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BELIEFS ABOUT MULTIPLE PERSONALITY DISORDER AND SATANIC RITUAL ABUSE

Some of the major influences in their spread

Adapted from Victor, J., "Satanic Panic," pp. 24-25

1957 "Three Faces of Eve", Thigpen & Cleckley (Popularized the notion of multiple personality disorder.)
1957 "Three Faces of Eve", movie
Late 1960s and Early 1970s Rumors about dangerous religious cults, including teenage "Devil worshippers" and Charles Manson's "Devil" cult.
1970s Rumors about cattle mutilations and Satanic cult ritual animal sacrifices in the West and Midwest.
1973 "Sybil" The book by Flora Rheta Schreiber about Cornelia Wilbur, psychiatrist, and her patient, Sybil. (This book introduced the notion of child abuse as a cause for multiple personality disorder.)
1977 "Sybil", movie
1977 Trial of Billy Milligan in Ohio. Milligan was the first person in U.S. History to be found not guilty of major crimes by reason of insanity because he possessed multiple personalities. A movie based on this case, "The Crowded Room" is to be produced for New Regency Productions and Warner Brothers.)
1980 Rumors accusing Procter & Gamble Company of promoting Satanism, claiming that the company logo is a Satanic symbol.
Early 1980s Missing children kidnapping scare.
1980 "Michele Remembers" by Smith and Panzer (First satanic cult "survivor" story.)
1980 DSM-III - recognized MPD
1982-84 Satanic cult rumor-panics begin.
1983 McMartin day care case entered the news (media sensationalism). For the rest of the decade, similar day care cases involving claims of satanic ritual abuse appeared regularly in the news from around the country (i.e. Country Walk, Little Rascals, Kelly Michaels, Amiraults)
1984 Founding of the International Society for the Study of Multiple Personality and Dissociation. (SSMPD) (Many of the beliefs of the recovered memory movement spread through the seminars and writings of members of this organization.)
1985 (May 16) 20/20 segment "The Devil Worshippers" - (This was the first television show to bring claims about criminal Satanic cults to a national audience according to Jeff Victor in "Satanic Panic." Victor wrote "The historical importance of this television program is that it lent credibility to what had previously been merely local rumors..."
1986 (Sept 30) Oprah program "Satanic Worship"
1988 "Courage to Heal" by Ellen Bass and Laura Davis. (This book has been called the "Bible" of the recovered memory movement)
1988 "Satan's Underground" by Lauren Statford
1988 Geraldo program "Devil Worship"
1988 Geraldo program (Oct 24) "Satanic Breeders: Babies for Sacrifice"
1989 Sally Jesse Raphael program (Feb 28) "Baby Breeders"
1989 (March 1) Geraldo program "Satan’s Black Market: Sex Slaves, Porno and Drugs"
1989 (May 1) Oprah program "Headlines That Shocked the Nation: Mexican Satanic Cult Murders" (This was about the drug murders in Matamoros, Mexico.)
1990-91 "Ritual child abuse" scare and arrests in England
1991 (July 24) Sally Jesse Raphael program "Devil Babies"
1991 (Sept 10) Geraldo program "Investigating Multiple Personalities: Did the Devil Make Them Do It"
1992 Satanic "ritual abuse" scare in San Diego.
1993 HBO "Search for Deadly Memories" (Based on an idea by and narrated by Gloria Steinem, this documentary shows techniques used in effort to find memories that are unknown to the patient. The program features many doctors, experts, who provide credibility for the notions.)
1994 March 25) TV movie, "Ultimate Betrayal" (This movie is about a daughter in the Rogers family who sues her father for childhood abuse based upon her recovered memories.)
1997 (November) Leeza program "Loving Someone Who has Multiple Personalities" and (December) "Raylynne." (These two programs are both about Raylynn, a woman who claimed to have multiple personalities and who in February 1998 died shortly after the airing. Raylynne's doctor, an expert, appeared on the program and validated her condition.)
1998 (March 4) Prime Time Live (A segment of this program featured a woman who claimed to have MPD and her doctor, the expert, who validated it.)

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