
practitioners; there will also be a review of the memory literature
prepared by the scientists, with a reply by the practitioners and
rejoinder by the scientists. This planned format is clear
documentation that the American Psychological Association is
hopelessly split between scientists and clinicians. Psychology is a
science. The art of psychotherapy can gain from being grounded on a
firm scientific foundation. Is APA intending to ignore the science of
  Those wishing a copy of the Interim Report should contact the Public
Affairs Office of the American Psychological Association (202)
336-5700, 750 1st Street NE, Washington, DC 20002. Those wishing to
make their feelings known about the importance that the APA base its
report on scientific data are encouraged to write to Ronald E. Fox,
President, at the same address.

  The conclusions of the APA Interim report are:

*  Most people who were sexually abused as children remember all or
part of what happened to them.

*  However, it is possible for memories of abuse that have been
forgotten for a long time to be remembered. The mechanism(s) by which
such delayed recall occur(s) is/are not currently well understood.

*  It is also possible to construct convincing pseudomemories for
events that never occurred. The mechanism(s) by which these
pseudomemories occur(s) is/are not currently well understood.

*  There are gaps in our knowledge about the processes that lead to
accurate or inaccurate recollection of childhood sexual abuse.


  We have chosen to print a letter from John Kihlstrom to the American
Psychological Association which is followed by a list of the most
recent publications of the members of the working committee.

Reprinted with permission.

     November 25, 1994 
    Members of the APA Working Group on the Investigation of Memories
of Childhood Abuse: Judith L. Alpert, Laura S. Brown, Stephen J. Ceci,
Christine A. Courtois, Elizabeth F. Loftus, Peter A. Ornstein
    APA Board of Directors Contacts for the Working Group: Dorothy C.
Cantor, Ronald E. Fox, Robert J. Resnick
    John Kihlstrom
    Interim Report of the Working Group

      As a Fellow of the American Psychological Association, recipient
of the APA Distinguished Scientific Award for an Early Career
Contribution to Psychology (1979), former Associate Editor of the
Journal of Abnormal Psychology (under two different editors), and an
active researcher with both clinical training and deep clinical
interests, I was profoundly disappointed to read the Interim Report of
the APA Working Group on the Investigation of Memories of Childhood

     The Interim Conclusions of the report are entirely too sanguine
about some clinicians' claims that memories of childhood abuse can be
repressed, dissociated, or otherwise forgotten, and then recovered --
spontaneously, through psychotherapy, or by other means.

     After reviewing the literature on this area, I have come to the
conclusion that the various forms of "recovered memory therapy" (RMT)
currently being practiced have little or no scientific foundation
either in empirical research or generally accepted psychological
theory. For example:

1.  Most of the arguments in favor of RMT are based on uncontrolled
observations, anecdotal case reports, and inappropriate theoretical
generalizations. To my knowledge, there exist only three formal
studies of amnesia for incest or other childhood abuse: all three of
these studies are inadequate in scientific terms.

2.  Proponents of RMT often point to animal and human studies showing
that emotional and nonemotional memories are processed by different
brain structures.  None of this research supports the claim that
traumatic memories can be repressed and subsequently recovered, and in
fact the weight of available evidence contradicts this assertion.

3.  Proponents of RMT often rely on the recently emerging literature
on implicit memory to support claims about the relationship between
memory and intrusive images, feelings, and somatic symptoms. However,
the logic of implicit memory does not apply to most cases of recovered
memory, because inferences about implicit memory require independent
corroboration of the events in question -- evidence which is rarely

4.  Proponents of RMT often claim to find corroboration of recovered
memories in the patient's presenting symptoms. Unfortunately, it is
not logically possible to infer a past event on the basis of present
symptoms. Again, independent corroboration is required to make this
connection; and again, this evidence is rarely available.

5.  Proponents of RMT claim (or strongly imply) that recovery of
traumatic memories is necessary for treatment to be successful. There
is no scientific documentation of this claim.

     Put bluntly, there is no good clinical evidence favoring the
practice of RMT. But there does exist more than 100 years of
experimental research on memory, conducted in both laboratory and
field settings, that raises serious questions about this clinical
practice. To dismiss this extensive body of research as irrelevant to
clinical practice, as some proponents of RMT have done in print, is to
express contempt for the scientific foundations on which professional
psychology rests.

      There is no question but that child abuse, including incest and
other forms of sexual abuse, constitutes a major social problem in
America. On the other hand, Consumers of psychological services have a
right to know that the scientific basis for RMT is at best extremely
weak. Clinicians and counselors have an ethical obligation to
acknowledge this fact (and, frankly, to restrict their practices to
techniques of assessment and treatment that have demonstrated validity
and efficacy). And researchers have a right to expect that the
American Psychological Association will support attempts to put
clinical practice on a firm scientific basis.

     By reinforcing these points in your Final Report, the threefold
mission of the American Psychological Association -- to advance
psychology as a science and a profession and as a means of promoting
human welfare -- will be fulfilled.

     I urge you to reconsider your Interim Report, and to issue a
Final Report that is more strongly critical of RMT. To this end, I
have enclosed two forthcoming papers of mine ("Exhumed Memory" and
"The Trauma-Memory Argument") which treat this issue in detail. A
third paper is currently in preparation, and I will forward it to you
as soon as it is finished.

      Thank you for your consideration.

                                         John F. Kihlstrom, Professor
                            Department of Psychology, Yale University
                                                      P.O. Box 208205
                                    New Haven, Connecticut 06520-8205

                        APA TASK FORCE MEMBERS

  For each of the 6 members of the APA task force, we list the most
recent book and the 10 most recent papers. This information came from
PsychInfo and Current Contents

JUDITH L. ALPERT (clinical)

3 books (2 as editor, 1 as author):
 -- Psychoanalysis and women : contemporary reappraisals / edited by
Judith L.  Alpert. Hillsdale, N.J. : Analytic Press, c1986.  
32 papers:
 -- Mothering: The view from psychological research. Signs. 1984 Spr
Vol 9(3) 434-453 (Gerson, Mary-Joan.; Alpert, Judith L.; Richardson,
Mary S. )
 -- Parent problem solving: Analysis of problem solving in parenthood
transition. Academic Psychology Bulletin. 1984 Jun Vol 6(2) 141-155
(Alpert, Judith L.; Goldklang, Stanley C.; Vesci, Lorraine L. )
 -- Change within a profession: Change, future, prevention, and school
psychology. American Psychologist. 1985 Oct Vol 40(10) 1112-1121
 -- Women and school psychology: Professional training, practice, and
affiliation. Professional School Psychology. 1988 Win Vol 3(1) 3-11
(Alpert, Judith L.; Genshaft, Judy.; Maria Derevenco. )
 -- Graduate-level education and training in child sexual
abuse.Professional Psychology: Research & Practice. 1990 Oct Vol 21(5)
366-371. (Alpert, Judith L.; Paulson, Andrew. )
 -- Psychoanalysis and child sexual abuse: A review of the post-
Freudian literature. Psychoanalytic Psychology. 1991 Sum Vol 8(3)
305-327. (Wolf, Elizabeth K.; Alpert, Judith L. )
 -- Retrospective treatment of incest victims: Suggested analytic
attitudes.  Psychoanalytic Review. 1991 Fal Vol 78(3) 425-435 .
 -- The core trauma of incest: An object relations view.Professional
Psychology: Research & Practice. 1993 Aug Vol 24(3) 330-334 . (Grand,
Sue.; Alpert, Judith L. )
 -- Cross-gender behavior and gender conflict in sexually abused
girls. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent
Psychiatry. 1993 Sep Vol 32(5) 940-947 . (Cosentino, Clare E.;
Meyer-Bahlburg, Heino F.; Alpert, Judith L.; Gaines, Richard.)
 -- Analytic reconstruction in the treatment of an incest survivor 
Psychoanalytic Review Vol 81(2) 217-235. 
LAURA S. BROWN (clinical)

4 books (all as editor):
 -- Personality and psychopathology : feminist reappraisals / Laura
S. Brown, Mary Ballou, editors ; foreword by Lenore.A. Walker. New
York : Guilford Press, c1992.
30 Papers:
 -- Lesbian career development, work behavior, and vocational
counseling.Counseling Psychologist. 1991 Apr Vol 19(2) 273-291
(Morgan, Kris S.; Brown, Laura S.)
 -- Diagnosis and dialogue.Canadian Psychology. 1991 Apr Vol 32(2)
 -- Ethical issues in feminist therapy: Selected topics.  Psychology
of Women Quarterly. 1991 Jun Vol 15(2) 323-336
 -- Antiracism as an ethical imperative: An example from feminist
therapy.Ethics & Behavior. 1991 Vol 1(2) 113-127
 -- Plus ca change...or, Who writes the scripts for these guys anyway?
Feminism & Psychology. 1991 Feb Vol 1(1) 89-92
 -- The future of feminist therapy. Special Issue: The future of
psychotherapy.  Psychotherapy. 1992 Spr Vol 29(1) 51-57 (Brown, Laura
S.; Brodsky, Annette M. )
 -- Psychotherapist-patient sexual contact after termination of
treatment.  American Journal of Psychiatry. 1992 Jul Vol 149(7)
979-980 (Brown, Laura S.; Borys, Debra S.; Brodsky, Annette M.;
Gartrell, Nanette K.)
 -- While waiting for the revolution: The case for a lesbian feminist
psychotherapy.Feminism & Psychology. 1992 Jun Vol 2(2) 239-253
 -- Adrienne J. Smith (1934-1992): Obituary.American
Psychologist. 1993 Sep Vol 48(9) 987
 -- Boundaries in feminist therapy: A conceptual formulation. Special
Issue: Bringing ethics alive: Feminist ethics in psychotherapy
practice.Women & Therapy. 1994 Vol 15(1) 29-38

STEPHEN J. CECI (memory researcher)

4 books (3 as editor):
 -- Cognitive and social factors in early deception / edited by
Stephen J. Ceci, Michelle DeSimone Leichtman, Maribeth
Putnick. Hillsdale, N.J. : L. Erlbaum, 1992.  
49 papers:
 -- Suggestibility of the child witness: A historical review and
synthesis.  Psychological Bulletin. 1993 May Vol 113(3) 403-439 (Ceci,
Stephen J.; Bruck, Maggie.)
 -- Contextual trends in intellectual development. Special Issue:
Setting a path for the coming decade: Some goals and
challenges.Developmental Review. 1993 Dec Vol 13(4) 403-435
 -- Commentary on Plomin, R. (1994): Towards a more developmental
behavioral genetics. Social Development. 1994 Mar Vol 3(1) 64-65
(Bronfenbrenner, Urie.; Ceci, Stephen J.)
 -- The possible role of source misattributions in the creation of
false beliefs among preschoolers. International Journal of Clinical
and Experimental Hypnosis . V0042 N4 OCT 1994 pp. 304-320. (Ceci SJ;
Loftus EF; Leichtman MD; Bruck M.)
 -- Nature-nuture reconceptualized in developmental perspective -- A
bioecological model. Psychological Review V0101 N4 OCT 1994
pp. 568-586.  (Bronfenbrenner U; Ceci SJ.)
 -- Memory work -- A royal road to false memories. Applied Cognitive
Psychology V0008 N4 AUG 1994 pp. 351-364. ( Ceci SJ; Loftus EF)
 -- The institutional review board as a mirror of scientific and
ethical standards. American Psychologist V0048 N7 JUL 1993
pp. 821-826. (Rosnow RL; Rotherambrous MJ; Ceci SJ; Blanck PD; Koocher
 -- How reliable are children's statements -- It depends.Family
Relations V0043 N3 JUL 1994 pp. 255-257. (Ceci SJ; Bruck, M,)
 -- Contextual trends in intellectual development,Developmental Review
V0013 N4 DEC 1993 pp. 403-435.
 -- Children's resistance to misleading postevent information-When
does it occur,Current Psychology V0013 N1 SPR 1994 pp. 21-26. (Toglia,
MP; Hembrooke H; Ceci SJ; Ross DF;)


1 book (as author):
 -- Healing the incest wound : adult survivors in therapy /New York :
Norton, c1988.
11 papers: 
 -- Characteristics of a volunteer sample of adult women who
experienced incest in childhood or adolescence. Dissertation Abstracts
International. 1979 Dec Vol 40(6-A) 3194-3195
 -- Studying and counseling women with past incest
experience.Victimology. 1980 Vol 5(2-4) 322-334
 -- Trends in the treatment of men who commit violence against
women. Personnel & Guidance Journal. 1981 Dec Vol 60(4) 245-249
(Watts, Deborah L.; Courtois, Christine A.)
 -- Counseling adult women who experienced incest in childhood or
adolescence.  Personnel & Guidance Journal. 1982 Jan Vol 60(5) 275-279
(Courtois, Christine A.; Watts, Deborah L.)
 -- Group treatment for grown-up abused children.Personnel & Guidance
Journal.  1982 May Vol 60(9) 564-566 (Courtois, Christine A.; Leehan,
 -- La tentative de suicide medicamenteuse ou le message
avorte.Suicide attempt by overdosing: An abortive message. 20th
Meeting of the Group for Suicide Research and Prevention: The body and
suicide (1988, Lille, France). Psychologie Medicale. 1989 Mar Vol
21(4) 481-482 (Grillet, Claude.; Courtois, Christine.; Blettery,
Bernard.; Gisselmann, Andre. )
 -- Personal and professional issues for the counseling psychologist
in private practice: 7-10 years postdoctorate.Counseling Psychologist.
1992 Jan Vol 20(1) 17-23
 -- The memory retrieval process in incest survivor therapy.Journal of
Child Sexual Abuse. 1992 Vol 1(1) 15-31
 -- Pregnancy and childbirth as triggers for abuse memories --
implications for care.Birth-Issues in Prenatal Care Vol 19 N4 Dec 1992
pp. 222-223. (Courtois CA; Riley CC )
 -- Adult survivors of sexual abuse. Primary Care Vol 20 N2 Jun 1993
pp.  433-446.

ELIZABETH F. LOFTUS (memory researcher)

8 books (1 as editor):
 -- The Myth of Repressed Memory / Elizabeth Loftus and Katherine
Ketcham. New York : St. Martin's Press, 1994.  
118 papers:
 -- Near-natal memories, past-life memories, and other memory
myths. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis. 1994 Jan Vol 36(3)
176-179 (Loftus, Elizabeth F.; Garry, Maryanne.; Brown, Scott W.;
Rader, Marcella. )
 -- Memories of childhood sexual abuse: Remembering and repressing.
Psychology of Women Quarterly. 1994 Mar Vol 18(1) 67-84 (Loftus,
Elizabeth F.; Polonsky, Sara.; Fullilove, Mindy Thompson. )
 -- The repressed memory controversy. American Psychologist. 1994 May
Vol 49(5) 443-445
 -- Consequentiality and eyewitness person identification. Applied
Cognitive Psychology. 1994 Apr Vol 8(2) 107-121 (Foster, Rachel Ann.;
Libkuman, Terry M.; Schooler, Jonathan W.; Loftus, Elizabeth F.)
 -- Buried memories - Shattered Lives. ABA Journal Vol 79 Nov 1993 pp.
70-73.(Loftus EF; Rosenwald LA. )
 -- Let sleeping memories lie - Words of caution about tolling the
statute of limitations in cases of memory repression. Journal of
Criminal Law & Criminology Vol 84 n1 Sr 1993 pp 129-174. (Ernsdorff
GM; Loftus EF.)
 -- Memory work-A royal road to false memories. Applied Cognitive
Psychology Vol 8 N4 Aug 1994 pp 351-364. (Ceci SJ; Loftus EF. )
 -- Untested claims damage the constitution - response ABA Journal Vol
80 Sep 1994 p. 43.
 -- Pseudomemories without hypnosis. pp. 363-378.International Journal
of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis Vol 42 N4 Oct 1994 (Gary M;
Loftus EF. )
 -- The possible role of source misattributions in the creation of
false beliefs among preschoolers. International Journal of Clinical
and Experimental Hypnosis Vol 42 N4 Oct 1994 pp. 304-320. (Ceci SJ;
Loftus EF; Leichtman MD; Bruck M. )

PETER A. ORNSTEIN (memory researcher)

1 book (as editor):
 -- Memory development in children / edited by Peter
A. Ornstein. Hillsdale, N.J. : L. Erlbaum Associates ; New York
38 papers:
 -- Children's spontaneous rehearsal: Transitions in strategy
acquisition.  Cognitive Development. 1987 Oct Vol 2(4) 307-326
(Guttentag, Robert E.; Ornstein, Peter A.; Siemens, Loneta.)
 -- Age differences in visual-spatial memory performance: Do children
really out-perform adults when playing Concentration ? Bulletin of the
Psychonomic Society. 1988 Jul Vol 26(4) 331- 332 (Baker-Ward, Lynne.;
Ornstein, Peter A. )
 -- Children's concurrent use of rehearsal and organizational
strategies.  Developmental Psychology. 1989 Jul Vol 25(4) 619-627
(Cox, Brian D.; Ornstein, Peter A.; Naus, Mary J.; Maxfield, David.)
 -- Neurobehavioral Evaluation System (NES) and school
performance. Journal of School Psychology. 1991 Win Vol 29(4) 337-352
(Arcia, Emily; Ornstein, Peter A.; Otto, David A.)
 -- Children's memory for a personally experienced event: Implications
for testimony. Applied Cognitive Psychology. 1992 Jan-Feb Vol 6(1)
49-60 (Ornstein, Peter A.; Gordon, Betty N.; Larus, Deanna M.)
 -- Young children's long-term retention of a pediatric
examination. Child Development. 1993 Oct Vol 64(5) 1519-1533
(Baker-Ward, Lynne.; Gordon, Betty N.; Ornstein, Peter A.; Larus,
Deanna M.)
 -- Visiting the doctor: Children's knowledge and memory.Cognitive
Development.  1993 Jul-Sep Vol 8(3) 361-372 (Clubb, Patricia A.; Nida,
Robert E.; Merritt, Kathy.; Ornstein, Peter A.)
 -- Does the use of dolls facilitate children's memory of visits to
the doctor?  Applied Cognitive Psychology. 1993 Nov Vol 7(6) 459-474
(Gordon, Betty N.; Ornstein, Peter A.; Nida, Robert E.; Follmer,
 -- Age-related differences in speed of processing: Unconfounding age
and experience. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology. 1994 Jun Vol
57(3) 449-459 (Rabinowitz, Mitchell.; Ornstein, Peter A.;
Folds-Bennett, Trisha H.; Schneider, Wolfgang.)
 -- Children's memory for a salient medical procedure - implications
for testimony. Pediatrics Vol 94 N 1 Jul 1994 pp. 17-23. (Merrit KA;
Ornstein PA; Spicker B)


 The Australian Guidelines printed in the November/December FMSF
Newsletter was not the official version approved by the Board of
Directors of The Australian Psychological Society. We apologize for
the mistake. At the same time, we are glad for a reason to reprint
this document. Following is the official version.  The section on
Clinical Issues is substantially revised.

1 OCTOBER 1994

Guidelines Relating to The Reporting of Recovered Memories


The Australian Psychological Society has expertise in scientific,
clinical and ethical aspects of the practice of psychology. These
Guidelines Relating to the Reporting of Recovered Memories draw
essentially on these competencies. The Australian Psychological
Society acknowledges that the broader social context affects the
credence given to the interpretation of recovered memories when
independent corroboration is not available or possible. Central
elements of this social context include gender, age, social class,
ethnic and cultural identity.  Although this wider context is beyond
the scope of these Guidelines, the Australian Psychological Society
recognizes that comment and debate on these issues is important.


These Guidelines should be read in conjunction with the Australian
Psychological Society Code of Professional Conduct, which sets forth
principles of professional conduct designed to safeguard

*       the welfare of consumers of psychological services
*       the integrity of the profession

The General Principles of the Code are:

I       Responsibility

Psychologists remain personally responsible for the professional
decisions they take

* Psychologists are expected to take cognizance of the foreseeable
consequences of their actions and to make every effort to ensure that
their services are used appropriately.

* In working with organizations, whether as employees or consultants,
psychologists shall have ultimate regard for the highest standards of
their profession.

II      Competence

Psychologists shall bring to and maintain appropriate skills and
learning in their areas of professional practice

* Psychologists must not misrepresent their competence,
qualifications, training or experience.

* Psychologists shall refrain from offering or undertaking work or
advice beyond their professional competence.

III     Propriety

The welfare of clients, students, research participants and the
public, and the integrity of the profession, shall take precedence
over a Psychologist's self interest and over the interests of the
psychologist's employer and colleagues.  

* Psychologists must respect the confidentiality of information
obtained from persons in the course of their work as psychologists.
They may reveal such information to others only with the consent of
the person or the person's legal representative, except in those
unusual circumstances in which not to do so would result in clear
danger to the person or to others. Psychologists must inform their
clients of the legal or other contractual limits of confidentiality.

* Psychologists shall refrain from any act which would tend to bring
the profession into public disrepute.


These Guidelines set forth information and recommendations designed to
safeguard clients and psychologists who are dealing with reports of
recovered memories.  These Guidelines acknowledge, however, that those
who are associated with the events of therapy (Psychologist, client,
and others) must take ultimate responsibility for their own actions.

I       Scientific Issues

Memory is a constructive and reconstructive process. What is
remembered about an event is shaped by what was observed of that
event, by conditions prevailing during attempts to remember, and by
events occurring between the observation and the attempted
remembering. Memories can be altered, deleted, and created by events
that occur during and after the time of encoding, and during the
period of storage, and during any attempts at retrieval.

Memory is integral to many approaches to therapy. Repression and
dissociation are processes central to some theories and approaches to
therapy. According to these theories and approaches, memories of
traumatic events may be blocked out unconsciously and this leads to a
person having no memory of the events.  However, memories of these
traumatic events may become accessible at some later time. Although
some clinical observations support the notion of repressed memories,
empirical research on memory generally does not. Moreover, scientific
evidence does not allow global statements to be made about a definite
relationship between trauma and memory.

"Memories" that are reported either spontaneously or following the use
of special procedures in therapy may be accurate, inaccurate,
fabricated, or a mixture of these. The presence or absence of detail
in a memory report does not necessarily mean that it is accurate or
inaccurate. The level of belief in memory or the emotion associated
with the memory does not necessarily relate directly to the accuracy
of the memory. The available scientific and clinical evidence does not
allow accurate, inaccurate, and fabricated memories to be
distinguished in the absence of independent corroboration.

It is established by scientific evidence that sexual and/or physical
abuse against children and adults is typically destructive of mental
health, self esteem, and personal relationships. It is also the case
that people who suffer these experiences may use various psychological
mechanisms to reduce the psychological severity of the painful events
in an attempt to help them cope with the experience and its

Just as psychologists should be familiar with this evidence, so should
they recognize that reports of abuse long after the events are
reported to have occurred are difficult to prove or disprove in the
majority of cases.  Independent corroboration of the statements of
those who make or deny such allegations is typically difficult, if not
impossible. Accordingly, psychologists should exercise special care in
dealing with clients, their family members, and the wider community
when allegations of past abuse are made.

II      Clinical Issues

Psychologists should evaluate critically their assumptions or biases
about attempts to recover memories of trauma-related events. Equally,
psychologists should assist clients to understand any assumptions that
they have about repressed or recovered memories. Assumptions that
adult problems may or may not be associated with repressed memories
from childhood can not be addressed by existing scientific evidence.

Psychologists should be alert to the ways in which they may
unintentionally overlook or minimize reports of experiences of abuse
or other events that may have had a significant impact on a client.
They should also be alert to the ways that they can shape the reported
memories of clients through the expectations they convey, the comments
they make, the questions they ask, and the responses they give.
Psychologists should be alert that clients are susceptible to subtle
suggestions and reinforcements, whether those communications are
intended or unintended. Therefore, psychologists should record intact
memories at the beginning of therapy, and be aware of any possible
effects from outside the therapeutic setting (e.g., self-help groups,
popular books, films, television programs).

Psychologists should be alert not to dismiss memories that may be
based in fact.  Equally they should be alert to the role that they may
play in creating or shaping false memories. At all times,
psychologists should be empathic and supportive of the reports of
clients while also ensuring that clients do not jump to conclusions
about the truth or falsity of their recollections of the past. They
should also ensure that alternative causes of any problems that are
reported are explored. Psychologists should recognize that the context
of therapy is important as is the content.

Psychologists should not avoid asking clients about the possibility of
sexual or other abusive occurrences in their past, if such a question
is relevant to the problem being treated. However, psychologists
should be cautious in interpreting the response that is given.
Psychologists should not assume the accuracy or inaccuracy of any
report of recovered memory.

Psychologists should recognize that the needs and well-being of
clients are their essential focus and they should design their
therapeutic interventions accordingly. Relatedly, psychologists should
recognize that therapeutic interventions may have an indirect impact
on people other than the client they are treating. They should seek to
meet the needs of clients who report memories of abuse, and should do
this quite apart from the truth or falsity of those reports.
Psychologists should be cautious about conveying statements about the
accuracy of memory reports given by clients. In particular,
psychologists should understand clearly the difference between
narrative truth and historical truth, and the relevance of this
difference inside the therapy context and outside that context. Memory
reports as part of a personal narrative can be helpful in therapy
independent of the accuracy of those reports. But, to be accepted as
accurate in another setting (e.g., court of law), those reports will
need to be shown to be accurate.

III     Ethical Issues

Psychologists treating clients who report recovered memories of abuse
are expected to observe the Principles set out in the Code of
Professional Conduct of the Australian Psychological Society, and in
the Code of Professional Conduct of the Psychologists Registrations
Boards in States in which they are registered as psychologists.
Specifically, psychologists should obtain informed consent at the
beginning of therapy in relation to the therapeutic procedures and

Psychologists should explore with any client who reports recovering a
memory of abuse that it may be an accurate memory of an actual event,
may be an altered or distorted memory of an actual event, or may be a
false memory of an event that did not happen. Psychologists should
explore with the client the meaning and implications of the memory for
the client, rather than focus solely on the content of the reported
memory. Psychologists should explore with the client ways of
determining the accuracy of the memory, if appropriate.

Psychologists should be alert particularly to the need to maintain
appropriate skills and learning in this area, and should be aware of
the relevant scientific evidence and clinical standards of practice.
When appropriate they should refer the client to a colleague who is
especially skilled and experienced in dealing with issues in this
area. Psychologists should guard against accepting approaches to abuse
and therapy that are not based in scientific evidence and appropriate
clinical standards.

Psychologists should be alert also to the personal responsibility they
hold for the foreseeable consequence of their actions.

IV      Legal Issues

Psychologists should in no way tolerate, or be seen to tolerate,
childhood or adult sexual abuse, or abuse of any kind. They should
ensure that their psychological services are used appropriately in
this regard, and should be alert to problems of deciding whether
allegations of abuse are true or false.  They should be alert
especially to the different demands and processes of the therapeutic
and legal contexts in dealing with such allegations.

Psychologists should be aware that some approaches and writings
concerning abuse and recovered memories urge people who report
recovered memories to pursue legal action of various types. Given that
the accuracy of memories cannot be determined without corroboration,
psychologists should use caution in responding to questions from
clients about pursuing legal action.

Psychologists should be aware that their knowledge, skills, and
practices may come under close scrutiny by various public and private
agencies if they are treating clients who report recovering memories
of abuse. Psychologists should ensure that comprehensive records are
maintained about their sessions with clients who report recovering
such memories.

V       Research Issues

Psychologists should be aware that research is needed to understand
more about trauma-related memory, techniques to enhance memory, and
techniques to deal effectively with childhood sexual abuse.
Psychologists should support and contribute to research on these, and
related, issues whenever possible.

Note. These guidelines have been adapted from:

McConkey, K.M., & Sheehan, P.W. (in press). Hypnosis, memory, and
behaviour in the forensic setting. New York: Guilford Press.

  Kevin M. McConkey 
  School of Psychology 
  University of New South Wales 
  Sydney ,  NSW 2052 Australia
  phone: -61-2-385-3034, 
  fax:  -61-2-662-6279

                              GREAT NEWS

A generous donor has agreed to match up to $100,000 of contributions
received from our members from December 1, 1994 to February 28, 1995.

If you can, please consider following the example of an elderly
gentleman, who came up to me at the recent Memory and Reality
conference in Baltimore and handed me a check for $1,000 saying, "I'm
80 years old and I'm still working. As long as I can work, I can make
a contribution to the Foundation."

This is the kind of commitment we need if we are to have the funds to
work for a speedy resolution to the problems facing us. Please take
advantage of this generous offer and do what you can to help.

                                                    Charles Caviness
                                                  Fund Raising Chair

                            OFFICE CHANGES

  We are pleased to announce that Frank Kane has accepted the newly
created position of Director of Operations for the Philadelphia
office. Many of you already know Frank because his family is one of
the first to work through the issues of retraction and reconciliation.
What you may not know are the excellent managerial skills that Frank,
who recently retired, brings to the job. In a competitive search,
Frank's background and long experience stood out. Frank also has a
"fire in his belly." He and his family said that the information
provided by the Foundation was critical in helping them work its way
out of the FMS problem. Frank and his family are so dedicated to
helping other families that he will become a commuter from his home in

  There were tears in the eyes of everyone in the office as we said
"Goodbye" to Nick who has co capably managed our computer systems for
the past year. He has become a friend to many families. Nick is
realizing his long-standing plan of relocating to Greece and joining
his family there. We will all miss him.

  We welcome Valerie W. who is assuming the responsibilities for
managing the FMSF communications systems. She brings impressive
computer experience. She also brings experience of working in a field
of sensitive human problems.

  To all our wonderful office volunteers!  No, you have not been
replaced. You have been promoted. When we noticed that our little
postage meter was being held together with tape, we knew it was time
to consider a larger model. The new meter, a wonder of technology,
seals envelopes automatically. In addition, we have finally purchased
a folding machine.

  The little FMSF office is abuzz. We have been able to do as much as
we have because of the dedicated volunteersin the office and around
the country.  THANK YOU ALL!

                             LEGAL CORNER
                              FMSF Staff
      Accused Michigan Father Acquitted in Allegan County Trial
           reported in "Misty Memory" by Pat Shellenberger
               The Grand Rapids Press, December 4, 1994

  In 1988, Tami Reurink entered therapy after a nervous breakdown due
in part to postpartum depression after the birth of her fourth child,
as well as her husband's near-fatal accident. After release from a
hospital stay, she began to see a therapist, Wanda Carter-Smith, who
has an MA in social work. After being urged to read The Courage to
Heal as part of her therapy, Tami experienced "flashbacks" of what she
believed was abuse by her father and grandfather. She came to believe
that her father had repeatedly molested her as a child and she
confronted her mother in 1992, stopped allowing her children to see
their grandparents and reported her memories to the police. The police
came to her father's house and arrested him, handcuffed him and put
him in jail, where he spent the night sleeping on the floor of a
holding cell. Her father, Jim Bruxvoort was the first person in West
Michigan to be arraigned on criminal charges based on repressed
  The jury of six men and six women took less than an hour and a half
to reach the "not guilty" decision. One juror was quoted as saying "I
think if you're going to accuse someone, you have to have more
evidence than the memories. It just seemed like such a weak case to
me. I was a little surprised it made it to court." The Bruxvoorts are
not concerned about their enormous legal expenses.  Their main concern
is Tami. "I know that we love her - an unconditional love.  We'd take
her back any day; take her back any time."
              Psychiatrist and Hospital Found Negligent
           reported in New York Times and Associated Press
                          December 16, 1994

  In a 10 to 2 Allegheny County jury verdict, Dr. Judith Cohen and the
University of Pittsburgh's Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic
were found guilty of negligence. The jury awarded more than $272,000
to Nicole Althaus, who is now 19 and to her parents with whom she has
reconciled. The Althaus family alleged that Nicole had been improperly
diagnosed and treated when Nicole's therapist encouraged her to
continue to believe in nonexistent events and disregarded information
that contradicted the allegations of abuse.  A separate lawsuit filed
in federal court is still pending which accuses prosecutors, social
workers, police detectives and child-advocacy attorneys of mishandling
the investigation.
  This case began when Nicole was 15 and her mother had breast cancer.
Nicole began to confide in a teacher at school who soon became her
"soul sister."  Growing more and more depressed, the teacher and a
social worker at Magee-Women's Hospital allegedly encouraged her to
believe that the reason for her depression was that her father had
abused her sexually.
   In 1991, after Nicole had told authorities she had been abused, the
father was arrested, Nicole was removed from the family. Cohen began
seeing Nicole and diagnosed her as suffering from post-traumatic
stress disorder brought on by sexual abuse. Some of the Nicole's
reports included that her grandmother flew about on a broom, that she
was tortured with medieval thumbscrews, that she bore three children
who were killed and that she was raped in view of diners in a crowded
restaurant. The family contended that Dr. Cohen failed to consider
that Nicole was making up the allegations and that her inaccurate
diagnosis caused Nicole to cling to false beliefs that she had been
abused. While Dr. Cohen said that she never believed the wildest tales
of orgies, murder and torture, she said that it was her job to treat
the girl, not investigate her.
            Jury finds psychiatrist liable in slander suit
                   reported in Dallas Morning News
                  Tracy Everbach, December 15, 1994

  A Dallas County jury awarded $350,000 to LaVerne and Edward Khatain
for slander by psychiatrist Dr. Wayne Jones of Richardson, Texas. From
1986 to 1991, Dr. Jones and a psychologist treated the Khatain's
48-year old daughter. The daughter, who has since retracted her
allegations, first reported the alleged abuse in April 1990 after
Dr. Jones interviewed her while she was under the influence of sodium
Amytal. Soon after Dr. Jones had a meeting with the patient's
daughters ages 17 and 23 and told them of the allegations against
their grandparents. The Khatains contended that because of the
assertions, two of the daughters completely ostracized their
grandparents. The complaint contended that Dr. Jones presented the
allegations to the family as if they were fact and essentially
destroyed the relationship between the grandparents, their daughter
and their grandchildren. The jurors found that Dr. Jones had commited
slander but had not intentionally inflicted emotional distress upon
the Khatains or acted with malice.
  The Khatains have since reconciled. The Khatains pressed for this
lawsuit in the hope that it would prevent this kind of thing from
happening to other families and that the verdict "has the effect of
making psychiatrists and others in the mental health field think very
carefully before making statements that are not true about someone
                     Suit hits satanism memories 
                    reported in Houston Chronicle 
                  Deborah Tedford, December 13, 1994

  A $50 million dollar lawsuit has been filed by a former patient
against Spring Shadows Glen Psychiatric Hospital and 34 other entities
and doctors in Texas and Indiana which accuses them of conspiracy,
negligence and fraud in connection with 3 1/2 years of therapy that
cost her insurance company more than $3 million. Mary Shanley, 44,
said that doctors convinced her that her depression and anxiety about
everyday problems was the manifestation of repressed memories of
childhood sexual abuse by parents and other family members. She said
she came to believe that she was a member of a satanic cult that
practiced human sacrifice.
  During the course of her treatment, the first-grade teacher was told
that she has Multiple Personality Disorder and exhibited as many as
1,000 alternate personalities. Because she was diagnosed as having
been a satanist, she no longer can teach public school. Shanley was
told that she was a fifth-generation Satan worshiper who was being
groomed to be a cult high priestess. As a result of those beliefs,
Shanley's husband divorced her and her young son grew fearful of her
and is no longer in contact.
                     Holly Ramona Suit Dismissed
                 reported in San Francisco Chronicle
                    Katy Butler, December 13, 1994

  Los Angeles Superior Court Judge Burton Bach dismissed a lawsuit
against Gary Ramona that was brought by his daughter, Holly, for
sexual abuse. The Judge said that the issue was resolved in May in the
Napa case in which Gary Ramona successfully sued Holly's therapists
for malpractice. Gloria Allred, who is Holly's lawyer, intends to
appeal this decision. Allred contends that Holly was not a party in
the Napa malpractice case. It is argued that the malpractice case did
not decide the issue of whether the abuse had occurred or not. In the
Napa case, Gary Ramona argued that his daughter was falsely told that
she could not lie under the effects of sodium Amytal and that if she
recalled abuse under its effects it was proof the abuse was true. Gary
Ramona was awarded $475,000 in that case.

              Center accused of planting false memories
                  reported in The Arizona Daily Star
                   Joe Salkowski, December 6, 1994

  The families of five patients at Samaritan Counseling Center in
Scottsdale, Arizona have filed complaints with the Arizona Board of
Behavioral Health Examiners. The panel ruled in August that Samaritan
Director Al Ells may have allowed the use of techniques "contrary to
the recognized standards of practice of the behavioral health
profession or that constitute a danger to the health, safety or
welfare of clients." The complaints mark the first time the state of
Arizona board has been asked to curb abuses that critics say are
inherent in recovered-memory therapy. The panel found evidence to
support allegations that Ells was negligent in his supervision of a
staff that included two uncertified therapists with no formal
education beyond a high school degree.
  Gina S., a 32-year old Illinois resident and former Samaritan
patient, said a Samaritan therapist routinely pinned her on the floor
with her knees and performed exorcisms in front of other patients.
S. went to Samaritan in 1990 after checking into a Wickenburg
clinic for treatment of anorexia and bulimia.  S., who has since
filed a lawsuit, noted that her therapist told her that her dreams
were actual memories, diagnosed her as having Multiple Personality
Disorder and convinced her that her family had forced her to bear,
murder and devour babies in satanic ritual.

/                                                                    \
|                            CORRECTION                              |
|                      From the issue of March 1                     |
| January Newsletter - page 10., The Samaritan Institute of Colorado |
| has told us that it has complained to the Samaritan Counseling     |
| Center in Scottsdale, AZ that their name is a copyright violation. |

      Daughter's recovered memories lead police to charge father 
                       in gruesome 1967 murder
               reported in The Press, Atlantic City, NJ
                 Associated Press, November 20, 1994

  Murder charges have been filed against Larry Stegman of Metropolis,
Illinois and Joe Rickman of Selmer, Tennessee based on the recovered
memories of Connie Sievek. Ms. Sievek, who is now 30, entered therapy
and claims to have recovered a memory which implicated her father and
three other men in a murder that took place in 1967 when she was three
years old. The person who was killed was Hattie Barnes and there were
no arrests for more than two decades. Connie Sievek claims that she
now remembers that after her father had sex with Barnes, two
unidentified men came into their home, murdered Barnes and hauled the
body away to a farmhouse where it was burned the next day. Sievek
claims she remembers Barnes' red nail polish and golden-green eyes and
even the way she was slaughtered and disemboweled. Both Sievek and her
psychotherapist testified that Sievek was never hypnotized. Sievek
started seeing Sylvia Dickey Smith in 1992 for depression. The trial
is scheduled to begin on February 14.
        After 10 Years, Prosecutors Drop Charges of Sex Abuse
                    reported in The New York Times
                   Evelyn Nieves, December 3, 1994

  Margaret Kelly Michaels, who spent five years in prison before her
1987 conviction was overturned last year, has learned that the State
of New Jersey has decided not to prosecute the case again. Michaels
was a teacher at the Wee Care Nursery when she was accused of
performing sexual acts on children such as probing their bodies with
knives and forks, forcing them to eat feces and to defecate on her.
This case adds to "the growing number of lengthy, expensive, multiple-
child sexual-abuse trials across the country in which defendants were
acquitted or had their convictions overturned because the
interrogations of the children in the cases were found to have planted
suggestions in their minds."
                    Hurricane Strikes Country Walk
                     reported in Miami New Times
                   Steven Almond, November 10, 1994

  The Country Walk child-abuse case was one of the most notorious of
the child-abuse prosecutions ten years ago in 1984. Janet Reno was the
prosecutor. Much of the case against Frank Fuster hinged on the
testimony of his wife, Ileana Fuster, then 17 years old. Now Ileana,
who lives in Honduras, has stated that her testimony was not correct,
that it was the result of brainwashing on the part of a pair of
counselors who treated her before the trial. At this time it is not
clear if the case will be retried.
                Family Sues Social Worker and Sheriff
                      reported in The Enterprise
                    John Wharton, October 26, 1994

  A $7.5 million lawsuit has been filed by Judee Smith against the
St. Mary's (Maryland) sheriff's deputies and social workers alleging
the the civil rights of her two sons were violated when they were
wrongfully grabbed, handcuffed and denied permission to speak with
their lawyer. The reason for the arrest and detention of the boys
seems to have been a belief that their father would take the boys down
into the nearby woods to perform satanic rituals with them.
Examinations indicated there was no reason to believe that any of the
children had been subjected to any child abuse by their father or
anyone else. The Smith family tragedy which was described in Esquire
(March 1994) started when their daughter accused her father of
abuse. At one time she was diagnosed with 69 personalities and spent
18 months in an institution. The daughter has since recanted the whole
       Jury rejects sisters' recovered memories of sexual abuse
                  reported in The Australian Colleen
                       Egan, November 28, 1994

  In Australia's first trial based on alleged repressed memories, a
jury in Bunbury, south of Perth, acquitted the 65-year-old father
charged by his two daughters that they had suffered 25 years of
horrific sexual torture that they didn't know anything about until
they entered therapy. The daughters claimed that their father had
abused them in ritualistic torture and had used power tools, knives,
crucifixes and animals. They believed that they had been gang raped by
their grandfather, uncles and brothers. The father is still scheduled
to face the Supreme Court in February but the Australian has reason to
believe that the charges will probably be dropped. The defense
barrister noted that "You know and we know that they are all ruined,
whatever the verdict."

                             BOOK REVIEW
                       Review by Robyn M. Dawes
                      Carnegie Mellon University

 Return of the Furies: An Investigation into Recovered Memory Therapy
                Hollida Wakefield and Ralph Underwager
         Peru, Illinois: Open Court Publishing Company, 1994

  This excellent book is a powerful and detailed indictment of
"recovered memory" "therapy," which is not therapy (in the sense of
healing) and is not memory (in the sense of historically accurate
recall). Moreover, it has no basis in anything that could remotely be
termed "science." As Wakefield and Underwager point out toward the
conclusion of one of the strongest chapters in the book (Chapter 12):
"The only answer given by proponents of recovered memories to the
question 'How do you know?' [that memory is historically accurate] is
a presentation of anecdotes, case studies, and personal, subjective
feeling. It is wrong to cite a testimonial or case study as support
for a particular theory or therapy. Those who do so mislead the public
if they don't point out that such evidence is open to a wide range of
alternative explanations and can be highly misleading. . .  To the
best of our knowledge no proponents of claims of recovered memories
even attempt to answer the question whether or not they do better than
chance. We know of no scientific quantified data supporting any of the
techniques passed off as therapeutic and healing" (page 362).
  The same blunt approach is found throughout. The section quoted
above, for example, is followed by the single sentence paragraph:
"Recovered memory therapy as it is practiced is unethical and
constitutes malpractice" (page 362).
  In the prologue of the book, the authors cite an incident in which
Underwager, as a young Lutheran pastor, noticed a 7-year-old girl who
"looked a bit shabby" at a parochial school he had started in the fall
of 1952. "Denise began to spend the time interacting with him. During
morning recess on a day in early January, she said, 'my Daddy screws
me.' At that time there was no child protection system. The police
were not interested. That afternoon he took Denise to her home,
pointed his finger at the father and said, 'you are the man!',
Nathan's words to King David confronting him with his adultery with
Bathsheba." After "the father was confronted by the Elders in
meetings," Underwager spent time counseling the families and 10 years
later Denise reported to him that "there was never any further sexual
abuse by her father and that he was happy she was doing so well"
(pages 2 and 3). That story exemplifies the personal style of the
authors. They point, they confront -- and then give generally good
advice to those caught in the riptide created by the reality of child
sexual abuse clashing with the totally invalidated claims of those who
(sincerely) believe they can diagnose or recover memories, for
example, by observing clients' high base rate symptoms that can result
from a variety of problems, and by urging these clients to engage in
activities such as hypnosis, guided imagery, and joining "survivors
groups"-activities that have been demonstrated to yield high rates of
false belief and delusion.
  The direct tone in presenting conclusions is complemented by very
careful scholarship throughout this book. The conclusions are well-
founded. The authors have gone to great lengths to present in detail
not only the research that should lead to the rejection of recovered
memory therapy, but the belief of proponents as well. In fact, the
authors do such a good and responsible job of presenting the arguments
of those supporting recovered memory therapy that these arguments
become almost plausible.
  How widespread is the problem the authors address? At the time the
book was written, its prevalence could be estimated only on the basis
of convenience samples, such as those of Smith and Yapko. Later,
however, a much more systematic poll of therapists has been conducted
by Poole, Lindsay, Memon, and Bull (in press). These authors randomly
sampled licensed U.S. doctoral psychotherapists from the National
Register of Health Service Providers in Psychology and British
psychologists from the Register and asked them to check any technique
"that you have used in the past 2 years to help clients remember
childhood sexual abuse." (The first version of the questionnaire
simply asked "check any techniques that you have used with abuse
victims in the past 2 years," with highly similar results.) They
listed "8 techniques that are considered suggestive by many cognitive
psychologists" (an understatement). Only 39% of those surveyed
returned the questionnaire, but 71% of those responding indicated that
they had used one of these techniques and 25% indicated that they had
used two or more. The latter group reported working with a total of
3,542 adult female clients in the previous two years. The United
States sample consisted of 3.75% of those in the National Register. If
we make the hyper-conservative assumption that no one not responding
to the questionnaire uses two or more of these techniques, we obtain
an estimate of 94,453 women who have seen therapists in the United
States the previous two years who used two or more. On the assumption
that non-responders are equivalent to responders, that estimate is
242,188. But there are only 16,000 psychotherapists in the National
Register and an estimated 250,000 spread out throughout the United
States. Those in the Register tend to be the best trained. Assuming
that others are at least as fond of these coercive techniques as those
who are well trained, the previous assumptions yield a lower bound of
1,475,833 for the last two years. (This reviewer finds this figure
quite "unbelievable," but all the reader must do is divide 3,542 by
.0375 and then multiply by 250/16 to obtain it.) Wakefield and
Underwager are absolutely correct in their assessment that recovered
memory therapy is widespread.
  The only chapter of the book I find questionable is the one in which
the authors offer advice for distinguishing between true versus false
memories (When Memories Are Real, Chapter 11). Suddenly, a great many
statements concerning the authors' own "beliefs," "skepticism," and
"assessment" of what is more or less "unlikely" appear. They offer
"hypotheses and suggestions by ourselves, Martha Roger, and Richard
Gardner" for distinguishing between historically accurate versus
historically inaccurate memories, but then conclude that these
hypotheses and suggestions should all be "provisional since there's
little research as yet on the criteria differentiating real from false
allegations of childhood abuse" (page 340). Why present these ideas
all? The authors are criticizing others who present such ideas without
any empirical verification, and their ideas have none as well.
Admittedly, empirical verification of hypotheses for distinguishing
between past historical fact versus fantasy concerning sexual abuse is
extremely difficult to obtain. But it is the recovered memory
therapists who claim that therefore criteria established in all other
contexts are irrelevant, and that therefore their own hypothesized
criteria should be given some credence. A "we don't know" conclusion
would be more consistent with criticism of the recovered memory
approach than is one of presenting unverified "hypotheses and
  This inconsistency does not, however, damage the very next chapter,
which may be the most powerful in the book. While it is titled "Good
and Bad Therapists: How to Tell the Difference," it really concerns
the ethics of recovered memory therapy. After quoting Striker and
Meehl and McFall that persisting in approaches despite clear negative
evidence is simply unethical, Wakefield and Underwager address one of
the most serious claims of recovered memory therapists (pgs. 364-365):
"Some of the recovered memory therapists argue that it is a
therapeutic necessity to believe the patient even if the memories are
not real.  They claim that it has therapeutic benefit and helps
clients when the therapist believes their story. There are no
quantified data to support this claim and the idea is wrong and
foolish. It rests on the assumption that error can be beneficial. We
believe that error can never, in the long run, contribute to healing
nor to a better life. Science can be about lots of things but one
thing it is never about is encouraging error" (followed by examples
such as insulin shock therapy, prefrontal lobotomies, and curing
schizophrenia by pulling out all the teeth).
  The whole book is, in fact, oriented toward what the authors see as
a struggle between empiricism and rationality versus the error of pure
intuition and emotionality, which here has resulted in the return of
the Furies. I am not certain whether this framework enhances or
detracts from the book: For example (pg. 21): "Today in the United
States freedom is abandoned and individual rights surrendered for fear
of crime and rage that drugs. Violence is met with greater violence
and harsher and more draconian punitiveness. Gender warfare breaks out
in wild and bizarre attacks and convoluted reasoning produces
wholesale blaming of entire categories of persons, for example: All
men are rapists; all women are emotional and hysterical. Whining and
complaining replace courage, self-reliance and personal
responsibility. Random acts of violence shatter the veneer of order.
Victimization supersedes virtue and political correctness covers
rudeness and ill-mannered behaviors unthinkable 20 years ago."  The
trend is certainly there. Moreover, Wakefield and Underwager are -- in
this reviewer's opinion -- correct when they state that "the great
mass of human anguish and pain is not caused by some mysterious cosmic
force, as Luke Skywalker encounters in Darth Vader, but rather by
plain, simple, garden variety human stupidity" (page 21). I further
agree that the rational and critical approach to life -- as
exemplified by science -- is not natural as emotional acceptance of
authority and self-serving ideology [Footnote: "Scientific thinking,
which is analytic and objective, goes against the grain of traditional
human thinking, which is associative and subjective. Far from being a
natural part of human development, science arose from unique
historical factors." Alan Cromer, Uncommon Sense: The Heretical Nature
of Science. (Reprinted in Science, 28 July '94, 265, 688.)]  (although
I see more of a need to integrate emotion and reason than to juxtapose
them). The problem with this framework, however, is that it initially
presents recovered memory therapy as just one instance of "the return
of the Furies," while in fact the bulk of the book concerns recovered
memory therapy per se; moreover, there is simply not enough space to
substantiate the general assertion about rationality, vindictiveness,
and emotionality.
  I can not do justice to the whole book in this brief review. I
recommend it highly. I also recommend that it not be chewed entirely
at one setting. The Wakefield and Underwager bluntness in stating
their opinion combined with the details of their reporting of the
scientific literature make it a book that is difficult to read
quickly. Moreover, there are the anecdotes. The authors use them quite
responsibly to illustrate points rather than to form a basis for
generalization. Many, however, (for example the attorneys' report,
pages 270-276) are simultaneously heart-wrenching and
infuriating. Like the rest of this challenging book, they can not be
read quickly. All of it, however, deserves to be read and studied by
all concerned with this "therapy."

  Poole, D.A. Lindsay, D.S. Memon, A., and Bull, R. (in press).
  "Psychotherapy and the recovery of memories of childhood sexual
  abuse: U.S. and British practitioners' opinions, practices, and
  experiences," Journal of Consulting and clinical Psychology.
    Video inspired by FMSF Valley Forge Conference in April, 1993

What is memory? What is false memory syndrome? Can memories be
repressed?  Can memories be recovered through the use of "therapeutic
techniques?"  All of these questions are addressed in an important and
special video presentation,  MEMORY AND REALITY:  EMERGING CRISIS.

This remarkable videotape presentation brings together prominent
memory researchers and mental health professionals who scrutinize
these questions, and bring to the discussion of repressed memories vs.
false memory syndrome, all of their experience, intelligence, and
expertise. These most highly qualified professionals share their
research and their knowledge, and explore the important and critical
subject of memory: What it is and what it is not. This video features:
  Elizabeth F. Loftus, Ph.D., Richard A. Gardner, MD, Steven M.
Garver, Esq., Harold I. Lief., MD, Campbell Perry, Ph.D., Martin
E.P. Seligman, Ph.D., Paul R.  McHugh, MD., Judge Lisa A. Richette.,
Michael D. Yapko, Ph.D., David F. Dinges, Ph.D., Richard J. Ofshe.,
Ph.D., George K. Ganaway, MD., Margaret T. Singer, Ph.D., Melody
Gavigan, retractor.

Gemini Productions, Inc. is pleased to offer this exceptional
videotape, Memory and Reality: Emerging Crisis, at the special rate of
$69.50 (including postage and handling). A complete transcript of the
videotape is also available for $15.00. To order or for more
information, contact:

  Gemini Productions, Inc.
  18630 Detroit Ave., Lakewood, OH 44107
  Phone (216) 228-9440     Fax (216) 228-8024
                           FROM OUR READERS


  This is a new column that will let you know what people are doing to
counteract the the harm done by FMS. Remember that three years ago
FMSF didn't exist. A group of 50 or so people found each other and
today we are over 15,000.  Together we have made a difference. How did
this happen?  California Board of Behavioral Science-Quarterly Meeting
November 17 &18, 1994 Sacramento, CA

  After almost a year's worth of attending Board meetings, making many
telephone calls, writing letters and buttonholing Board members in the
halls, the California Board of Behavioral Science that has
jurisdiction over MFCC and LCSW clinicians finally agreed to put
"repressed memory" on the meeting agenda. Till now, the best we could
do was make a presentation of a few minutes during the "public
comment" period.
  There were 39 family members from San Diego to Wheatland and from
Santa Cruz to Auburn who attended. Among us were several families who
had been sued, won or settled their cases, and one couple whose
litigation was still pending. Ten of the families gave presentations.
Another presenter, a practicing MFCC herself, expressed her concern
that the current crop of therapists is poorly trained to deal with
false memory issues and needs more scientific training and better
  In testimony before the legislature in 1992, the Board's Executive
Director, who recently resigned, warned of problems in counseling
since many licensees did not have proper training. As a result,
considerable legislation was passed last year regarding professional
requirements for applicants and examination procedure, but nothing
dealing with the problems of the "repressed memory" process.
  The Board's recently appointed acting Executive Director, as well as
some of the Board members just appointed this year, were present. When
our first presenter began to speak, one of the Board members
interrupted and commented that she had no idea what "repressed memory"
therapy was all about! We explained briefly, but after everything was
concluded, the Board President acknowledged several facts: (1) that
everyone who contacts the board deserves some kind of responsible
reply; (2) that the problems regarding "repressed memory" therapy are
more complex than they realized; (3) input from professionals in the
field was needed; and (4) more than one hour was needed to deal with
the problem.
  As a result, they requested more information to enlighten themselves
on the subject. We are in the process of making up packets to be
delivered to the Board members. Probably the most important point was
that they plan to allot a whole day to the subject in February 1995,
their next quarterly meeting. They plan to get some "professional
experts" to give testimony regarding procedure. We pray that our
collective efforts will effect a change in what the therapists have
been doing, possibly adopting some of Dr. Barden's recommendations or
the Australian guidelines (both of which have already been provided to
                      By Charles Brallier, Jr. and Mary Kay Brallier

  You can make a difference. Please send me any ideas that you have
had that were or might be successful so that we can tell others. Write
to Katie Spanuello c/o FMSF.
                   Editors note: From a phone call
            Retraction is a "process"  and not an "event"

  Two years ago, my daughter broke the chilling separation she had
earlier caused with her dreadful accusations. She agreed to talk to
me, her mom. She said that she might have been wrong in some things
about me, but she still clung to the belief that her father abused
her. We talked. I gave her information. For two years this continued.
Last week, she retracted fully.  She wants to apologize to her father,
but he isn't ready to accept it.  
                                                           A Mom
  Editors note: Many professionals advise parents to stay in contact
with their children. Following is the kind of reply that may arrive.
           Staying in contact is not possible for everyone.

Letter to seriously ill 80 year old mom
Dear Mom,  
  Your friends wrote to me to inform me of your condition and how a
note of love from me would do you so much good. Frankly, I find that
hard to believe. Does a note of love mean that I recant all of my
  You damaged my self worth so I can no longer have confidence and
respect for myself. Is that what you wanted? Although I find great
difficulty in expressing love for you, I am thankful for my birth and
for the times you helped me and took care of me. I regret that you are
suffering, it causes me great pain, but I'm in so much pain myself
mourning the childhood I never had...
  I wish you had expressed regret for what you did and a true concern
for me, not based on you. Then maybe I would feel like I had a
mother....Any response should be referred to my therapist as earlier
                             Dear Friends,
  I appreciate the readers' open letters to the FMSF Newsletter.
Through these open letters I feel less alone in my life that
instantaneously became an insane journey.
  Many years ago on national television, Chris Evert Lloyd was asked
what inspired her to tennis greatness. She answered "I know this
sounds sick, but it was my father." Like Chris, I know this may sound
strange, but I admired my daughter for her intelligence and our shared
love for animals. When she was less than 4 years old, my wife and I
were shocked to learn that she could read. She said she learned from
Sesame Street. At age 15, just shortly before she accused me of abuse,
we had friendly conversations involving genuine understanding on her
part of Mandelbrot's concept that the coast line of England could be
infinitely long; that a plane figure of positive finite area could
have infinite perimeter.
  Somehow, I overlooked the stormy battles she had with certain school
teachers and her mistreatment of my wife. Like the Mom who wrote to
the Newsletter that her daughter had grown like a sick and crooked
tree, there remains the sorrow and memory of the child I loved. What
really happened? Where did the trolley tracks begin to diverge? Where
will this journey end?
  I say nothing new or insightful. We begin raising our children as
novice parents, who are most likely to be blind to things that are
going seriously wrong.
                                                    A Dad
Editors note: From all the families and professionals who attended the
recent Memory and Reality conference, a special THANK YOU to the
retractors who so patiently explained over and over again the things
that they knew.

                          RETRACTORS' CORNER

  I want to take an opportunity to tell you how wonderful it was to
attend the Johns Hopkins/False Memory Syndrome Foundation Conference
in Baltimore this past week-end. I was absolutely overwhelmed at the
magnitude of what has taken place since I first retracted (in 1991) my
memories obtained during toxic therapy.
  One of the things that helped me in my healing process was the way
Skip Simpson (my attorney) refused to treat me as if I were a
"psychiatric patient" and instead treated me with respect and dignity.
This kind of treatment has helped me learn to respond as a competent
adult instead of a self-willing victim, which is exactly the kind of
behavior that was perpetrated in the "toxic" therapy. I want to tell
you how much I appreciate that the staff of the FMS Foundation treats
me as a competent adult and not as a victim. I felt a sense of great
comfort being a part of a big picture instead of a "separate entity."
  I would also like to extend a special thanks to some folks who did
so much to make sure the retractors were able to attend this
conference. I believe educating ourselves is the best thing we can do
for ourselves to heal. So many people gave time, rooms, and air fare
and they deserve a special thanks. A few I would like to thank
especially are Janet, Allen and Toby from the FMSF office and Eleanor
Goldstein and Kevin Farmer of S.I.R.S. There were some families in
different states who helped retractors in their home towns be able to
come. For fear of leaving some out, I hesitate to name them, but each
played a special part in helping. I think you are wonderful. Thank you
to the False Memory Syndrome Foundation.  
                                            Sincerely, Laura Pasley

                        Martin Seligman, Ph.D.
               Reprinted with permission of the author

  When bad events happen to us -- helplessness, failure, rejection --
we try to explain them. We have habits of explaining, explanatory
styles, and the crucial two dimensions of our explanatory style are
that they are either permanent or temporary, either global or
specific. For example, if you flunk a test and you give the
explanation, "I'm stupid," that is permanent and global; but if you
say, "I didn't study hard enough," it is temporary and specific.
  These habits have well-documented consequences.
  Permanent and global explanations potentiate helplessness, produce
despair, hopelessness and passivity: pessimism.  Temporary and
specific ones minimize helplessness and fuel efforts to change:
  So how we think about our troubles -- over and above reality -- has
substantial influence on the likelihood of success or failure, with
belief in permanent, unchangeable, and global causes making further
trouble more likely.
  Let's look at one such explanation, from my own discipline. The
recovery movement claims that we are victims of childhood trauma --
adult anxiety, depression, sexual problems are caused by childhood
abuse, even if we can't remember it. I do not have in this forum the
time needed to explore when this explanation is actually true and when
it is false and how we can tell the difference. Although I do think
that childhood is vastly overrated.
  Rather I want to explore its form, not its content. This victim
theory explain our troubles in a permanent and global way. Being a
prisoner of a toxic childhood is a more permanent and pervasive
explanation of being depressed or lonely as an adult than a failed
love relationship, or being caught in a lie, or pessimism, or
serotonin level.
  Victim explanations are readily adopted because they provide one
psychological boon: They generally shift blame from the self to some
larger, more impersonal cause. Being lonely and depressed is our
parents' fault and not because we are selfish or unkind or too
proud. Such an explanation makes us feel better. It raises self-
esteem. It lowers guilt and shame. But it does so at a very high
price: If you believe such a theory of your troubles, it tends to be
self-fulfilling. Victim explanations, because they invoke unchangeable
and pervasive causes, produce more despair, more passivity, and more
hopelessness.  People who believe they are victims, systematically,
believe they have less personal control, less choice, and are less
responsible for what they have done.  Such a view of yourself will, by
its form, produce more depression, less achievement, and chill
attempts to change.
  To the extent you believe the theory that your troubles come from
your childhood, your race, your sex, there is simply less room for
personal responsibility.
                                                    Excerpt from 
                                          The Inaugural Symposium
                              Almanac Supplement Vol 41 Number 10
                     University of Pennsylvania, November 1, 1994

For further reading: "What We Can Change and What We Can't" 1994 by
Martin Seligman.  How the American Psychological Association turns a
"belief" into "fact."

The American Psychological Association has published a "Just the
Facts" brochure on "What You Should Know about Repressed and Recovered
Memories. " Two sections are of concern: "How can a person 'lose' a
memory?" and "Can a person ever get the memory back?" While even the
APA's own Interim Report states that the mechanisms for these things
are "not currently well understood," the APA brochure does not state
this and presents it as fact.
  If the American Psychological Association prints such information,
it is responsible to provide the scientific data to support their
claims. We encourage concerned individuals to write and ask the APA
for the citations of the scientific evidence behind the statements in
their brochure, Just the Facts.  (Ronald E. Fox, President, American
Psychological Association, 750 1st Street NE, Washington, DC 20002).


  On January 25-28, The Stone Angels of Thunder Bay, Ontario are
presenting a conference entitled "Making up for lost time: A community
responds to satanic cults, child sexual assault & masonic ritual
torture."  This is particularly fascinating given the fact that the
Lanning report (FBI), the LaFontaine report (British government) and
the Goodman et al report (National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect)
have found no evidence for satanic cults. We had not previously heard
about torture by Masons.

  Speakers at this conference include Dr. Connie Kristiansen (source
and impact of FMS Association); Catharine MacKinnon (links between
cults and pornography); and Dr. Stephen Kent (ritual torture by


        Forty roundtables were included in the Memory and Reality:
Reconciliation conference. These discussions were planned to give
conference participants n opportunity for informal discussion in small
groups of twenty to thirty. The discussion leaders included Members of
the Scientific Advisory Board, other professionals from the fields of
psychiatry, law, psychology and social work, as well as parents, FMSF
staff and retractors. The topics were diverse and intended to address
the interests of the large number of professionals who were attending
the conference as well as the family members and retractors. Both
informal reactions and short summaries of the roundtables were very
positive. The most frequent criticismS offered were that there was too
little time devoted to these informal exchanges and that there were so
many interesting topics to choose from, it was difficult to select
only one each day.  the Foundation appreciates the work of the
roundtable leaders. Their contribution contributed to the overall
success of the conference.

  "If the FAA can ground a plane because it's unsafe, why can no one
ground recovered-memory therapy?" asked Alan Gold, Barrister from
Toronto at the Memory and Reality: Reconciliation conference in

                      (PAIMI  Title 42, P 10801)

  For three years, families and retractors have been trying to alert
professionals and government agencies that a terrible problem had
emerged. They have tried to report their concerns to state licensing
agencies and to the ethics committees of the professional
organizations so that changes could be instituted to stop the
problem. What families learned is that the institutions that are
supposed to protect the public from harm are not able to do so. Last
week we received information about an existing federal mental health
program that might be enlisted to help in the problem.
  The Protection and Advocacy for Individuals with Mental Illness Act
was established in 1986 to advocate on behalf of individuals with
mental illness.  The Act defines "individual with mental illness" as
one "who has a significant mental illness or emotional impairment, as
determined by a mental health professional qualified under the laws
and regulations of the state." While the government has set some
parameters in order to be eligible for Federal funds, the PAIMI
systems are under the direction of the states. One of the parameters
is the Mental Health Bill of Rights (42 U.S.C. $ 10841.


*  the right to an individualized, written treatment plan, providing
for periodic reassessment and revision;

*  the right to know the objectives of a treatment, the possible
adverse effects of treatment, and any available alternative
treatments, services and providers;

*  the right not to receive a mode or course of treatment in the
absence of informed, voluntary and written consent;

*  the right not to participate in experimentation in the absence of
informed, voluntary, written consent;

*  the right to appropriate protections in connection with one's
participation in an experimental treatment, including the right to a
reasonable explanation of the procedure to be followed, the benefits
to be expected, the relative advantages of alternative treatments, and
the potential discomforts and risks;

*  the right and opportunity to revoke one's consent to an 
experimental treatment;

*  the right to freedom from restraint or seclusion;

*  the right of a patient in a treatment facility to converse with
others privately and to see visitors during regularly scheduled hours;
if a treating professional denies access to a particular visitor, it
must be for a specific, limited, and reasonable period of time, the
denial must be incorporated into the written treatment plan and must
include the reasons for such denial;

*  the right, upon admission to a treatment facility, to be informed 
of the rights set forth above.

We need your help to find out how the PAIMI systems are working in
each state and whether they might provide some structure that could
respond to the FMS crisis. We need to know the strengths and
weaknesses of the program as it is carried out in each state. If you
have information about this program please let us know. Send your
reply to PAIMI Information, c/o FMSF office.

Following is a list of PAIMI contacts. Volunteer contacts in should
have the complete information about PAIMI contacts. Thank you.

AL(205-348-4928), AK(907-344-1002), AZ(602-274-6287), AR(501-324-9215)
CA(916-488-9955), CO(303-722-0300), CT(203-297-4326), DE(302-856-0038)
DC(202-966-8081), FL(904-488-9071), GA(404-885-1234), HI(808-949-2922)
ID(208-336-5353), IL(312-341-0022), IN(317-232-1150), IA(515-278-2502)
KS(913-236-5207), KY(502-564-2967), LA(504-522-2337), ME(207-626-2774)
MD(410-234-2791), MA(617-723-8455), MI(517-487-1755), MN(612-332-1441)
MS(601-981-8207), MO(314-893-3333), MT(406-444-3889), NB(402-474-3183)
NV(702-688-1233), NH(603-228-0432), NJ(609-292-9742), NM(505-256-3100)
NY(518-473-4057), NC(919-733-9250), ND(701-224-2972), OH(614-466-7264)
OK(918-664-5883), OR(503-243-2081), PA(717-236-8110), RI(401-831-3150)
SC(803-782-0639), SD(605-224-8294), TN(615-298-1080), TX(512-454-4816)
UT(801-363-1347), VT(802-229-1355), VA(804-225-2042), WA(206-324-1521)
WV(304-346-0847), WI(608-267-0214), WY(307-632-3496).

                      NEW ADVISORY BOARD MEMBERS

  We are honored to announce the addition of two new members to the
Scientific and Professional Advisory Board. Frederick C. Crews, Ph.D.,
University of California at Berkeley (emeritus) has written
extensively on the theories of Freud. His recent articles in The New
York Review of Books (Nov 17 and Dec 1) places the FMS problem in a
larger historical context. Henry C. Ellis, Ph.D., University of New
Mexico, is a cognitive psychologist whose area of expertise is emotion
and memory. Some of his recent research examines the association
between memory loss and depression.

                      JANUARY 1995 FMSF MEETINGS

Call person listed for meeting time & location.  
key:  (MO) = monthly; (bi-MO) = bi-monthly

ARIZONA - Area code 602 
  Barbara  924-0975 
  Saturday, January 28, 1995
  10:30 am (lunch) to 4 pm
ARKANSAS - Area code 501
Little Rock
  Al & Lela 363-4368
 Northern California
  Sacramento/Central Valley  - bi-monthly
    Charles & Mary Kay (916) 961-8257
  San Francisco & Bay Area - bi-monthly
    east bay area  
    Judy (510) 254-2605
    san francisco &  north bay 
    Gideon (415) 389-0254
    Charles (415) 984-6626 (day); 435-9618 (eve)
    south bay area  
    Jack & Pat (408) 425-1430
    Last Saturday,  (Bi-MO)
 Central Coast 
    Carole (805) 967-8058
 Southern California  
    burbank (formerly  valencia)  
    Jane & Mark (805) 947-4376  
    4th Saturday (MO)10:00 am 
  central orange  county
    Chris & Alan (714) 733-2925
    1st Friday (MO) - 7:00 pm
   orange county  (formerly laguna  beach)  
    Jerry & Eileen (714) 494-9704
    3rd Sunday (MO) - 6:00 pm
   covina  group (formerly rancho cucamonga )  
    Floyd & Libby  (818) 330-2321  
      1st Monday, (MO) - 7:30 pm
   west orange county  
    Carole (310) 596-8048
    2nd Saturday (MO)   

  Ruth (303) 757-3622
  4th Saturday, (MO)1:00 pm

CONNECTICUT - Area code 203
New Haven area  
  George  243-2740

Dade-Broward Area    
  Madeline (305) 966-4FMS  
Delray Beach PRT
  Esther (407) 364-8290
  2nd & 4th Thursday [MO] 1:00 pm
Tampa Bay  Area    
  Bob & Janet (813) 856-7091

Chicago metro area (South of the Eisenhower)
  2nd Sunday [MO] 2:00 pm
  Roger (708) 366-3717

Indianapolis area (150 mile radius)
  Gene (317) 861-4720 or 861-5832
  Nickie (317) 471-0922 (phone & fax)

Des Moines
  Betty/Gayle (515) 270-6976
Kansas City
  Pat (913) 738-4840
  Jan (816) 931-1340
  2nd Sunday (MO)

  Dixie (606) 356-9309
  Bob (502) 957-2378
  Last Sunday (MO) 2:00 pm

MAINE - Area code 207
  Irvine & Arlene 942-8473
  Wally 865-4044
  3rd Sunday (MO)
  Betsy 846-4268          
Ellicot City area  
  Margie (410) 750-8694  
  Jean (508) 250-1055

Grand Rapids Area - Jenison
  Catharine (616) 363-1354
  2nd Monday (MO)

St. Paul 
  Terry & Collette (507) 642-3630

Kansas City
  Pat (913) 738-4840
  Jan (816) 931-1340
  2nd Sunday (MO)
St. Louis area
  Karen (314) 432-8789
  Mae (314) 837-1976
  3rd Sunday [MO]1:30 pm
  Retractors support group also meeting.
Springfield - Area Codes 417 and 501 
  Dorothy & Pete (417) 882-1821
  Nancy & John (417) 883-4873
  4th Sunday [MO] 5:30 pm

NEW YORK - Upstate / Albany area
  Elaine (518) 399-5749

  Bob (513) 541-5272

OKLAHOMA - Area code 405
Oklahoma City
  Len 364-4063   Dee 942-0531
  HJ  755-3816    Rosemary  439-2459

Harrisburg area
  Paul & Betty (717) 691-7660
  Rick & Renee (412) 563-5616
Wayne (includes So. Jersey)  
  Jim & Joanne (610) 783-0396
  No further meetings until  March,1995
Central Texas  
  Nancy & Jim  (512) 478-8395
Dallas/Ft. Worth  
  Lee & Jean  (214) 279-0250
  Jo or Beverly (713) 464-8970
VERMONT  & Upstate New York
  Elaine (518) 399-5749

  Katie & Leo (414) 476-0285


Vancouver & Mainland
  Ruth (604) 925-1539
  Last Saturday (MO) 1:00-4:00 pm
Victoria & Vancouver Island
  John (604) 721-3219
  3rd Tuesday (MO) 7:30 pm

  Muriel (204) 261-0212
  1st Sunday (MO)

  Eileen (613) 836-3294
  Pat (416) 444-9078
  Saturday, January 28 (Bi-MO)

 Ken & June, P O Box 363, Unley, SA 5061

Task Force False Memory Syndrome of
 "Ouders voor Kinderen"
Mrs. Anna de Jong, (0) 20-693 5692

Mrs. Colleen Waugh,  (09) 416-7443

The British False Memory Society
Roger Scotford (0225) 868-682

Deadline for FEBRUARY 1995  Issue:
Friday, January 20

                               WHAT IF?

  What if, parents who are facing lawsuits and want legal information
about FMS cases, had to be told, "I'm sorry, there isn't any such
thing available?"
  What if, your son or daughter began to doubt his or her memories and
called FMSF only to get a recording, "This number is no longer in
  What if, a journalist asks you where to get information about the
FMS phenomenon, and you had to answer, "Sorry, I don't know?"
  What if, you want to ask a question that only an expert, familiar
with FMS can answer, and find out that FMSF can no longer provide that
information? Where would you turn?
  What if the False Memory Syndrome Foundation did not exist? A
frightening thought, isn't it?
  Please support our Foundation. We cannot survive without your
                   Reprinted from the August 1994 PFA (MI) Newsletter

Yearly FMSF Membership Information
Professional - Includes  Newsletter      $125______
Family  - Includes  Newsletter           $100______

             Additional Contribution: _____________

__Visa:       Card # & expiration date:______________________________
__Mastercard: Card # & expiration date:______________________________
__Check or Money Order: Payable to FMS Foundation in U.S. dollars
Please include: Name, address, state, country, phone, fax

/                                                                    \
|          Do you have access to e-mail?  Send a message to          |
|                                         |
| if  you wish to receive electronic versions of this newsletter and |
| notices of radio and television  broadcasts  about  FMS.  All  the |
| message need say is "add to the FMS list". It would be useful, but |
| not necessary,  if you add your full name (all addresses and names |
| will remain strictly confidential).                                |

  The False Memory Syndrome Foundation is a qualified 501(c)3 corpora-
tion  with  its  principal offices in Philadelphia and governed by its 
Board of Directors.  While it encourages participation by its  members
in  its  activities,  it must be understood that the Foundation has no 
affiliates and that no other organization or person is  authorized  to
speak for the Foundation without the prior written approval of the Ex-
ecutive Director. All membership dues and contributions to the Founda-
tion must be forwarded to the Foundation for its disposition.

3401 Market Street suite 130,  Philadelphia, PA 19104,  (215-387-1865)

This address and the phone numbers have changed as of July 15, 2000

Pamela Freyd, Ph.D.,  Executive Director

FMSF Scientific and Professional Advisory Board,      January 1, 1995:
TERENCE W.  CAMPBELL,     Ph.D., Clinical and   Forensic   Psychology,
Sterling Heights, MI; ROSALIND CARTWRIGHT, Rush Presbyterian St. Lukes
Medical  Center,  Chicago,  IL; JEAN    CHAPMAN, Ph.D., University  of
Wisconsin, Madison, WI; LOREN CHAPMAN, Ph.D., University of Wisconsin,
Madison,  WI; FREDERICK  C.  CREWS, Ph.D.,  University  of California,
Berkeley, CA;  ROBYN M.  DAWES,   Ph.D., Carnegie  Mellon  University,
Pittsburgh, PA; DAVID F.   DINGES, Ph.D., University of  Pennsylvania,
The Institute  of    Pennsylvania Hospital, Philadelphia,   PA;  HENRY
C.   ELLIS, Ph.D., University  of  New  Mexico, Albuquerque, NM;  FRED
FRANKEL,  M.B.Ch.B.,  D.P.M., Beth   Israel Hospital,  Harvard Medical
School,  Boston, MA; GEORGE  K.   GANAWAY, M.D.,  Emory  University of
Medicine, Atlanta,   GA; MARTIN  GARDNER, Author, Hendersonville,  NC;
ROCHEL GELMAN, Ph.D., University of California, Los Angeles, CA; HENRY
GLEITMAN, Ph.D., University  of  Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA;  LILA
GLEITMAN, Ph.D., University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA; RICHARD
GREEN, M.D., J.D., Charing Cross Hospital, London; DAVID A.  HALPERIN,
M.D., Mount  Sinai School of  Medicine, New York,  NY; ERNEST HILGARD,
Ph.D., Stanford University, Palo  Alto, CA;  JOHN HOCHMAN, M.D.,  UCLA
Medical  School, Los Angeles, CA;  DAVID S.  HOLMES, Ph.D., University
of   Kansas, Lawrence,  KS;   PHILIP   S.   HOLZMAN, Ph.D.,    Harvard
University, Cambridge, MA; JOHN KIHLSTROM, Ph.D., Yale University, New
Haven,     CT;  HAROLD  LIEF,   M.D.,   University    of Pennsylvania,
Philadelphia, PA; ELIZABETH  LOFTUS, Ph.D., University  of Washington,
Seattle, WA; PAUL McHUGH,  M.D., Johns Hopkins  University, Baltimore,
MD;  HAROLD  MERSKEY, D.M.,  University  of  Western  Ontario, London,
Canada;  ULRIC NEISSER, Ph.D., Emory  University, Atlanta, GA; RICHARD
OFSHE, Ph.D., University   of California, Berkeley,  CA; MARTIN  ORNE,
M.D., Ph.D., University of Pennsylvania, The Institute of Pennsylvania
Hospital, Philadelphia, PA;   LOREN  PANKRATZ,  Ph.D., Oregon   Health
Sciences University, Portland, OR;   CAMPBELL PERRY, Ph.D.,  Concordia
University, Montreal, Canada; MICHAEL A.  PERSINGER, Ph.D., Laurentian
University, Ontario, Canada; AUGUST T.  PIPER, Jr., M.D., Seattle, WA;
HARRISON POPE, Jr., M.D., Harvard Medical School, Cambridge, MA; JAMES
RANDI,   Author and Magician, Plantation,   FL;  CAROLYN SAARI, Ph.D.,
Loyola University, Chicago, IL;  THEODORE SARBIN, Ph.D., University of
California,  Santa    Cruz, CA;   THOMAS A.    SEBEOK,  Ph.D., Indiana
Univeristy, Bloomington,   IN; LOUISE SHOEMAKER,  Ph.D., University of
Pennsylvania, Philadelphia,  PA; MARGARET SINGER, Ph.D., University of
California,  Berkeley, CA; RALPH  SLOVENKO,  J.D., Ph.D., Wayne  State
University Law School, Detroit, MI;  DONALD SPENCE, Ph.D., Robert Wood
Johnson   Medical Center,  Piscataway,   NJ;  JEFFREY VICTOR,   Ph.D.,
Jamestown Community College,  Jamestown, NY;  HOLLIDA WAKEFIELD, M.A.,
Institute of  Psychological  Therapies, Northfield, MN;   LOUIS JOLYON
WEST, M.D., UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA.

                     December 9-11, Baltimore, MD
                     VIDEO AND AUDIO TAPE ORDERS

$25.00 per Video Tape           $8.00 per Audio Tape

Price includes standard UPS or Postal Service shipping within the
continental U.S. Special shipping requirements or delivery outside
U.S. will be shipped Freight Collect.

Tape   Qty      Title                                    Video  Audio

1._____SCIENTIFIC ISSUES -- NATURE OF MEMORY (pt 1)    ______    _____
     Pamela P. Freyd, Ph.D., Paul R. McHugh, M.D.
  Scientific Findings on Memory Distortion
     Elizabeth F. Loftus, Ph.D.
  Overview of Research on Memory Distortion
     Daniel L. Schacter, Ph.D.

2. _____SCIENTIFIC ISSUES -- NATURE OF MEMORY (pt 2)   ______    _____
  Psythotherapists' Beliefs About Recovered Memories
     D. Stephen Lindsay, Ph.D.
  Memory Systems of the Brain
     Larry R. Squire, Ph.D.

  Influence in Psychotherapy - The Big Picture
     Richard J. Ofshe, Ph.D.
  Hermeneutic Reasoning: A Double Edged Sword
     Phillip F. Slavney, M.D.
  False Memory Syndrome: An Anthropological
     Perspective - Michael G. Kenny, Ph.D.
  Historical and Narrative Truth
     Donald P. Spence, M.D.

4. _____ CLINICAL ISSUES - CONSEQUENCES OF             ______    _____
  Demographic and Descriptive Aspects of Retractors
     Harold I. Lief, M.D. and Janet M. Fetkewicz
  When Memories Interfere With Insight in Psychotherapy
           George K. Ganaway, M.D.

5. _____CLINICAL ISSUES - STANDARDS OF CARE            ______    _____
  The Do's and Don'ts for the Clinician Managing Memories of     
      Abuse - Paul R. McHugh, M.D.
  Belief in the Patient?
     Harold Merskey, D.M.
  Childhood Sexual Abuse and Adult Psychiatric Disorders: 
     A Review of the Evidence
     James I. Hudson, M.D. and Harrison G. Pope, Jr., M.D.

6. _____CLINICAL ISSUES - RECONCILIATION               ______    _____
  Family Healing -Interview with Smith Family
     David Scharff, M.D. and Jill Scharff, M.D.
  Reintegrating Families
     Paul Simpson, Ed.D.
7._____LEGAL ISSUES -- FROM THE PLAINTIFF'S TABLE      ______    _____
  Memory and Truth
     Richard Harrington, J.D.
  Representing the Primary Victim
     Skip Simpson, J.D.
  Status of Lawsuits
      Anita J. Lipton

8._____LEGAL ISSUES -- FROM THE DEFENSE TABLE          ______    _____
  Consequences of the Therapist's Claim,
      "I'm Not a Detective."
      Steven P. Moen, J.D.
  Evidentiary Considerations Relative to the Use of 
     Repressed Memory Theories
     Andrew J. Graham, J.D.

9._____LEGAL ISSUES -- RIGHTS OF SOCIETY               ______    _____
  Duty of Care to Third Persons
     Ralph Slovenko, J.D., Ph.D.
  Memory Recovery Therapy: Costly Care for Negative Gain
     Douglas E. Mould, Ph.D.
  Good News/ Bad News - The Burden is Ours
     Terence W. Campbell, Ph.D. 
   Defending the Falsely Accused    
     Alan D. Gold, Barrister

10._____EDUCATIONAL ISSUES - NEED FOR CHANGE           ______    _____
  Educational Issues in Psychiatry
     Paul R. McHugh, M.D.
  Educational Issues in Social Work
     Carolyn Saari, Ph.D.
  Educational Issues in Psychology
     Lee Sechrest, Ph.D.

11._____BECOME PART OF THE SOLUTION                    ______    _____
       Pamela P. Freyd, Ph.D.
       Paul R. McHugh, M.D.

to order tapes
Aaron Video
6822 Parma Park Blvd
Parma Heights, OH  44130

Number of Video Tapes _______  @  $25.00

Number of Audio Tapes _______  @  $ 8.00
Ohio Residents add 7% sales tax            TOTAL  _____
(Allow 4 - 5 weeks for delivery.)

Name: ____________________________________________________

Address: _________________________________________________



Telephone:  __________________________