FMSF NEWSLETTER ARCHIVE - March 8, 1994 - Vol. 3, No. 3, HTML version


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    The FMSF Newsletter is published 10 times a year by the  False
    Memory  Syndrome  Foundation.  A hard-copy subscription is in-
    cluded in membership fees. Others may subscribe by  sending  a
    check  or  money  order, payable to FMS Foundation, to the ad-
    dress above. 1994  subscription  rates: USA: 1 year $20,  Stu-
    dent $10; Canada: $25 (in U.S. dollars);  Foreign: $35; Single
    issue price: $3. ISSN #1069-0484
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Dear Friends,
  "What do you think of Cook?" "How will this affect the work of the
Foundation?" These were some of the many questions we were asked this
past week as a result of the dismissal of the ten million dollar
lawsuit against Cardinal Bernardin. We replied:
  "We think that Cook has shown a great deal of courage. It is
difficult to say, 'I made a mistake.'
  "Cook stated that if he had known at the time what he knows now, he
would not have brought the charges. That is dramatic evidence for the
desperate need to bring accurate information about the nature of
memory and the use of memory enhancement techniques to the public and
to the profession."
  Many people acted upon the best information that they had at the
time in this FMS phenomenon. Many us have made mistakes. As more
accurate information about the reconstructive and reinterpretative
nature of memory has become better known, we can change our minds.
Will we show the courage of the hundreds of retractors?
  "Some memories are surely true, some are a mixture of fact and
fantasy and some are false." Can we step back and question our
assumptions? Can we see the circular thinking in which we become mired
when we believe that the proof that something happened is that we
forgot it?
  We are facing both an immediate crisis and a long term issue.  The
short term crisis is to help the thousands of people who have had
their families torn apart and to reexamine the cases of those who have
been put in prison solely on the basis of recovered memories. The long
term issue is to do the things that are necessary so that this
particular mistake doesn't happen again. That will likely mean
institutional change in education, better licensing and monitoring of
mental health workers.
  What can be done immediately to relieve the crisis? The professional
organizations must state the "standard of practice" to be followed
when memories of sexual abuse arise in therapy. Given the serious  
criminal nature of the accusations, it is fundamental that caution and
care dictate that all parties, including the accused, the accuser, and
perhaps the therapists, be required to have complete medical and  
psychiatric evaluations by independent professionals with experience
in forensic issues of child sexual abuse. The accused are asking for
this kind of evaluation, but the accusers and their therapists refuse.
Why do they refuse?
        
  The rate of growth in the number of families contacting the
Foundation has continued. The staff has not grown. We have been able
to answer calls, respond to mail, and send out information only
because of the help of volunteers in the office and across the
country. Have so many doctors, lawyers, professors, or executives
ever stuffed so many envelopes? Thank you for your help.
  The chart below shows the number of families who have contacted us.
It is a conservative accounting. The striped bars indicate that we
have details about the family situation. The solid bar indicates that
callers or writers have said that they had a family problem, but we do
not yet have details. We repeat what we have stated many times: we do
not know the truth or falsity of any of the reports that we receive.
It has been the patterns that have emerged that have caused the alarm.
Those patterns include:
  * use of memory enhancement techniques, (hypnosis, sodium amytal,
dream interpretation, guided imagery, participation in survivor 
groups, body massages, etc),
  * refusal to discuss the issue, ("For us to have any further
relationship, I require that you admit to what you did." -Australian
Dad),
  * cutting off of contact with the family ("My daughter told me that
in order for her to heal, she must remain separate so that she can
work through her problems unhindered and therefore she was
establishing 'boundaries' and we were not to write, call or visit
until further notice." - A Dad).

  The number of articles in newspapers and magazines and the number of
reports on television has also been great. Indeed, it seems that the
time has arrived for us to say that FMS is no longer an emerging
crisis. The crisis is recognized by the media and most professionals
as such. It is now time to solve the crisis.
  We are going to postpone the announced national conference so that
we can refocus our direction. There will be a continuing education
program for professionals sponsored by the University of Kansas on
October 7-8 entitled, Childhood Sexual Abuse and Memory: An
Exploration of Current Controversies.  There will be an FMSF national
conference for parents and professionals at Johns Hopkins University
in late October or early November. Continuing education credits will
be available. The program will be Memory and Reality: Reconciliation.
We will keep you informed of these events.
                                                    PAMELA

 ______________________________SIDEBAR_______________________________
/                                                                    \
| "These are not political matters. These are criminal matters.      |
| Science can go on debating about repressed memories. The lives of  |
| the poor women who fall into the hands of therapists and friendly  |
| lawyers are not part of the scientific game.  These lives are      |
| unique. These are our children."                            A Dad  |
\____________________________________________________________________/

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                     SCIENCE OR BELIEF SYSTEMS?: 
               LEARNING FROM FACILITATED COMMUNICATION

  This past month, CBS's 60 Minutes produced a documentary about
Facilitated Communication (FC), the system by which therapists hold
the hands of autistic children over a keyboard in the belief that the
children will point to the keys in order to communicate. Children who
have never written anything are claimed to be able to write stories
and express their feelings. Many of the reported stories include
accusations of sexual abuse. Children have been removed from their
homes and legal actions taken on the basis of reports of abuse arising
in FC.
  The 60 Minutes program supports another documentary on this topic by
PBS's Frontline. The evidence is solid, clear, and dramatic.  The
claims of Facilitated Communication come from "belief" and not from
science.
  These two documentaries are extremely important in the insight they
bring to the FMS phenomenon. The therapists are good caring people who
want to help children. They are not trying to plant memories. Because
their own belief is so strong, however, they cannot see the influence
that they themselves have in the creation of the reports. These two
documentaries are dramatic evidence why clinical reports by themselves
are not sufficient, and why scientific methodology is also necessary
to confirm theories.
  In addition to video documentation of the eyes of the therapists
focused on the keyboard while the eyes of children wandered, a simple
experiment was used that demonstrated unequivocally that the reports
(including abuse reports) were coming from the therapists. Children
were shown one set of pictures and facilitators were shown another. If
the reports were coming from the children, then the pictures that the
children saw would be the ones described. In test after test, however,
it was the therapists' pictures that were written about.
  The reports, including those of sexual abuse, came from the
therapists, but they believed adamantly that the reports came
completely from the children.  When shown the video of the
experiments, some people still clung to their original belief. For
example, one person said that the program just wouldn't work in a
testing situation. One parent acknowledged that he simply needed to
'believe.' Others revised their opinion about Facilitated
Communication. One therapist said that he cried because he felt that
he had misled so many parents.

  The example of Facilitated Communication is stunning. To move from
"belief" to evidence of a theory, there must be both clinical and
scientific methodology.

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                 WHAT DO THERAPISTS SAY ABOUT MEMORY?
             WHAT DO MEMORY RESEARCHERS SAY ABOUT MEMORY?

  There is a gulf between what memory researchers and therapists say
about memory. Note the following comments that appeared in, "Abuse
memories trigger double-edged debate" by Michael O'Brien, The Hour,
Norwalk CT, Feb. 5, 1994:

   Ronald Salafia, a psychology professor at Fairfield University
 specializing in memory, said any memories from infancy are highly
 suspect at best. "Normally, no one has memories until at least 2 or
 3, and sometimes 3 or 4. Before that, memories are not stored in a
 fashion that's retrievable."
   Salafia also refuted the so-called 'videotape' theory of memory 
 espoused by many therapists who claim that patients under hypnosis 
 can play back a tape of their past. "That's just utter nonsense,"
 he said.
   "Not so," said Mignon Lawless of Norwalk, who is Ursula's
 therapist.
   "It generally starts with focusing, clearing the mind and dropp-
 ing into your body," Lawless said. "Then you ask your body to give 
 a word, phrase or image, then you pull out the videotape and watch
 it."
    Lawless said people's memories are in a storage room with access
 to videotapes, books or filing cabinets, "depending on what modality
 works best.  Usually, we work with videotape." Other memory retrieval
 methods Lawless advocates include past-life regression, and certain
 kinds of touch "that can bring back memories of sexual abuse.  It's
 all out there," she said. "You can't quantify it, and you can't prove
 it, but when a person has a traumatic experience, the body remembers
 and stores it." Lawless, who said 70 percent of her patients are
 incest survivors, said she can tell if someone has a history of abuse
 the minute they walk into her office. "I'm very interested in
 (skeptics), because I'm not so sure those on the questioning
 bandwagon aren't survivors themselves, and don't want to touch it
 with a 10-foot pole."

 ______________________________SIDEBAR_______________________________
/                                                                    \
| "Survivors who have memories don't want them; those who don't have |
| memories are desperate to get them until they do get them, and     |
| then they don't want them anymore,"                                |
|          Christine Courtois , Ph.D.                                |
| The SAIN Voice, Newsletter of the Sexual Assault Information       |
| Network of Michigan, Inc. , Vol 8, No 4 December, 1993             |
|   How does someone know that he or she is a "survivor" (and        |
|   desperate to get memories) if there are no memories? -- Unless   |
|   the proof is that he/she forgot it.                              |
\____________________________________________________________________/

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                   WHY IS THERE SUCH A DIFFERENCE?

  What are therapists taught in continuing education programs? Perhaps
an answer to this question will explain the gulf. Families have been
collecting course descriptions and attending continuing education
programs for mental health professionals in their area. This is 
enlightening.
  What emerges is that the majority of programs that discuss FMS bash
the Foundation and assume that the people who have contacted the
Foundation are guilty. For example, families from across the country
have sent us brochures of the programs of Charles Whitfield, M.D,
author of Healing the Child Within. This is what Dr. Whitfield writes:
"The 'false memory syndrome' is a term coined by a group of adults who
have been accused of having sexually abused their children.  This term
may help them deny the possibility or the reality of the abuse, and it
attempts to remove their responsibility for having abused their child
and tries to invalidate the child's experience of having been abused."
  Dr. Whitfield has not responded to our request to document his
printed statement that "The FMSF has several claims that it promotes,
perhaps the most prominent being that 'all delayed or repressed
memories of child sexual abuse are false'." We have stated again and
again that "some memories are true, some a mixture of fact and fantasy
and some are false." We trust that Dr. Whitfield is less creative in
his diagnoses than in his quotes.
  Dr. Whitfield feels that the media has not presented the FMS issue
in a balanced manner. In an article for the IAODAPCA News, January
1994, he offers his explanation for this unbalanced coverage:

 We know that the media is composed of workers who come from the
 general population, probably 80 to 95% of whom are unrecovered adult
 children of dysfunctional families. It is no surprise, then, that the
 media would show some manifestations of being dysfunctional itself,
 and these presentations appear to be another example of that
 dysfunctional behavior.

  We are quite taken with the term "unrecovered adult children."
Indeed, we rank it with the gem "alleged innocent people" (used by
Renee Fredrickson on CNN's Crossfire to describe all those who contact
FMSF).

  Families in British Columbia wrote to say that they are upset about
a conference to be held on March 18-29 that is sponsored by the
University of Victoria. The title is "Dissociation, Denial and
Defensiveness in Victims and Offenders." Families were concerned about
the credentials of those leading many of the sessions. They felt that
the plenary session: Mock Trial on False Memory Syndrome" presented by
members of the Victoria Bar Association, and faculty and students of
the Faculty of Law, University of Victoria, is an inappropriate and
callous response to a mental health crisis. They will send a
description.

 ______________________________SIDEBAR_______________________________
/                                                                    \
| When everyone is a victim in need of "healing" no one is a victim. |
| We have come to the reductio ad absurdum of the "root cause"       |
| explanation for crime.  Once, the root causes were said to be      |
| poverty, joblessness, poor housing, discrimination the usual       |
| excuses you hear thrown around after an inner city riot.           |
|                                                                    |
| But how are the middle classes to get away with murder? Easy. The  |
| "root causes" turn out now to go far deeper than the social and    |
| the economic. They are psychological. And since there is not a     |
| living soul who has not suffered some psychological trauma -- and  |
| criminals are certainly less likely to have sailed through life
| untraumatized--it becomes harder and harder to hold anyone
| responsible for anything.
|                                                                    |
|  Detroit News February 4, 1994                                     |
|  Charles Krauthammer                                               |
\____________________________________________________________________/

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              REPORTER DESCRIBES PROFESSIONAL WORKSHOP:

  Celeste McGovern, a reporter for Alberta Report, attended a
professional workshop given by Laura Bass and described it in a
February 14 article:

   Two-hundred helping professionals (social workers, psychologists,
 prisoners' advocates and teachers) met at the Mayfield Inn in
 Edmonton, Alberta at a conference sponsored by Athabasca University
 ...The speaker "lulled her audience into a 'mini visualization' 
 trip." With their eyes closed and minds focused on their feelings 
 they were told, "As you approach the place where your inner child
 lives, I want you to take a look around you...Maybe your child is
 inside or outside...she might be in a tunnel...go there...Now I want
 you to spend a little time with your inner child, just being with her
 ...in whatever way is right for you."
   Then the helping professionals used crayons and drew pictures of
  their inner-child journeys.

**********************************************************************
                            VIDEO TRAINING

  Video training is another way in which therapists gain their
information. Cavalcade Productions in Torrance, California is one
company that makes training videos. Brochures describe a landmark
video that presents eight clinicians discussing ritual child abuse.
The discussion in these tapes covers the "current epidemic of day care
cases, as well as transgenerational abuse disclosed by adult survivors
who grew up in satanic cult families." The flyer notes that the
audience for this training video are professionals whose work may
bring them into contact with ritual abuse cases.
  The professionals featured are: Bennett Braun, M.D. (Rush
Presbyterian-St Luke's Medical Center); Jean Goodwin, M.D (Medical
College of Wisconsin), Catherine Gould, Ph.D. (Clinical Psychologist),
Corydon Hammond, Ph.D. (University of Utah), Richard Kluft, M.D.
(Institute of Pennsylvania Hospital), Roberta Sachs, Ph.D.
(Rush-Presbyterian-St Luke's Medical Center), Roland Summit, M.D.
(UCLA Medical Center) and Walter Young, M.D. (Columbia Psychiatric
Center). The advertisement notes that these people are clinicians who
are directly involved in treatment of ritually abused children and
adult survivors. Titles of videos include Coming Home: Recovery from
Satanic Ritual Abuse; Children at Risk: Ritual Abuse in America;
Sessions and Sand Trays (a tool in the diagnosis and treatment of MPD
survivors of satanic ritual abuse).
  A recent addition to the Cavalcade videos features Bessel van der
Kolk, M.D. (Harvard University) lecturing on Trauma and Memory.
  There are many training videos available from many companies.  They
are fascinating documentation of what therapists are being taught.

**********************************************************************
                                ENEMY?

  Some professionals actually consider FMSF "the enemy." In a
statement entitled, Know Thy Enemy distributed to professional
colleagues, Kenneth Nakdimen, M.D. says that FMSF is a "threat to us
in the MPD field." To his credit, Dr. Nakdimen points out that there
are therapists who are providing FMSF with ammunition. He suggests
that professionals subscribe to the FMSF newsletter to know what we
are thinking and doing.
  To describe FMSF as "the enemy" belies an understanding of the
current crisis and the responsibility of mental health professionals.
We are asking for the scientific evidence that supports a theory.
Families are being torn apart and lives destroyed because of the
claims of a theory. If those who question are deemed "the enemy," if
continuing education credits are given for FMSF bashing rather than
solid information about memory, we are dealing with a belief system
and witch hunt, not with science.

**********************************************************************
                   WHEN DID THIS PHENOMENON BEGIN?

   Unfortunately, we don't have the answers. Out of the thousands of
families we have spoken to, we are aware of two accusations as long
ago as twelve years. Most are much more recent.  Our informal
impression from is that the majority of people contacting us now were
first accused two or three years ago. "I thought I was the only one,"
they write.
  We went back to the family surveys to check. (FMSF has asked many
families to complete a questionnaire.) Of the 700 completed surveys
the data from approximately 500 has been entered into the computer.
The following information is reported from 267 surveys with a cut off
date of January 1993.

 Year Accused Number of Families
 1992    43      (16.0%)
 1991    74      (28.0%)
 1990    66      (25.0%)
 1989    40      (15.0%)
 1988    22      ( 8.0%)
 1987    10      ( 4.0%)
 1986    12      ( 4.5%)

  What does this data mean? Does it represent a trend or is it
associated with other factors? We don't know, for example, if families
who were accused six years earlier might be less likely than those
accused more recently to contact the Foundation. When resources
permit, we will look into these questions in greater depth.

 ______________________________SIDEBAR_______________________________
/                                                                    \
|                M A G I C A L    M O L E S T A T I O N              |
|                                                                    |
| "While regular child abuse occurs in all races, magical child      |
| molestation has skipped the black communities and surfaced among   |
| the white. Thus we see white accusers, white parents, white        |
| lawyers, and so on. In fact, magical molestation is whiter than    |
| Ivory soap."                                                       |
|                                                 Margaret Leong,    |
|   "Magical Child Molestation Trials: Edenton's Children Accuse."   |
\____________________________________________________________________/

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                               AMNESIA

  We received a request from Dorothy Cantor, Ph.D. that we print the
full interview from Good Morning America, from which we quoted her in
the February newsletter. Unfortunately, we received this request after
the February newsletter was printed. We hope that we did not
misrepresent Dr. Cantor in any way. The interview is printed below as
it was heard in Philadelphia. Indeed, the full interview raises
interesting issues about the comparisons with amnesia in veterans,
Holocaust survivors and children who have been in an earthquake.
  From ABC's Good Morning America, January 27, 1994.  An interview
with Dorothy Cantor, American Psychological Association Board Member

  Hostess: Our capacity to remember as adults what happened when we
were children is at the center of an angry debate between adults who
claim they were abused years ago and the people they say committed the
abuse. Caught in the middle are therapists who diagnose people with 
repressed memory. Joining us is Dorothy Cantor. She's on the board of
the America Psychological Association and is a practicing psycholog
ist. Thanks for being with us this morning.
  Cantor: Pleasure to be here.
  H: If we think about this as just amnesia, isn't it easier to
explain?
  C: I think it's easier to accept when we think of it as amnesia. 
Certainly we accept the concept of amnesia in Vietnam War Veterans, in
Holocaust survivors, perhaps even in children who went through the
earthquake last week, but it's hard for us to conceptualize that we
can have amnesia of sexual trauma.
  H: But, we talk about this with Vietnam Vets, we know that kids can
hide memories from very traumatic things, so why would psychologists
be split on this?
  C: I think that is not quite the case. We're not split. The majority
of responsible and well-trained licensed psychologists understand that
both phenomena exist.
  H: You're saying well trained psychologist. I assume that's the crux
of the problem here.  
  C: To me it is. I think those of us who have had sufficient
education, doctoral level psychologists who have come into our therapy
sessions with a kind of neutral stance, we don't come in with the
notion that this must have happened or could not have possibly
happened. And we listen to our patients and we try to understand what
they are going through. We understand that there is such a thing as
suggestibility, but we also understand that amnesia occurs. And we see
both in our offices.
  H: So if you're looking for therapy and you are really troubled and
you don't know what the problems are, if a therapist in the first
session or two starts to suggest that perhaps you were abused you
should have some warning lights going off.
  C: Absolutely. I'm concerned about the therapist that was described
in your tape who said as soon as the patient came through the door,
"You must have been abused," or the therapist who might say "Well, if
you have those set of symptoms, I'm sure you were sexually abused."
There is no direct correlation.
  H: Are there any symptoms in adults, though, that would lead one to
think that perhaps a child had been abused?
  C: There are many, many symptoms that can be caused by a variety of
different reasons and one must wait and see how the material emerges.
  H: Very briefly, you have said that it should not be played out in
public but in academic circles.
  C: Professional and academic circles. The American Psychological
Association, of which I am a member of the board of directors, has
appointed a working group to investigate memories of childhood sexual
abuse.
 H: To try to look for some scientific foundation.
 C: Scientific and practice..
  
  We agree with Dr. Cantor's statement that "the majority of
responsible and well-trained licensed psychologists understand that
both phenomena exist" (i.e., memories of abuse that are historically
accurate and memories of abuse that are confabulated).
  The issue on which there is confusion is in the statement that, 
"Certainly we accept the concept of amnesia in Vietnam War Veterans,
in Holocaust survivors, perhaps even in children who went through the
earthquake last week, but it's hard for us to conceptualize that we
can have amnesia of sexual trauma."
  The issue here is not that people have forgotten details of their
experiences of battles, of the war, of an earthquake, or of sexual
abuse. There is plenty of clinical evidence and scientific evidence
that this happens.
  At issue is the scientific evidence that many people have had total
amnesia for the fact that they had served in Vietnam, that they had
lived through the Holocaust, that they had experienced an earthquake,
or that they had been mistreated as children. (Obviously, we are
looking for evidence of situations in which the amnesia is
psychologically rather than physically caused.)

 ______________________________SIDEBAR_______________________________
/                                                                    \
|  "When the war ended, Tec tried not to think about her experiences |
| during the Holocaust. It was not until 1975, when she wrote her    |
| autobiography titled, 'Dry Tears,' that she began to face the past |
| after 30 years of silence. 'I never spoke about it. I never went   |
| to a movie, never read anything on it,' she said."                 |
|                                                                    |
|  Westbury CT Republican, Jan. 28, 1994                             |
|  by John Gillispie                                                 |
| "Professor researches similar struggle"                            |
\____________________________________________________________________/

 ______________________________SIDEBAR_______________________________
/                                                                    \
|                Where do families live?  March 7,'94                |
|          Families for whom we have details of the reports          |
|  AK(13)  AL(23)  AR(26)  AZ(195) CA(1005)CO(124) CT(73)  DE(20)    |
|  FL(298) GA(75)  HI(11)  IA(54)  ID(35)  IL(259) IN(88)  KS(59)    |
|  KY(26)  LA(29)  MA(151) MD(107) ME(33)  MI(207) MN(173) MO(115)   |
|  MS(10)  MT(33)  NC(80)  ND(9)   NE(37)  NH(27)  NJ(147) NM(43)    |
|  NV(25)  NY(295) OH(238) OK(66)  OR(155) PA(324) RI(22)  SC(31)    |
|  SD(16)  TN(49)  TX(263) UT(179) VA(108) VT(26)  WA(276) WI(174)   |
|  WV(13)  WY(12)  DC(11)  VI(3)   PR(1)   Canada: AB(23)  BC(70)    |
|  MB(42)  NB(10)  NF(1)  NS(11)   ON(178) PE(2)   PQ(10)  SK(7)     |
|       Australia(12) UK(265) France(2) Germany(2) Ireland(2)        |
|      Israel(2) Netherlands(1) NZ(4) S. Africa(1) Scotland(1)       |
|                Each family represents many people.                 |
\____________________________________________________________________/

 ______________________________SIDEBAR_______________________________
/                                                                    \
| MEMORIES MAY BE RECOVERED; GOOD NAMES CAN'T                        |
|                                                                    |
|  "No victim can justify the moral arrogance of victimizing someone |
| else without solid proof, armed only with self-righteousness and   |
| that most fallible of instruments, memory."                        |
|                                                                    |
|    Editorial , Newsday, March 2, 1994                              |
\____________________________________________________________________/

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                        QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
               "TRUTH SERUM" AND "WHAT REALLY HAPPENED"
                      by August Piper Jr., M.D.

  Pontius Pilate once asked, "What is truth?"
  Two thousand years later, plaintiff and defendant, accuser and
accused, unfold their versions of truth. In our courtrooms, Pilate's
question echoes.
  A reader of this newsletter inquires:

   I have heard that sodium Amytal is a truth drug. What does that
 mean? My lawyer says that taking the drug might help my lawsuit, by
 helping me and my doctor decide what really happened to me when I was
 a child.

  The Amytal interview has been known to American physicians for about
half a century. Amytal is the trade name of a drug belonging to the
same family as Nembutal, Seconal, and Pentothal. Its generic name is
amobarbital (generic names are not capitalized). It is a barbiturate,
which means that sufficiently-large doses cause drowsiness and sleep.
  During an Amytal interview, the physician administers small amounts
of the drug, by vein, every few minutes. The procedure usually takes
about an hour.  The patient is drowsy and slurred of speech, but awake
-- the so-called "twilight state" for the duration of the interview.
Intravenous Amytal causes a feeling of relaxation, warmth, and
closeness to the interviewer; while in this state, the patient is
questioned. Other intravenous drugs, like Valium or Ativan, are
sometimes used in this kind of procedure. For our purposes, these
medicines should be considered essentially identical to IV Amytal,
because they produce these same effects on the patient.
  The amobarbital interview was very popular during the 1930's and
1940's, though at that time it was not usually performed to verify or
recover forgotten memories. Rather, doctors employed the procedure to
examine the unconscious, or to do psychotherapy (for example, to treat
"shell shock"). The dominant theory then, held by many physicians, was
that people under Amytal could not possibly lie. This theory was
reflected in the colorful name "truth serum" given to the drug.
  One characteristic of good science is a sincere attempt to disprove
its own theories. This principle was applied to the belief that people
always tell the truth under Amytal -- that is, patients were tested to
see if they could tell falsehoods during Amytal interviews.  They
could. During such interviews, could people deliberately attempt to
deceive an interviewer? They could. Could they report false or
exaggerated symptoms of psychological disorders? Again, they
could. Withhold information? Yes.
  In time, other studies revealed more information. They showed that
during Amytal administration, patients often demonstrate a distorted
sense of time, show memory disturbances, and have difficulty
evaluating and selecting thoughts. In addition, under Amytal,
patients' claims about details of their histories--events, places,
names, dates -- are untrustworthy. Further, these investigations noted
that the drug also makes patients vulnerable to either accidental or
deliberate suggestions from the interviewer. Finally, and most
importantly, patients under Amytal fail to reliably discriminate
between reality and fantasy.
  Now, I bet some readers are thinking: "Hmm. Slurred speech,
drowsiness, a feeling of warmth, distorted memory, altered time-sense.
Sounds familiar."  Cynics would say that those things happen after
someone has had "a few too many." And in this case, they would be
exactly right: intravenous Amytal creates a state similar to acute
alcohol intoxication.
  So. Having said all that, will I finally answer the reader's
question?
  Courts have long been intensely skeptical of any efforts to
"enhance" or "refresh" the memories of participants in trials. The
above discussion shows why. The judiciary worries about interviewers
contaminating the memories of those they interview, and about the
ability of people to misrepresent truth while under Amytal. Then there
is the matter of reliability of information obtained from someone who
is acutely intoxicated. Thoughtful clinicians, supporting these
concerns of the courts, have warned that memories retrieved in an
Amytal-induced trance are likely to contain a combination of fact and
fantasy, in a mixture that cannot be accurately determined without
external verification. This point about external verification is
important. It means that statements made under Amytal must be reliably
confirmed. If they are not, they cannot be considered more truthful
than any other statements.
  In summary, there's no such thing as "truth serum," and the Amytal
interview won't help anybody decide what really happened in your
childhood.  Waste not your money, dear reader!

  For more details about Amytal interviews, the reader is invited to
consult a forthcoming paper by Dr. Piper entitled "'Truth serum' and
'recovered memories' of sexual abuse: A review of the evidence." It
will appear in the summer 1994 issue of The Journal of Psychiatry and
Law.

  August Piper Jr. M.D. is a psychiatrist in private practice in
Seattle, Washington. He is a member of the FMSF Scientific and
Professional Advisory Board. He has written a chapter in a forthcoming
book (Multiple Personality Disorder: Critical Issues and
Controversies), as well as several articles on MPD.

 ______________________________SIDEBAR_______________________________
/                                                                    \
|  "Rapists and murderers get a lot more protection under our laws   |
| than anybody who has a wrongful claim of child abuse attached to   |
| their name." said Rep Cathy Cox, Georgia House of Representatives  |
| in a discussion of a proposed law to make it tougher to place      |
| names of suspected child abusers on a statewide registry. Of the   |
| 30,000 names on the list last year, just more than half were       |
| confirmed as true abuse cases according to Department of Human     |
| Resources. The state stands to lose $1 million in federal money    |
| dedicated to gathering statistics on child abuse if it changes the |
| registry rules.                                                    |
|                     The Augusta Chronicle February 13, 1994        |
\____________________________________________________________________/

**********************************************************************
                          VAGARIES OF MEMORY

  Corydon Hammond, Ph.D. published an article in the Fall 1993
Bulletin of the Psychological Hypnosis Division of the American
Psychological Association.  In the article, he complained that he had
been "misrepresented in the media (e.g., Prime Time Live) by producers
apparently wishing to promulgate an FMS point of view, as well as by a
radical FMS spokesman." Hammond proceeded to explain that he holds a
balanced middle ground when it comes to belief in satanic ritual abuse
memories. "Where there is so much smoke, may there not be some fire?"
he wrote.
  Dr. Hammond's complaint that he has been misrepresented by an FMSF
spokesperson (unnamed) is a very serious one. We checked our records.
The following comments by Corydon Hammond were transcribed from a
videotape of a hypnosis workshop at Parkwood Hospital, Atlanta
Georgia, March 2, 1991:

  "...I will suggest to you that those people [deniers of satanic
cults] are either, one naive and of limited clinical experience;
number two have a kind of naivete that people have of the holocaust;
or number two they're just such intellectuallizers and skeptics that
they'll doubt everything; or number three they're cult people
themselves and I can assure that there are people who are in that
position...There are people who are physicians, who are mental health
professionals who are in the cults, who are raising trans-generational
cults...I'll tell you why I think more of it has come out. I think
more of it has come out because for the first time about six years ago
professionals who treat severe trauma cases started getting together
for the first time at the international MPD meetings and comparing
notes...[I had a patient whose] grandfather had been sent out from
Nazi Germany in the mid 1930's to New York expressly to help spread
the cult to America. They were involved in kidnaping children...There
are transgenerational cults passed down from parent to child through
the generations...I think the research is real clear: we got three
studies, one found 25%, one found 20% of outpatient multiples appear
to be cult-abuse victims, and another on a specialized inpatient unit
found 50%.  I believe that we'll probably end up finding about a
fourth of outpatient multiples are cult-abuse and if you're in a
specialized unit it may go as high as 50% and they're usually some of
the more severe difficult cases.  But I also believe that we're
treating too many of them. That's a cruel terrible thing to say. But I
believe that quite a few of them that we're treating are still
involved in cults and that we should not be treating them if they
are. And it is a danger to them and a danger to us...And I know of
patients where I've consulted on cases -- I only treat four cult
victims myself but I consult in cases all around the country and I
know of cases where people have revealed things in therapy...at one
point a part [i.e. an alternate personality] revealed something she
shouldn't and she was severely tortured because of that, to teach her
not to do that in the future...Some of it is in very organized groups
with interstate communication and who use a very very systematic
brainwashing that comes out of experimentation from Nazi doctors and
experimentation in the intelligence community with mind-control
research and involves medical technology and is very very
sophisticated. And is systematically done from early early childhood
to produce multiples and continues through and into adulthood with
periodic reinforcement truly trying to produce Manchurian
Candidates...In fact, I know of cases where this has occurred where
the Mafia likes to use cult people as hit people because they can have
one personality who will come out and do it, go to another city and
perform a cult blood-cleaning and have no emotion about it, come back
and everybody has amnesia for it.  And it's the perfect ideal
situation...They're drugged up. They're already entrained in a certain
state of consciousness and then if they don't agree and go along with
something and say 'Yes,' like 'if you get angry at anyone in the cult
you will hurt yourself. Do you understand?' And one patient said,
'Yes, but I don't want to.' And they then violently shocked her with
electrodes to her head and her inner vagina. Then they repeated it.
'Do you understand?' Phrase good: she understood. 'Yes.' Then go over
it again. 'And you will hurt yourself by cutting yourself with a
knife.  Do you understand?' 'Yes.'  'I don't believe you.' Zap! Go
over it again. 'Yes!'  Then they go onto something else. Then having
these repetitive conditioning sessions. Now you picture that happening
to a five-year-old, a sweet little five-year-old kid. And a six-year-
old, a seven-year-old, an eight-year-old, a nine-year-old.  You know,
when you got total control of them, they're highly dissociative
person, you've got them a whole lot longer than anyone has a prisoner
of war and you're using all that kind of mind-control technology from
intelligence research that isn't even available to the public and
other kinds of things, you can have a powerful influence on people...I
haven't had to be involved with reporting to the police.  But, yeah, I
think you have to be careful, because, I have a situation where a
cult-victim who I had seen and then somebody else had seen, basically
because somebody prominent in the cult works in the medical center
where I work and she had bumped into him and didn't want to keep
coming to the medical center so she starting seeing somebody else. She
finally fled Salt Lake and we put her in treatment with somebody in
Southern California. And she had come back on one occasion to identify
people for her previous therapist and I. And identified some names
that were part of a larger body of information that we gave to three
investigative agencies. And one of the people I trust that we gave it
to. The other two should be very legitimate investigative agencies,
police agencies, in the state.  Three weeks later -- she had a part,
or parts rather, that were still cult-involvement with cult
allegiance, that would call and tell them where she was and her
address and phone number after she left. And so they had already
picked her up several times. And they came by and basically kidnaped
and picked her up for a few hours and tortured her. And told her
before they said we're going to kill you. This time they said, 'We
should kill you but we'll let you do that to yourself.' And then they
said, 'We know that you've been giving information to Cory,' and they
named me by name in South- ern California and revealed information
that had only been passed on to three police agencies. So I think you
have to be careful with the police agencies..."

  Corydon Hammond, Ph.D. is immediate past president of the American
Society for Clinical Hypnosis. The current president is Dabney Ewin
who has just published a piece in which he tells how he was able to
recover memories of the 14th day of his life.

**********************************************************************
                AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CLINICAL HYPNOSIS

  The American Society for Clinical Hypnosis has formed a task force
to study issues related to the forensic use of hypnosis and to inform
their members. The members of the ASCH Ad Hoc Committee for Hypnosis
and Memory are: Co-Chair: Richard B. Gaver, Ed.D., Charles B.  Mutter,
M.D.; Members: Harold B.  Crasilneck, Ph.D., Ediward Frischholz,
Ph.D., Melvin Gravitz, Ph.D., Corydon Hammond, Ph.D., Neil Hibler,
Ph.D., Jean Olson, MSN, RNCs, Alan W. Scheflin, JDLLM, Herbert
Spiegel, M.D., William C. Wester, II, Ed.D., Ex Officia Member: Dabney
Ewin, M.D.

**********************************************************************
                       MORE VAGARIES OF MEMORY

Many families have written that trying to defend themselves is
especially difficult because the charges keep changing. "It's like
fighting fog," one father wrote. The statements of some repressed
memory thera- pists also seem like fog. Some professionals who seem so
certain of the accuracy of the memories of their clients, seem to
forget what they themselves have said or written. For example, Renee
Fredrickson, Ph.D., appearing on the television program Crossfire on
March 2, 1994 said:

  I have certainly never encouraged any of my clients to make charges.

Yet in her book, Repressed Memories: A journey to recovery from sexual
abuse," she wrote on page 203

   Too many survivors never get past their fear of their family to let
 themselves have an honest decision. They say to themselves, 'I could
 never tell my family!' Work toward saying, 'I really could tell my
 family! Now, do I want to?'
   Once you make the decision to go ahead, the actual disclosure is an
 empowering experience. Telling the people in your family how you were
 hurt is the most expedient form of healing. Now you are finally free
 to speak the truth....
   Avoid being tentative about your repressed memories. Do not just
 tell them; express them as truth. If months or years down the road,
 you find you are mistaken about details, you can always apologize and
 set the record straight.  Doubts that you have should be fairly
 resolved before you disclose to your family.
   You cannot wait until you are doubt-free to disclose to your
  family. This may never happen, and, if it does, it will happen after
  you disclose to your family, not before."
 
And during the same program, Dr. Fredrickson also noted:

 My first two survivors with repressed trauma memories were first of
 all a holocaust survivor and second of all a prisoner of war."

Yet in her book, Dr. Fredrickson does not mention this, and the reader
is led to believe there was a different path to her interest in
repressed memories. On page 13 she writes:
 
   Once my practice was established, I received hundreds of referrals
 of sexually abused children, as well as adults. I was saddened to
 discover that many of these child victims were as young as one or two
 years old. Working with these little ones sparked my interest in re
 pressed memories...Seeing these children enhance my work with adult
 survivors who were abused at an early age, and I got my first glimmer
 of awareness about repressed memories."
   Page 14: I first became interested in the healing of repressed mem
 ories several years ago when I was doing marathon therapy workshops
 in Dallas. It seemed as if client after client was suddenly having
 memories of being sexually abused by their father, mother, 
 grandfather, or neighbor."

 ______________________________SIDEBAR_______________________________
/                                                                    \
|  Hale: Proctor, if she is innocent, the court...                   |
|  Proctor: If she is innocent! Why do you never wonder if Parris be |
| innocent, or Abigail?  Is the accuser always holy now? Were they   |
| born this morning as clean as God's fingers? I'll tell you what's  |
| walking Salem--vengeance is walking Salem.  We are what we always  |
| were in Salem, but now the little crazy children are jangling the  |
| keys of the kingdom, and common vengeance writes the law! This     |
| warrant's vengeance! I'll not give my wife to vengeance!           |
|                                                                    |
|  The Crucible (1953) Arthur Miller                                 |
\____________________________________________________________________/

**********************************************************************
                           FROM OUR READERS

  "February 23. I have just finished volunteering at 3401 Market
Street, Philadelphia. You all recognize that address, the home of the
False Memory Syndrome Foundation, the fastest growing business in the
U.S.A.
  "Can you conceive of an organization that grew from 250 families in
March 1992 to 11,000 in February, 1994? Pamela and her office staff
have met each new challenge with innovation and dedication. Such
dedication!
  "A fellow volunteer told me as we stuffed packages, 'We are
dedicated because we have been falsely accused of the worst crime
known to man, we are dedicated to save ourselves and others like us.
Our dedication rubs off on the staff who see truth where it lies and
there's always so much to be done.'
  "Indeed there's an unspoken rule in this office: no one does one job
at a time. If you are talking on the telephone, you are expected to be
stamping envelopes or folding mailings. A 'policy meeting' means ten
or twelve people sitting around a long table in the mailing room, 
folding and stuffing and licking, the next mailing, yes and discussing
policy too.
  "The weekend of the Ann Landers column and the following week, over
2,100 starter packages were sent out. That meant everybody working
long hours and most of the weekend. That's dedication. Thank you
Pamela, Zipora, Lisa, Nick, Nancy, Ric, Janet, Mika, Karen, Allen,
Toby, Valerie, Anita and Merci for allowing me to spend some time with
you and allowing me to get to know you all just a little. I love
you. I will miss you.
                       Marjorie 
---
  "I called my daughter and said that since Protestants and Catholics
and Democrats and Republicans and a whole host of other people who
disagree could get along with each other, so could we.  We are now
talking to each other on the phone weekly. We try when talking to have
only good feelings which is not hard because we love her very much and
we are happy to keep the lines of communication open. Neither of us
speak of the conflict we have gone through.  When my husband and I
talk it over later we know, of course, that nothing has really been
solved, but I do not expect it to change, at least in the near
future...I realize that this may not work for some of the other
families but in our case it is the only thing we feel that we can do."
  A Mom 
--- 
  "My daughter wrote me a note asking to meet and to try to be 
friends.  I'm not holding my breath. After being hit by a truck, I'm a
little afraid to go in the street."
  A Mom
---
  "One daughter of two has resumed contact but it is not the same. The
destruction of our family surely has taken twenty years off our
lives."
  A Mom and Dad
---
  "Things are much improved in our family, with the girls especially.
They (all but one) have been much like they used to be.  However, I
tread lightly.  They have not mentioned that they were really duped,
but I suspect they know. So the saga continues."
  A Mom
---
  "We found some solace in knowing that our plight was part of a
widespread phenomenon and that there were others with whom we could
share our grief. We began educating ourselves about this insidious
disease.  Our story, which is so similar to hundreds of others, took
an abrupt turn in November just ten months after receiving the initial
letter.  Our daughter started making tentative phone calls. At
Christmas, she flew here with her two-year-old son and spent a week
with us. She acted as if nothing had ever happened. There was never
any discussion of her accusations, and perhaps she still believes
them, but she was the same warm, good-natured person we had known
before so her visit with us was very enjoyable and quite remarkable.
  Although I don't understand the inner workings of her mind, I think
these facts are important clues to her altered behavior since the
accusation: She stopped seeing her psychologist and she divorced her
husband who has claimed for years to be a victim of sexual and Satanic
abuse."  ---

THE MYSTERIOUS STRANGER FIVE YEARS LATER: 
A VISIT WITH MY ACCUSING DAUGHER

"It's finally over! The drama played out in my mind hundreds of times.
The anxiety and frustration of my daughter, her husband and therapist
sitting in my living room telling us how she discovered in her age-
regression hypnosis that we had molested her. She ended this Mother's
Day visit with, "Here is my shame.  I give it back to you.  confess!
You Liars!" She left screaming. A year later, we heard she had also
accused us of satanic ritual abuse.
  "We explored every resource to convince her of our innocence.  We
heard she wanted to contact us but her group wouldn't let her. We read
books and papers, attended conferences and meetings and kept hoping
that our child would "see the light." Many diverse opinions were of-
fered: "Give her love and constant communication... do not allow the
closed door policy.. do not accept the de-tox period, etc."  Then
"Don't ever go there. She will call the police. Don't write.  Be
patient." As other parents have done, we exchanged ideas and looked
for solutions. Still, the nagging pain of not hearing her voice...not
seeing her face became overwhelming.
  "The morning of the visit, I felt a strange calm, a kind of
numbness. I worried about how I could win her over without making her
feel that she had been crazy for having an "iatrogenic illness." I had
a Walter Mitty fantasy that when she saw us she would come running out
from the house and throw her arms around us.
  "We parked the car several houses away. Friends had cautioned us. My
son-in-law has a permit for his gun and I recall a panic button
installed many years ago. I prepared an answer for the police if they
should come.
  "I rang the bell and peered through the glass panels. My six year
old granddaughter looked back at me. "Mommy," she called, "There are
people out there."
  "My daughter, in her bathrobe, stared sleepily out of the window. It
was 8:00 A.M. Her six and eleven year old children were home for the
holidays. My daughter now had her glasses on and looked at us in
horror. "We love you, Lynn," I called out. She opened the door. "What
are you doing here and at such an hour?" she barked. I answered
simply, "We knew that we could find you home at this time."
  "Somehow with all the rehearsal of practicing what I would say when
I finally saw my daughter...I found myself like a Moses
psychosomatically paralyzed.. No speech. An inner antagonist
sabotaging me. My insides ached. I found my voice.
  "Lynn, please let's talk...let's go to an impartial therapist.  You
have been misled by your therapy." I went through the entire litany
also telling her about the recanters, the family reunited.
  "Where have you been for five years?" she asked coldly. She stood
with one foot in the door, the other holding it open. I looked at my
very beautiful child..cold eyes.. her lips snarled in a contemptuous
manner.
  "My God," I said. "We tried to reach you in every possible way. No,
we didn't come here. We heard you hated us. Perhaps we made a mistake
not coming."
  "Ha, a mistake," she repeated. "You only rejected us or threatened."
  "Recovered memories are being investigated," I continued.  "It's
unscientific. Your accusations are metaphors for old anger. You are
part of cult thinking."
  "Don't tell me that. FMSF is a cult."
  "Oh no," I said. "We are only trying to save our children."
  "I know there are some bad therapists and suggestible women but that
is not my case. Look at you standing there exactly in the same place
you were five years ago. You have not healed yourselves and you are
still in denial."
  "Lynn," I said. "We have been to therapists. They know we have never
harmed you.
  "Bullshit," she retorted. "At least I have healed. I am well.  Get
on with your life and leave me alone."
  I stared at this robot...this Stepford Wife.. as if she had a
cartridge removed and had replaced it with another.
  "No healing can be based on hatred," I said.
  "Stop having strangers send me letters. It won't do you any good."
  I softened. "Lynn, we loved you so much."
  "Yes, I will always love my Mom and Dad."
  I thought, "Oh my God. My sick child. How can I keep this
conversation just going?" She opened the door a little and said,
"Maybe...no ...never mind."
  "A crime has been committed by your therapy...not by us. We never
touched you and you know it." She laughed in disgust.  "I want to see
my grandson," I bravely threw in. "No you can't.
  "You are not my Lynn. She was a loving person. You are cruel and
uncaring." She closed the door. In Special Education, this is called
closure. In music, resolve. In any language, I knew it was over. But I
would do it again.  A Mom
 ---
  "I have worked as a professional helping victims of child sexual
abuse, and I must admit that I was once one of those professionals who
was suspicious of your organization -- until I learned about your
work, in the context of being falsely accused myself."  
  A Professional and A Dad 
---
  "I was so happy to hear about the lawsuit against Cardinal Bernardin
being dropped. Since my husband and I are also falsely accused (He is
accused of incest over a fifteen-year period, and I am accused of
condoning it.), I could understand what the Cardinal must have been
going through. We are also involved in litigation.
  "I have to question the lawyers' roles in both our situations.  How
could Stephen Cook's lawyer have initiated a lawsuit against Cardinal
Bernardin based on information from a therapist with questionable
qualifications using questionable therapy, without any outside
corroboration? And how could our daughter's lawyer have done the same
thing?
  "Both reputations have been tarnished, and that can't be undone, no
matter what the outcome in the courts. I don't understand how lawyers
can proceed with such frivolous lawsuits. Can someone explain this to
me?"
  Also Falsely Accused 
---
  "In February I attended a meeting of the Board of Licensed
Professional Counselors and Therapists in my state. Much of the
discussion by the board, which is made up of volunteers, was about
qualifications of candidates, questions to ask them and what to look
for in applications. The Board is setting higher educational
standards. I very briefly told my story and how the FMSF had helped me
to understand what had been done to my family. I emphasized the
exploding growth of this problem and showed the exponential growth in
calls from my state.  They claimed they were already familiar with FMS
and had no questions.  Unfortunately, I got the feeling they were not
very interested in FMS and did not see this as a problem. They
presently have only three complaints against therapists and
counselors. This is probably why they do not recognize the existence
of a problem."
                                                A Mom 
---
  "Thank you so very much for the material your organization sent to
me. I have also read one of the recommended books, True Stories of
False Memories, and am waiting for an ordered copy of Confabulations.
I found the book to be horrificly true to life. On page after page, I
saw actual sentences my therapist said to me. Yes, she even
recommended The Courage to Heal and many others and assigned homework
from them. Also my problem for entering therapy had nothing to do with
my childhood. I would like to offer my assistance in any way I can to
stop this practice. I realize it cannot be done on a one by one
therapist basis.  I thank God I was saved finally by my husband
instead of almost losing him and my children. My therapist went even
beyond the tragedy of convincing me I was an incest survivor. Once she
accomplished that, she moved in to alienate me from my husband and
even my 15 year old daughter!! That is when I was finally willing to
hear the pleas that had been constantly fed to me by my family.
Luckily, my recanting has gone well with everyone but myself. The
guilt I feel is so much a part of me. I am sending you a letter I gave
to my mom and dad."

 January 1994
 Dear Ma and Dad,
  I cannot seem to let go of my so heavy guilt for everything. Nothing
 was true except that I was very ill and being controlled by drugs and
 doctors. I have looked over copies of letters I sent and received. A
 horrible nightmare of which I beg your forgiveness. It may sound like
 a cop-out although it is true, but there is so much I do not
 remember, and I ask your forgiveness for those things too. Never
 again will I allow myself to lose control of me. I thank you for
 being here at my "awakening" and I look forward to returning to the
 rich, wonderful family life we enjoy, although I question my
 worthiness. I am proud to be a part of you. I hope someday soon you
 can feel the same way about me.
   The best way I can communicate is through my writing. This letter
 does not even touch the depths of my pain, nor does it erase even an
 inch of the pain that I caused you. But I want it all to go away.
   Please read this with an open mind and give me a chance.  Believe I
 am off the medications, believe I am now me. And most of all, please
 believe that monster was NOT me. That monster is dead.  
   All My Love
---
  "Judging from the suffering these adult children have caused their
now aging and elderly parents, one thing is clear. Nothing that the
parents ever did can compare to the psychological and emotional
torture that these adult children are now delivering to the parents
and to the families involved. It is as if these adult children have
literally excoriated their parents and then poured acid all over them
and left them to suffer. When the parents, now writing with pain, ask
for a hearing or for mercy, the adult children simply laugh and walk
away feeling that this is the least their parents deserve. If this
isn't sadistic madness, what is?
  "Yes, the adult children have been betrayed by a movement and by
therapists who subscribe to and believe in that movement. However,
that betrayal pales or evaporated when one considers the betrayal of
the family by the adult child. it is a betrayal not only of persons by
the flesh of our own flesh, the blood of our blood, but it is a
betrayal of all we as parents have ever tried to be or ever were. It
is a betrayal of our historic and proven integrity. It is a betrayal
of our historic love, concern, and caring. It is a betrayal of our
loyalty and our devotion. It is a betrayal of the year after year
primary focus of our very lives -- the protection and development of
our children.
  "While parents go through many stages including anger, rage,
frustration, fear for ourselves and for our adult children, our
principal feeling and emotion most often returns to profound and
unmitigating grief. We cannot comprehend their self-chosen severance
from us and from other family members and we weep because of that.
But, perhaps most of all, we week daily in our hearts and in our minds
for what has happened to them -- what these adult children have become
as human beings. They have become paranoid, delusional, and hysterical
people who appear to thrive on hatred, vengeance, and persecution of
their parents and family members. In effect, they have lost their True
Self and we wonder if that Self can ever be recovered."

 ______________________________SIDEBAR_______________________________
/                                                                    \
|  "That is what she said -- not in narrative form, for she was not  |
| able to remember any of the details without having them called to  |
| her mind one after the other; but the commission did that, for     |
| they knew just what questions to ask, they being all written down  |
| for the use of witch-commissioners two centuries before. They      |
| asked, "Did you do so and so?" and she always said yes, and looked |
| weary and tired, and took no interest in it. And so when the other |
| ten heard that this one confessed, they confessed, too, and        |
| answered yes to the questions."                                    |
|                                                                    |
|  Mark Twain                                                        |
\____________________________________________________________________/

 ______________________________SIDEBAR_______________________________
/                                                                    \
|                             CORRECTION                             |
|                                                                    |
| To obtain the full News Release of the American Psychiatric        |
| Association statement on Memories of Sexual abuse, write to:       |
|                                                                    |
|  American Psychiatric Association                                  |
|  1400 K Street, NW                                                 |
|  Washington, DC 20005                                              |
\____________________________________________________________________/

**********************************************************************
      BIBLIOGRAPHY  OF  THE  AMERICAN  PSYCHIATRIC  ASSOCIATION.

  Last month, we printed a statement from the American Psychiatric
Association. In paragraph 10, the statement says, Many individuals
who recover memories of abuse have been able to find corroborating
information about their memories. Many families wrote to the APA to
asknn if corroboration means independent corroboration (scientific
evidence)? The APA has sent a list of selected references that they
used in the development of their Statement on Memories on Sexual
Abuse. They suggest that a review of the articles should clarify the
answers to the questions. Does it? Following is the APA list.:

Appelbaum PS: Memories and murder Hosp Community Psychiatry. 1992 Jul;
43(7): 679-80.

Benedek, Elissa P.; Schetky, Diane H: Problems in validating allega-
tions of sexual abuse: I. Factors affecting perception and recall of
events. _Journal_of_the_American_Academy_of_Child_&_Adolescent
_Psychiatry. 1987 Nov Vol 26(6) 912-915 ABSTRACT: Discusses
developmental and emotional factors that influence a child's
perception of events in allegations of sexual abuse. Factors that may
lead to a false memory or report of such events (e.g., primary process
thinking, sexual immaturity, language, memory, time sense) are
explored. It is suggested that persons doing evaluations of children
in these circumstances should possess the requisite skills and
experience.

Benedek, Elissa P.; Schetky, Diane H: Problems in validating
allegations of sexual abuse: II. Clinical evaluation. _Journal_of_the
_American_Academy_of_Child_&_Adolescent_Psychiatry_. 1987 Nov Vol
26(6) 916-921 ABSTRACT: Discusses factors that enhance or detract from
validating a child's allegations of sexual abuse (e.g., language,
motives, credibility history, spontaneous play/drawings, cognitive
development, relationship with parents). Guidelines for conducting the
clinical evaluation of sexual abuse are suggested. Situations in which
unfounded allegations by parents, children, or third parties may arise
and the sequelae of false or unsubstantiated allegations are reviewed.

Bower, Bruce: Sudden recall._Science_News_ 144:184-6 Sep 18 '93
ABSTRACT: Mental health experts disagree over the validity of claims
that many childhood sexual abuse survivors repress memories of their
experiences and recall them years later. Both sides agree that child
molestation is widespread and that reports of it, often by adults who
claim to have retrieved repressed memories, have mushroomed in recent
years. Therapists and researchers who accept most such claims assert
that early traumatic memories form in an altered state of conscious-
ness in which the child dissociates herself from the experience. This,
they say, may lead to amnesia or multiple personality disorder.
Skeptics contend that even ordinary memories may be influenced by
later events and that there is no firm evidence that repression
exists. The writer compares the memories of sexual abuse survivors to
those of combat veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder and
discusses the biochemistry of traumatic memory formation.

Berliner, Lucy.; Loftus, Elizabeth: Sexual abuse accusations:
Desperately seeking reconciliation.  _Journal_of_Interpersonal
_Violence_.  1992 Dec Vol 7(4) 570-578 ABSTRACT: Argues that while
those who work with victims of child sexual abuse (CSA) may come in
contact with mostly genuine cases of CSA, they must acknowledge that
false accusations are always a possibility; similarly, those who work
with accused individuals must acknowledge that some who are accused
may well be guilty. It is argued that discourse about the clinical and
scientific issues associated with the truthfulness of accounts of CSA
can only occur when removed from indivdual situations. When
discussions by professionals revolve around specific cases, there is a
risk of ignoring the consequences of being wrong. The actual
prevalence of CSA, profiles of victim and offender, disclosure,
memory, the percentage of true reports, causes of fictitious reports,
and sources of belief/disbelief are discussed.

Briere, John.; Conte, Jon: Self-reported amnesia for abuse in adults
molested as children. _Journal_of_Traumatic_Stress_. 1993 Jan Vol 6(1)
21-31 ABSTRACT: Studied 450 adult clinical Ss reporting sexual abuse
histories regarding their repression of sexual abuse incidents. 267 Ss
identified some period in their lives, before 18 yrs ofage, when they
had no memory of their abuse. Variables most predictive of abuse-
related amnesia (ARA) were greater current psychological symptoms,
molestation at an earlyage, extended abuse, and variables reflecting
especially violent abuse (e.g., victimization by multiple
perpetrators, having been physically injured as a result of the abuse,
victim fears of death if she or he disclosed the abuse to others). In
contrast, abuse characteristics more likely to produce physiological
conflict were not associated with ARA. Results are interpreted as
supporting Freud's (1954, 1966) initial "seduction hypothesis."

Ceci, Stephen J.; Bruck, Maggie: Suggestibility of the child witness:
A historical review and synthesis. _Psychological_Bulletin_.1993 May
Vol 113(3) 403-439 ABSTRACT: The field of children's testimony is in
turmoil,but a resolution to seemingly intractable debates now appears
attainable. In this review, the authors place the current disagreement
in historical context and describe psychological and legal views of
child witnesses held by scholars since the turn of the 20th century.
Although there has been consistent interest in children's
suggestibility over the past century, the past 15 yrs have been the
most active in terms of the number of published studies and novel
theorizing about the causal mechanisms that underpin the observed
findings. A synthesis of this research posits 3 "families" of factors
(cognitive, social, and biological) that must be considered if one is
to understand seemingly contradictory interpretations of the findings.
It is concluded that there are reliable age differences in
suggestibility but that even very young children are capable of
recalling much that is forensically relevant. Findings are discussed
in terms of the role of expert witnesses.

Ceci S, Bruck M:Child Witnesses: Translating Research into Policy.
Social Policy Report 7:1-31, 1993 

Clyman, Robert B: The procedural organization of emotions: A
contribution from cognitive science to the psychoanalytic theory of
therapeutic action.  _Journal_of_the_American_Psychoanalytic
_Association_.  1991 Vol(Suppl) 349-382 ABSTRACT: Discusses 2 kinds of
memory processes and their influence on psychoanalysis.  Declarative
memory refers to memories for facts or events that can be recalled,
and procedural memories underlie skills, yet encode information that
cannot be recalled. This distinction is extended to the nature of
emotions and emotional memories.  Implications for psychoanalytic
theory are examined, providing new views of transference, defense, and
treatment. Infantile amnesia is found to result partially from the
immaturity of he declarative memory system, yet procedural memories
encode transference expectations and provide continuity in emotional
functioning from early childhood onward. In this light, psychoanalytic
treatment is conceptualized as the modification of emotional
procedures. Two general methods for modifying procedures are described
that provide a new model for understanding therapeutic change.

Council on Scientific Affairs, American Medical Assn, Chicago, IL
Scientific status of refreshing recollection by the use of hypnosis.
International _Journal_of_Clinical_&_Experimental_Hypnosis_. 1986 Jan
Vol 34(1) 1-11 ABSTRACT: Reports that in 1985, the Council of
Scientific Affairs of the American Medical Association conducted a
study of recollections obtained during hypnosis and found that such
recollections appear to be less reliable than nonhypnotic recall. It
is concluded that use of hypnosis with witnesses and victims may have
serious consequences for the legal process when testimony is based on
material that is elicited from an S who has been hypnotized. (40 ref)

Council on Scientific Affairs Repressed Memories (CSA Report A-94).

Dawes, RM: Biases of Retrospection. Issues_in_Child_Abuse_Accusations_
1:25-28, 1991

Fivush, R: Developmental Perspectives on Autobiographical Recal. In
Goodman GS, Bottms BL (eds): Child Victims, _Child_Witnesses:
_Understanding_and_Improving_Testimony_. New York, NY. Guilfford
Publica- tions, 1993

Freyd, JJ: Theoretical and Personal Perspectives. Ann Arbor Michigan.
Presentation for the Center for Mental Health at Foote Hospital's
Continuing Education Conference. 1993.

Frankel, FH: Adult Reconstruction of Childhood Events in the Multiple
 Personality Literature _American_Journal_of_Psychiatry_ V0150 N6 Jun
1993 pp.  954-958. ABSTRACT: The author reviews the dependability of
adult reports of childhood abuse and trauma, which are emerging in
therapy with increasing frequency. He reviews the literature on
multiple personality disorder to explore the extent to which
corroboration of adult reports of childhood events is recorded. He
also summarizes the relevant studies of memory both with and without
the aid of hypnosis. He finds that there is minimal corroboration in
the literature of the adultsU reports of childhood abuse. Memories
brought forth with the aid of hypnosis are undependable because of the
large number of inaccuracies introduced by hypnotized subjects.
Memories brought forth without hypnosis have been shown to be prone to
distortion by intentional as well as by unwitting cues. The author
concludes that the recent enthusiasm for the adult discovery of
childhood abuse has been accompanied by little attention to factors
that potentially affect recall of childhood abuse, including the bias
of therapy. The use of hypnosis might well be an aggravating factor in
distorted recollections of childhood abuse. Validation without
corroboration by the therapist of the patientUs memories has serious
ethical and possibly legal consequences.

Herman, Judith L.; Schatzow, Emily: Recovery and verification of
memories of childhood sexual trauma._Psychoanalytic_Psychology_. 1987
Win Vol 4(1) 1-14 ABSTRACT: 53 women outpatients (aged 15-53 yrs)
participated in short- term therapy groups for incest survivors. This
treatment modality proved to be a powerful stimulus for recovery of
previously repressed traumatic memories. A relationship was observed
between the age of onset, duration, and degree of violence of the
abuse and the extent to which memory of the abuse had been repressed.
74% of Ss were able to validate their memories by obtaining
corroborating evidence from other sources. The therapeutic function of
recovering and validating traumatic memories is explored in relation
to case material.

Hornstein, Nancy L.; Putnam, Frank W.: Clinical phenomenology of child
and adolescent dissociative disorders._Journal_of_the_American_Academy
_of_Child_&_Adolescent_Psychiatry_. 1992 Nov Vol 31(6) 1077-10 AB-
STRACT: A comparison of 2 separately diagnosed samples of children and
adolescents with dissociative disorders demonstrated good construct
validity for these diagnoses in childhood.  One sample (mean age 9.55
yrs) consisted of 22 children with multiple personality disorder (MPD)
and 8 with dissociative disorder not otherwise specified (DDNOS); the
other sample (mean age 10.84 yrs) consisted of 22 children with MPD
and 12 with DDNOS. Descriptive analyses of the total sample reveal a
clinical profile characterized by a plethora of affective, anxiety,
conduct, posttraumatic, and dissociative symptoms.  Children with MPD
differed from those with DDNOS in having more amnesias, identity
disturbances, and hallucinations. Adolescents were more symptomatic
than children age 11 yrs or younger and more likely to receive a
diagnosis of MPD.

Lief, HI: Psychiatry's Challenge: Defining an Appropriate Therapeutic
Role When Child Abuse is Suspected. _Psychiatric_News_ August 21, 1992

Loftus, Elizabeth F.: The reality of repressed memories._American_
_Psychologist_.  1993 May Vol 48(5) 518-537 ABSTRACT: Repression is
one of the most haunting concepts in psychology Something shocking
happens, and the mind pushes it into some inaccessible corner of the
unconscious. Later, the memory may emerge into consciousness.
Repression is one of the foundation stones on which the structure of
psychoanalysis rests. Recently there has been a rise in reported
memories of childhood sexual abuse that were allegedly repressed for
many years.  With recent changes in legislation, people with recently
unearthed memories are suing alleged perpetrators for events that
happened 20, 30, even 40 or more years earlier. These new developments
give rise to a number of questions: (1) How common is it for memories
of child abuse to be repressed? (2) How are jurors and judges likely
to react to these repressed memory claims? (3) When the memories
surface, what are they like? and (4) How authentic are the memories?

McHugh, Paul R.: Psychiatric misadventures. _The_American_Scholar_
61:497-510 Autumn U92 ABSTRACT: In the past 3 decades, cultural
fashions have led psychiatry in false and disastrous directions. In
the 1960s, it was fashionable to believe that mental hospitals were
useless and that mental patients deserved "freedom." This led to the
dismissal of patients with severe mental disorders such as
schizophrenia, only to end up destitute, imprisoned, or homeless. In
the 1970s, fashionable ideas of diversity and "doing your own thing"
led psychiatrists to sanction sex change surgery, but they should have
tried instead to find out what had gone wrong mentally for patients
who said that they felt trapped in the wrong bodies. In the 1980s,
sexual politics influenced psychiatrists to a flight of pure
invention: diagnosing common hysteria as multiple personality
disorder, caused by sexual abuse. To challenge such misdirections is
difficult, but doing so would be of great help to patients.

Nelson, Katherine: The psychological and social origins of
autobiographical memory. _Psychological_Science_. 1993 Jan Vol 4(1)
7-14 ABSTRACT: Discusses the development of autobiographical memory
and its provision of new insights into the phenomenon of infantile
amnesia, first identified by Freud. Research shows that children learn
to share memories with others and that they acquire the narrative
forms of memory recounting. Such recounts are effective in reinstating
experienced memories only after the children can use another person's
representation of an experience in language as a reinstatement of
their own experience. This competence requires a level of mastery of
the representational function of language that appears at the earliest
in the mid to late preschool years.

Siegel, DJ: Childhood Memory. San Antonio, TX, American Academy of
Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Institute, 1993

Squire, Larry R.: Declarative and nondeclarative memory: Multiple
brain systems supporting learning and memory. Special Issue: Memory
systems. _Journal_of_Cognitive_Neuroscience_. 1992 Sum Vol 4(3)
232-243 ABSTRACT: The topic of multiple forms of memory is considered
from a biological point of view.  Fact-and-event (declarative,
explicit) memory is contrasted with a collection of nonconscious
(nondeclarative, implicit) memory abilities, including skills and
habits, priming, and simple conditioning. Recent evidence is reviewed
indicating that declarative and nondeclarative forms of memory have
different operating characteristics and depend on separate brain
systems. A brain-systems framework for understanding memory phenomena
is developed in light of lesion studies involving rats, monkeys, and
humans, as well as recent studies with normal humans using the divided
visual field technique, event-related potentials, and positron emissio
tomography.

Terr, Lenore C.: Childhood traumas: An outline and overview. 140th
Annual Meeting of the American Psychiatric Association (1987, Chicago,
Illinois). _American_Journal_of_Psychiatry_. 1991 Jan Vol 148(1) 10-20
ABSTRACT: Suggests 4 characteristics common to most cases of childhood
trauma: visualized or otherwise repeatedly perceived memories of the
traumatic event; repetitive behaviors; trauma-specific fears; and
changed attitudes about people, life, and the future. Childhood trauma
is divided into 2 basic types. Type I trauma includes full, detailed
memories, "omens," and misperceptions while Type II trauma includes
denial and numbing, self-hypnosis and dissociation, and rage.
Characteristics of both types of childhood trauma can exist side by
side.  Such crossover Type I-Type II traumatic conditions of childhood
are characterized by perceptual mourning and depression and childhood
disfigurement, disability, and pain. Case examples are provided.

Terr, Lenore: What happens to early memories of trauma? A study of
twenty children under age five at the time of documented traumatic
events. Annual Meeting of the American Psychiatry Association (1986,
Washington, DC).Journal of the _American_Academy_of_Child_&_Adolescent
_Psychiatry_. 1988 Jan Vol 27(1) 96-104 ABSTRACT: Compared the verbal
and behavioral remembrances of 11 girls and 9 boys who suffered
psychic trauma before age 5 yrs with documentations of the same
events.  Traumas included sexual abuse, injuries, and kidnapping. It
was found that the age range 28-36 mo at the time of the trauma served
as an approximate cut-off point separating those children who could
fully verbalize their past experiences from those who could do so in
part or not at all. Girls appeared better able than boys to verbalize
parts of traumas from before ages 28-36 mo.  Short, single traumas
were more likely to be remembered in words. At any age, however,
behavioral memories of trauma remained quite accurate and true to the
events that stimulated them.

Terr, Lenore: _Too_scared_to_cry:_psychic_trauma_in_childhood_ Harper
& Row, c1990.

White, Sue.; Quinn, Kathleen M.: Investigatory independence in child
sexual abuse evaluations: Conceptual considerations.
_Bulletin_of_the_American_Academy_of_Psychiatry_&_the_Law_. 1988
Vol 16(3) 269-278 ABSTRACT: Presents a conceptual framework with which
to analyze the degree of contamination during investigations of child
sexual abuse, focusing on the degree of independence maintained by the
evaluator.  Specific concepts addressed include leading questions
(e.g., "yes-no," multiple choice), disconfirmation (a technique
frequently used by adults to influence children's decisions), and
coercion (e.g., truth- lie paradigm, repetitivequestioning).
Maintenance of investigatory independence is also discussed.

 ______________________________SIDEBAR_______________________________
/                                                                    \
|   "The presumption of innocence is not part of the United States   |
| Constitution nor the Bill of Rights. It is totally inapplicable in |
| any kind of civil proceeding, even if millions of dollars or       |
| important legal rights are at stake. Even in criminal proceedings, |
| the presumption of innocence is not a rule of law, but a rule of   |
| evidence -- and the distinction between the two is this: A rule of |
| evidence is only applicable once a trial begins -- it's a          |
| principle the jury (or judge when there is no jury) must apply in  |
| making a decision."                                                |
|         Bernard Raizner, former Bronx assistant district attorney  |
|                                  Letter to NY Times, Feb 16, 1994  |
\____________________________________________________________________/

**********************************************************************
                            FMSF  MEETINGS
            Familes  &  Professionals   Working  Together

FUTURE MEETINGS

MIDWEST REGIONAL MEETING
  May 21-22, 1994
  Michigan State University
  Lansing, MI

American Psychiatric Association
ANNUAL MEETING
  Philadelphia, PA
  Wednesday, May 25, 1994
  2-5:00 pm Seminar Speakers:
  Drs. Green, Lief, McHugh, Singer

**********************************************************************
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AUSTRALIA
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To list a meeting: Mail or fax information to Nancy two (2) months in
advance of meeting date, i.e., for May newsletter, send by Mar 25th.
Standing meetings will continue to be listed unless notified otherwise
by contact.

 ______________________________SIDEBAR_______________________________
/                                                                    \
|  Do you have access to e-mail?  Send a message to                  |
|                    pjf@cis.upenn.edu                               |
| if you want to receive notices of radio and television broadcasts  |
| about FMS.  All the message need say is "add to the FMS list". It  |
| would be useful, but not necessary, if you add your full name (all |
| addresses and names will remain strictly confidential).  The list  |
| is not a "bulletin board". Its only use is to send occasional      |
| notices of broadcasts.                                             |
\____________________________________________________________________/

 The False Memory Syndrome Foundation is a qualified 501(c)3
corporation with its principal offices in Philadelphia and governed by
its Board of Directors. While it encourages participation by its
members in its activities, it must be understood that the Foundation
has no affiliates and that no other organization or person is
authorized to speak for the Foundation without the prior written
approval of the Executive Director. All membership dues and
contributions to the Foundation must be forwarded to the Foundation
for its disposition.

**********************************************************************
                        RE: INFORMATION UPDATE

Thank you for completing the Information Update Survey in the February
Newsletter. If you have not returned the survey as yet, please take a
few minutes to do so. It will help update our files and better
document this phenomenon

If any other medical product had more than 11,000 complaints, it would
e taken off the market.  The product or procedure would be recalled
and examined. In the case of families who have contacted the FMS
Foundation, it has taken two years to even get the profession's
attention. There are still no procedures for examining the product.

The FMSF Newsletter is published 10 times a year by the False Memory
Syndrome Foundation. A subscription is included in membership fees.
Others may subscribe by sending a check or money order, payable to FMS
Foundation, to the address below. 1994 subscription rates: USA: 1 year
$20, Student $10; Canada: 1 year $25; (in U.S. dollars); Foreign: 1
year $35. Single issue price: $3 FMS Foundation 3401 Market Street,

This address and the phone numbers have changed as of July 15, 2000
Suite 130 Philadelphia, PA 19104-3315 Phone 215-387-1865 ISSN #
1069-0484

Pamela Freyd, Ph.D.,  Executive Director

FMSF Scientific and Professional Advisory Board, March 8, 1993
Terence W. Campbell, Ph.D., Clinical and Forensic Psychology,
Sterling Heights, MI; Rosalind Cartwright, Rush Presbyterian St. Lukes
Medical Center, Chicago, IL; Jean Chapman, Ph.D., University of
Wisconsin, Madison, WI; Loren Chapman, Ph.D., University of Wisconsin,
Madison, WI; Robyn M. Dawes, Ph.D., Carnegie Mellon University,
Pittsburgh, PA; David F. Dinges, Ph.D., University of Pennsylvania,
The Institute of Pennsylvania Hospital, Philadelphia, PA; Fred
Frankel, M.B.Ch.B., D.P.M., Beth Israel Hospital, Harvard Medical
School, Boston, MA; George K. Ganaway, M.D., Emory University of
Medicine, Atlanta, GA; Martin Gardner, Author, Hendersonville, NC;
Rochel Gelman, Ph.D., University of California, Los Angeles, CA; Henry
Gleitman, Ph.D., University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA; Lila
Gleitman, Ph.D., University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA; Richard
Green, M.D., J.D., UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA; David A.
Halperin, M.D., Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY; Ernest
Hilgard, Ph.D., Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA; John Hochman,
M.D., UCLA Medical School, Los Angeles, CA; David S. Holmes, Ph.D.,
University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS; Philip S. Holzman, Ph.D., Harvard
University, Cambridge, MA; John Kihlstrom, Ph.D., University of
Arizona, Tucson, AZ; Harold Lief, M.D., University of Pennsylvania,
Philadelphia, PA; Elizabeth Loftus, Ph.D., University of Washington,
Seattle, WA; Paul McHugh, M.D., Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore,
MD; Harold Merskey, D.M., University of Western Ontario, London,
Canada; Ulric Neisser, Ph.D., Emory University, Atlanta, GA; Richard
Ofshe, Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley, CA; Martin Orne,
M.D., Ph.D., University of Pennsylvania, The Institute of Pennsylvania
Hospital, Philadelphia, PA; Loren Pankratz, Ph.D., Oregon Health
Sciences University, Portland, OR; Campbell Perry, Ph.D., Concordia
University, Montreal, Canada; Michael A. Persinger, Ph.D., Laurentian
University, Ontario, Canada; August T.  Piper, Jr., M.D., Seattle, WA;
Harrison Pope, Jr., M.D., Harvard Medical School, Cambridge, MA; James
Randi, Author and Magician, Plantation, FL; Carolyn Saari, Ph.D.,
Loyola University, Chicago, IL; Theodore Sarbin, Ph.D., University of
California, Santa Cruz, CA; Thomas A. Sebeok, Ph.D., Indiana
Univeristy, Bloomington, IN; Louise Shoemaker, Ph.D., University of
Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA; Margaret Singer, Ph.D., University of
California, Berkeley, CA; Ralph Slovenko, J.D., Ph.D., Wayne State
University Law School, Detroit, MI; Donald Spence, Ph.D., Robert Wood
Johnson Medical Center, Piscataway, NJ; Jeffrey Victor, Ph.D.,
Jamestown Community College, Jamestown, NY; Hollida Wakefield, M.A.,
Institute of Psychological Therapies, Northfield, MN; Louis Jolyon
West, M.D., UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA.

(As of September, 1993, when people first contact the FMS Foundation
we send them an article order form listing the materials that we have
available. Each month we will update this list in the newsletter. If
you wish to obtain the full list, send us a stamped self addressed
envelope.)

**********************************************************************
                      ADDITIONS TO BIBLIOGRAPHY
                     (effective November 1, 1993)

MAGAZINE & NEWSPAPER  ARTICLES:
___175 "Head Hunt," by Jeff Blyskal. New York  magazine, 
        January 11, 1993.       [$2.00]
___275 "No Thanks for the Memories": 6-part series  by 
        Norbert Cunningham.
        1.  'Recovery movement': a modern-day Frankenstein story?
        2.  Repressed memory really 'false memories': critics
        3.  Confrontation: denial proof of guilt                
        4.  Books on subject a growth industry
        5.  Roadmap to harmful destination?
        6.  What's to be done about RMR therapy? The Times-Transcript
            (Moncton, NB, Canada)        June 21-26, 1993. [$3.00]
___280  "Memories of Abuse: Real or Imagined?" by Kirk
         Makin. The Globe and Mail, (Toronto,) June 3, 1993. [$2.00]
___290  "Children Accusing Their Parents," by Andrew K. Weegar. 
         Maine Times,  October 1, 1993. [$2.00]
PROFESSIONAL ARTICLES:
___495  Campbell, T.W. (1992) "Therapeutic Relationships and 
        Iatrogenic Outcomes: The Blame-and-Change Maneuver
         in Psychotherapy." 
        Psychotherapy, Vol. 29/  Fall 1992/No. 3. [$2.00]
___541  Gardner, R. A. (1993) "Sexual Abuse Hysteria: 
        Diagnosis, Etiology, Pathogenesis, and Treatment." 
        Academy Forum, Vol. 37, No. 3, Fall 1993. [$1.00]
___543  Gutheil, T.G. (1993) "True or False Memories of
         Sexual Abuse? A Forensic  Psychiatric View
        Psychiatric Annals 23:9/September 1993 [$2.00]
___544  Herman, J. L. & Harvey, M. R. (1993) "The False 
        Memory Debate: Social  Science or Social Backlash?" 
        Harvard Mental Health Letter, April 1993. [$1.00]
___566  McHugh, P. (1993) "Multiple Personality Disorder." 
        Harvard Mental Health Letter, September 1993. [$1.00]
___568  Mulhern, S. (1991) "Satanism and Psychotherapy: A 
        Rumor in Search of an Inquisition," The Satanism
        Scare, Richardson,  Bromely & Best (Eds.) 
        Aldine de Gruyter, Hawthorne, NY. p.p. 145-172. [$5.00]
___575  Passantino, R. & Passantino, G. (1992) "Hard Facts 
        About Satanic Ritual  Abuse."Christian Research 
        Journal, Winter 1992. [$2.00]
_PLEASE NOTE - following articles have new order numbers:
__190 has been changed to
___561 "Repressed Memories of Childhood Trauma: Are They 
        Genuine?"  by Elizabeth F. Loftus. Harvard Mental 
        Health Letter,  February 1993. [$1.00]
__80 has been changed to
___542  Gardner, M. (1993) "Notes of a Fringe-Watcher, 
        The False Memory Syndrome." Skeptical Inquirer, 
        Summer 1993. [$2.00]
Available through FMSF, price included 1st class postage
Hidden Memories by Robert Baker, 1992, Prometheus [$30.00]
   (This book is recommended to families and professionals
   who would like an overview of the history and processes
     of "confabulations.") 
Total ___________
----------
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Mail to FMS
Foundation, Suite 130, 3401 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 or

This address and the phone numbers have changed as of July 15, 2000
FAX  order to (215) 387-1917 with credit information.
____________________
Other books of special interest - order direct from the publisher

True Stories of False Memories by Goldstein & Farmer
          (first hand reports from retractors), 517 p, $16.95 
SIRS, phone 800-232-7477, fax 407-994-4704. Mention FMSF and the
Foundation receives 40%.  Highly recommended.

Selling Satan published by Cornerstone Press, 939 W. Wilson Avenue,
Suite 202C, Chicago, IL 60640, phone (312) 989-6361, fax (312)
989-2076. (This book has expanded on the excellent articles published
previously by Cornerstone magazine.) Highly Recommended.